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Darwin-L Message Log 15: 1–30 — November 1994

Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences

Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.

This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during November 1994. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.

The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”


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DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 15: 1-30 -- NOVEMBER 1994
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_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:1>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu  Tue Nov  1 10:36:35 1994

Date: Tue, 01 Nov 1994 11:05:54 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: List owner's monthly greeting
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

Greetings to all Darwin-L subscribers.  On the first of every month I send
out a short note on the status of our group, along with a reminder of basic
commands.

Darwin-L is an international discussion group for professionals in the
historical sciences.  It is not devoted to any particular discipline, such
as evolutionary biology, but rather endeavors to promote interdisciplinary
comparisons among all the historical sciences, from historical linguistics
and geology to archeology, systematics, cosmology, and textual criticism.
The group was established in September 1993, and we have over 600 members
from nearly 30 countries.  I am grateful to all of our members for their
interest and their many contributions.

The Darwin-L gopher contains logs of our past discussions, as well as a
collection of files and network links of interest to historical scientists.
The Darwin-L gopher is located at rjohara.uncg.edu; on most mainframe systems
you can simply type "gopher rjohara.uncg.edu" to get there.

Darwin-L is occasionally a "high-volume" discussion group.  Subscribers
who feel burdened from time to time by their Darwin-L mail may wish to take
advantage of the digest option described below.

Because different mail systems work differently, not all subscribers can
see the e-mail address of the original sender of each message in the message
header (some people only see "Darwin-L" as the source).  PLEASE include your
name and e-mail address at the end of every message you post so that everyone
can identify you and reply privately if appropriate.  Remember also that in
most cases when you type "reply" in response to a message from Darwin-L your
reply is sent to the list as a whole, rather than to the original sender.

The following are the most frequently used listserv commands that Darwin-L
members may wish to know.  All of these commands should be sent as regular
e-mail messages to the listserv address (listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu),
not to the address of the group as a whole (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu).
In each case leave the subject line of the message blank and include no
extraneous text, as the command will be read and processed by the listserv
program rather than by a person.  To join the group send the message:

     SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L <Your Name>

     For example: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L John Smith

To cancel your subscription send the message:

     UNSUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L

If you feel burdened by the volume of mail you receive from Darwin-L you
may instruct the listserv program to deliver mail to you in digest format
(one message per day consisting of the whole day's posts bundled together).
To receive your mail in digest format send the message:

     SET DARWIN-L MAIL DIGEST

To change your subscription from digest format back to one-at-a-time
delivery send the message:

     SET DARWIN-L MAIL ACK

To temporarily suspend mail delivery (when you go on vacation, for example)
send the message:

     SET DARWIN-L MAIL POSTPONE

To resume regular delivery send either the DIGEST or ACK messages above.

For a comprehensive introduction to Darwin-L with notes on our scope and
on network etiquette, and a summary of all available commands, send the
message:

     INFO DARWIN-L

To post a public message to the group as a whole simply send it as regular
e-mail to the group's address (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu).

I thank you all for your continuing interest in Darwin-L and in the
interdisciplinary study of the historical sciences.

Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner

Robert J. O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu)
Center for Critical Inquiry and Department of Biology
100 Foust Building, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A.

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<15:2>From ashimeno@sol.uvic.ca  Fri Nov  4 15:58:57 1994

Date: Fri, 4 Nov 1994 13:56:14 -0800
To: Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: ashimeno@sol.uvic.ca
Subject: Emergence of human intelligence

Hello!  I am a student at university of Victoria, B.C., Canada and working
on my research paper for English class.  My topic deals with human
evolution and my concentration is on the emergence of human intelligence.
I am just wondering if there is anybody working on this field and being
able to answer my questions.

        What differenceate human beings from the rest of the animal kingdom?
        What do you think was a trigger that expanded human intelligence?
        What adventages did human acquired compered to the other animals?

Well, any one who is willing to give me some ideas, I really appreciate!!

Akiko Shimeno
University of Victoria
ashimeno@uvic.sol.ca

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<15:3>From jsl@rockvax.ROCKEFELLER.EDU  Fri Nov  4 17:33:54 1994

To: ashimeno@sol.uvic.ca
Cc: Multiple recipients of list <darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>
Subject: Emergence of human intelligence; neoteny; warfare
Date: Fri, 04 Nov 94 18:37:01 EST
From: Joshua Lederberg <jsl@rockvax.ROCKEFELLER.EDU>

See Encyclopedia of Human Biology,  Academic Press  (R. Dulbecco
ed-in-chief).

For special attributes of humans:
Neoteny is what is usually quoted; and its implications for the
displacement of instinct by learned behavior and socially transmitted
tradition.

  But, unhappy thought, ponder Arthur Clarke's
hypothesis in 2001*: intra-species warfare, and the accelerant premium
that puts on intragroup social affiliation, and survival by tools and
wits.  More or less Koestler's Ghost in the Machine.

*The jawbone transformed into the rocket.

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<15:4>From chefboy@violet.berkeley.edu  Fri Nov  4 18:00:40 1994

Date: Fri, 4 Nov 1994 16:00:28 -0800
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: chefboy@violet.berkeley.edu (Jason D. Patent)
Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence

Dear Akiko,

Quite a broad bunch of questions!  I hope and expect it will spark a long
and interesting thread on this list.

First off, I'd like to make clear that I am an AMATEUR OF AMATEURS when it
comes to such issues.  But I've recently taken an extreme interest in
exploring thesequestions on my own.  The first book I read was by William
Calvin, a neurobiologist at the University of Washington, not too far from
you.  In his fascinating book, The River that Flows Uphill:  The Journey
from the Big Bang to the Big Brain (1986), he sets forth the theory that
the rather uniquely human abilities to form discourses, compose intricate
music, spin scenarios, and so forth did not evolve because they in and of
themselves held a particularly weighty evolutionary advantage, but rather
are emergent properties which result from the vast numbers of sequencer
cells in the brain.  He suggests that the most important advantage, from an
evolutionary standpoint, of so many sequencers was the ability to throw
accurately, allowing humans to be more successful in hunting, and thus
survival.

The emergence of language, music, and other abilities is merely a
by-product of having so many sequencers, which are rarely employed in their
"primary" function of aiming at targets, and throwing.

I lack the scientific background thoroughly to critique Prof. Calvin's
theory.  Intuitively, it seems mostly appealing, except for its
monocausality/linearity.  Certainly anything as complex as human
intelligence must have been the result of a multiplicity of
mutually-interacting influences, and perhaps Calvin over-emphasizes the one
factor.  I don't know.

One idea which is, I believe, widely agreed upon is that, whatever
selection pressures were behind the rapid expansion in the size of the
brain, these pressures must have been very, very strong, because they had
to more than counterbalance the increase in deaths of mothers during
childbirth due to babies' ever-larger skulls.

More broadly speaking, may I recommend enthusiastically that you read up on
some Chaos Theory and Complexity Science, especially the latter.  In
particular, see:

        1.  M. Mitchell Waldrop:  Complexity:  the emerging science at the
edge of order and chaos
        2.  Roger Lewin:  Complexity:  life at the edge of chaos

Why?  Because Complexity Science takes as one of its foremost tasks the
explanation and elucidation of emergence in virtually every imaginable
field, evolutionary biology being paramount among them.

One final point, which is directly in response to:
>        What differenceate human beings from the rest of the animal kingdom?
Calvin argues (oh, yeah, you should also see his article, and others, in
the October 1994 issue of Scientific American, which is devoted to "life in
the universe") that humans are unique in our ability to SEQUENCE events in
our mind--to plan, anticipate, wonder, on a scale far, far beyond that of
any other animal.  I realize that this is treading on somewhat more
philosophical ground, and could draw the ire of some, so I'll leave it at
this.

Just to whet your appetite, here's a quote from Calvin's book:

"Assigning a major role in language evolution to throwing will probably
remain heresy for a long time, even if it turns out to be the least awkward
solution to the difficulties.  Given the usual fate of most scientific
hypotheses, it may well turn out to be another deus ex machina when we are
farther down the road.  But maybe it is the fast track, maybe language is
an emergent property of brain circuits facilitating fancy time sequences."
(p. 358)

I'd like to conclude by re-emphasizing my amateur (at best) status in this
field.  I certainly hope that more knowledgeable subscribers will join
in--there's lots about this that I'd like to learn!

Good luck!

Jason D. Patent
Graduate Student
UC Berkeley Department of Linguistics
chefboy@violet.berkeley.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:5>From jstewart@magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu  Mon Nov  7 09:50:44 1994

Date: Sat, 5 Nov 1994 18:20:37 -0500
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: jstewart@magnus.acs.ohio-state.edu (James Stewart)
Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence

In Christopher Wills "Runaway Brain" he presents an interesting scenario.
Most eutherian mammals are born with brain sizes at nearly adult levels.
Only humans triple their cranial capacity outside the womb.

He claims that relatively speaking, these animals do most of their brain
growth and development in a sensory deprivation tank. Humans, on the other
hand, are constantly stimulated during the majority of their brain growth.
Since stimulation increases the linkages between brain cells and these
linkages are thought to be more important than the actual number of cells
(above a certain minimum), humans develop brains wholly different than
other placental mammals.

Of course, this argument is based upon my memory, I may be misrepresenting
it or misattributing it.

James Stewart

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:6>From geoffm@cogs.susx.ac.uk  Mon Nov  7 12:00:09 1994

Date: Mon, 7 Nov 94 14:18 GMT
From: geoffm@cogs.susx.ac.uk (Geoffrey Miller)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence

Please, before reading William Calvin's
rather implausible speculations about
the evolution of human intelligence, have a look at some
of the more mainstream works in this area:

Ridley, Mark (1993). The Red Queen: Sex and the evolution of human nature.
  Viking. (A witty review of all the recent theories in this area.)

Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The adapted mind:
  Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. Oxford U. Press.
  (A good collection of evolutionary psychology.)

Pinker, Steve (1994). The language instinct. Basic Books.
  (A compelling argument for language as a biological adaptation.)

Byrne, R., & Whiten, A. (1988). Machiavellian intelligence:
  Social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys,
  apes, and humans. Oxford U. Press.
  (A collection on the importance of social intelligence in human evolution.)

Also, my book "Evolution of the human brain through runaway sexual selection"
will be published next year by MIT Press.

Cheers -- Geoffrey F. Miller, University of Sussex

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:7>From mahaffy@dordt.edu  Mon Nov  7 12:16:19 1994

Subject: Paleonet
To: Address Darwin list <Darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>,
        Palaeobotany list <palaeobotany@vax.rhbnc.ac.uk>
Date: Mon, 7 Nov 1994 12:11:09 -0600 (CST)
From: James Mahaffy <mahaffy@dordt.edu>

Folks,

	If you folks that are interested in fossils and missed it, there is a
Paleonet starting. With the author's permisssion, I am passing on his
announcement.

Date: Fri, 4 Nov 94 13:38:04 PST
From: hrlane@amoco.com
To: mahaffy@dordt.edu
Subject: Re: Paleonet

     I have received a number of inquiries about PaleoNet and so I thought
     I would send this general message about it and how to subscribe.

______________________________ Forward Header ________________________________
Subject: Re: Paleonet
Author:  H R. Lane at hous,gts
Date: 11/4/94 1:50 PM

       Physically PaleoNet is a group of listservers, gopher holes, www
     pages, and anonymous ftp sites that provide the paleontological
     community a means whereby its members can communicate with others.  In
     spirit, PaleoNet is a dynamic marketplace of information/ideas/
     discussion whose rationale is to improve paleontology by more
     efficiently tapping into that community's most valuable resource, its
     people.  In fact, PaleoNet is (and will be) whatever you want it to
     be.
       PaleoNet's operating model falls somewhere between an informal
     electronic journal and a very large social gathering of
     paleontological professionals (including students) convened to discuss
     current events in the field.  As a subscriber (there is no charge),
     you can expect to find wide variety of information accessible through
     PaleoNet at any time.  These include ongoing informal conversations
     about papers, ideas, techniques, requests for information,
     announcements, etc. set against a background of more formal
     contributions such as editorials, meeting reviews, book reviews,
     software reviews, overviews of current controversies, etc. all of
     which are designed to put you in touch with what is happening in
     paleontology.  The key concept that makes PaleoNet work, however, is
     participation.
       In addition to the general PaleoNet list, a series of subordinate
     listservers have been created to facilitate ongoing topical
     discussions of interest to broad segments of the paleontological
     community.  These are the places to go for detailed information in the
     following areas:

     TrainingNet
     Manager:  Woody Wise (Wise@geomag.gly.fsu.edu)
     Description:  Dissemination of information regarding the training of
     paleontologists (who is giving what courses where) with an eye toward
     creating a better match between skills and needs and allow them to
     take advantage of existing information technologies.

     CommNet
     Manager:  Bob Pierce (RWPierce@amoco.com)
     Description:  Discussion dealing with the development of better
     techniques to disseminate information about research needs and
     opportunities among the four main organizational subdivisions of
     paleontology (academia, industry, museums, and government).

     DataBaseNet
     Manager:  Norman MacLeod (N.NacLeod@nhm.ac.uk)
     Description:  Discussions dealing with the creation, organization, and
     dissemination of graphic and text-based information relating to
     paleontological species, species concepts, intra-specific variation,
     stratigraphic and geographic distributions, etc.

     CollectionsNet
     Manager:  Steven Culver (S. Culver@nhm.ac.uk)
     Description:  Discussions dealing with the organization and management
     of major paleontological collections in museum, university and
     industrial settings.

       You can subscribe to PaleoNet, or any of the specialty lists by
     e-mailing the message:  subscribe PaleoNet (or subscribe TrainingNet,
     subscribe DataBaseNet, etc.) to listserver@nhm.ac.uk.  Anyone who
     subscribes to any of the specialty lists is automatically added to the
     master PaleoNet list.
       PaleoNet was conceived by Norman MacLeod (N.MacLeod@nhm.ac.uk) and
     Rich Lane (hrlane@amoco.com), who share joint responsibility for
     management of the PaleoNet system.  Please direct all questions or
     comments on technical matters to Norm and on policy issues to either
     of us.  PaleoNet is not affiliated with any present or future
     professional paleontological society but seeks to serve as a
     clearinghouse for any information of relevance to any form of
     paleontology.

           Norm MacLeod (N.MacLeod@nhm.ac.uk)
           Rich Lane    (hrlane@amoco.com)

--
James F. Mahaffy                   e-mail: mahaffy@dordt.edu
Biology Department                 phone: 712 722-6279
Dordt College                      FAX 712 722-1198
Sioux Center, Iowa 51250

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:8>From c.lavastida1@genie.geis.com  Mon Nov  7 13:42:33 1994

From: c.lavastida1@genie.geis.com
Date: Mon,  7 Nov 94 17:54:00 UTC
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Emergence of human intelligence

Dr. Lederberger,
 Further to your comments and Koestler; could you give us an opinion on
"zootypes" in Patel's essay on developmental biology (Science, 10/28)?
 Carlos.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:9>From niepokuj@mace.cc.purdue.edu  Mon Nov  7 14:45:36 1994

Date: Mon, 7 Nov 94 15:45:11 -0500
From: niepokuj@mace.cc.purdue.edu (Mary Niepokuj)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

3rd WORKSHOP ON COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS

Stanley Coulter Hall  G 040
Purdue University, Nov. 12-13, 1994

Subgrouping,  FINAL SCHEDULE

Sat morning, 	9:30
	Opening remarks: Prof. Ronnie Wilbur, Interdeptal Program in Linguistics

		10:00-12:00
	Methods of Subgrouping
		Robert O'Hara, UNC-Greensboro
		Tandy Warnow & Donald Ringe, Penn
		Discussant:  Mary Niepokuj, Purdue

Sat afternoon, 1:30-3:00
	Southeast Asian
		Hmong-Mien: Martha Ratliff, Wayne State
		Kadai: David Solnit, Michigan

		3:30-5:30
	Afro-Asiatic
		Gene Gragg, U of Chicago
		David Testen, U of Chicago
		Discussant: Paul Newman, Indiana

[Sat evening:  Party at Mary Niepokuj's]
Map given out at conference

Sun morning, 8:30-11:00
	Indo-European
		Anatolian: Craig Melchert, UNC-Chapel Hill
		Hellenic:  Donald Ringe, Penn
		Italo-Celtic: Jay Jasanoff, Cornell
		Italic:  Rex Wallace, U Mass & Brian Joseph, Ohio State
		Discussant:  Hans Henrich Hock, Illinois

Sun afternoon, 12:00-2:30
	Germanic
		Elmer Antonsen, Illinois
		Anthony Buccini, U of Chicago
		Robert Howell, Wisconsin-Madison
		Discussant: Garry Davis, UW-Milwaukee

The workshop is sponsored by the  Department of English
				  Interdepartmental Program in Linguistics
				  Dept of Foreign Languages & Literatures

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:10>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu  Mon Nov  7 15:45:25 1994

Date: Sun, 06 Nov 1994 19:29:45 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: Internet-accessible natural history collections (fwd from TAXACOM)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

--begin forwarded message--------------

Date: Tue, 01 Nov 1994 17:06:21 -0800 (PST)
From: Robert Guralnick <robg@FOSSIL.BERKELEY.EDU>
Subject: On-line catalogs --- compiling resources
To: Multiple recipients of list TAXACOM <TAXACOM@cmsa.Berkeley.EDU>

        Hi ---

        The University of California Museum of Paleontology has
begun to reorganize and update collections material accessible
through the Internet in general and its Web server in particular.
We are particularly interested in enhancing the effecient exchange
of natural history collections information from sites around the world.
To this end, we have linked together numerous collections sites
with the hope that this will serve as a resource to the scientific
community.  We have added as many sites as we know of off hand that
serve collections information, but could use some help. Take a look at
our collection (URL=http://ucmp1.berkeley.edu/collections/other.html)
and let us know if we missed any sites.  If we have, we will add
that link to the appropriate page.  Thanks for the help.

Cheers,

Robert Guralnick   | Museum of Paleontology   | University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720 | robg@fossil.berkeley.edu | (510) 642-9696

--end forwarded message----------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:11>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu  Mon Nov  7 15:45:30 1994

Date: Sun, 06 Nov 1994 19:20:08 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: NUMISM-L: New list on ancient numismatics and archeology
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

******************************NEW LIST**********************************
*                                                                      *
*         NUMISM-L (ANCIENT/MEDIEVAL/BYZANTINE NUMISMATICS)            *
*                                                                      *
* NUMISM-L is an unmoderated list that provides a discussion forum for *
* topics relating to the numismatics of Antiquity and the Middle Ages. *
* It is not a collector's list, nor is it exclusively scholarly; but   *
* it is for serious students of coinage up to c.1454.  It also offers  *
* an opportunity to announce the discovery of new coin hoards, newly   *
* discovered varieties (as well as newly identified forgeries), new    *
* books, recent thefts, and upcoming conferences.  Coin shows and      *
* coin sales also may be announced, but sales of specific coins are    *
* absolutely forbidden, and anyone offering specific coins for sale    *
* will be summarily removed from the list.                             *
*                                                                      *
* Potential Audience: Historians, Classicists, Medievalists, Byzan-    *
* tinists, Art Historians, Archaeologists, Economists, and Numisma-    *
* tists.                                                               *
*                                                                      *
* To subscribe, send a note to: LISTSERV@UNIVSCVM.CSD.SCAROLINA.EDU    *
* with message:                 SUBSCRIBE NUMISM-L your name           *
*                                                                      *
* List owners:                                                         *
*                                                                      *
* Ralph W. Mathisen, Dept. of History,                                 *
* Univ. of S. Carolina, Columbia SC 29208                              *
* email: n330009@univscvm.csd.scarolina.edu                            *
* (for information on technical matters: subscribing, settings, etc.)  *
*                                                                      *
* William E. Metcalf, Chief Curator                                    *
* American Numismatic Society                                          *
* Broadway at 155th St., New York, N.Y.  10032                         *
* email: wem8@columbia.edu   Phone: 212-234-3130                       *
* (for information on editorial and specialized numismatic matters)    *
*                                                                      *
************************************************************************

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:12>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu  Mon Nov  7 18:55:33 1994

Date: Mon, 07 Nov 1994 02:42:26 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: November 7 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

NOVEMBER 7 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1817: JEAN ANDRE DELUC dies at Windsor, England.  Born in Geneva in 1727,
Deluc had emigrated to England following a business failure in 1773.  A
Biblical geologist, he published many works that attempted to demonstrate
"the conformity of geological monuments with the sublime account of that
series of the operations which took place during the Six days, or periods
of time, recorded by the inspired penman."

1913: ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE dies at Broadstone, Dorset, England.
Co-discoverer with Charles Darwin of the principle of natural selection,
Wallace had been an extensive traveller and a prolific writer on topics
ranging from evolution and spiritualism to astronomy and vaccination.  His
most enduring work will be his several volumes on historical biogeography:
"If we take the organic productions of a small island, or of any very limited
tract of country, such as a moderate-sized country parish, we have, in their
relations and affinities -- in the fact that they are _there_ and others are
_not_ there, a problem which involves all the migrations of these species and
their ancestral forms -- all the vicissitudes of climate and all the changes
of sea and land which have affected those migrations -- the whole series of
actions and reactions which have determined the preservation of some forms and
the extinction of others, -- in fact the whole history of the earth, inorganic
and organic, throughout a large portion of geological time."  (_Island Life_,
second edition, 1892.)

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences.  For
more information about Darwin-L send the two-word message INFO DARWIN-L to
listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu, or gopher to rjohara.uncg.edu (152.13.44.19).

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:13>From mlinden@fiat.gslis.utexas.edu  Mon Nov  7 19:41:48 1994

Date: Mon, 7 Nov 1994 19:36:47 -0500 (CDT)
From: Michelle Linden <mlinden@fiat.gslis.utexas.edu>
Subject: Information and communication
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Good Afternoon,

I am a Graduate Student in the School Library and Information Science at
the University of Texas at Austin, and wanted to present a topic for
discussion which has has come about in my studies.  The subject is that
of scholarly research and communication and the changes that are/may
occure due to the introduction of electronic information.  I felt that
DARWIN-L was a perticulary appropriate forum because it is an electronic
form of communication between scholars, also I am very interested in
viewing the shift away from print communication, it's implications on the
way that people communicate, and the ways in which societies functions.

The dawn of electronic information has raised many questions about the
process of the dissemination of research information.  Is the print
publishing process still an effective method of screening and
disseminating information or is electronic publishing of research and a
realistic alternative?  Even though electronic publishing increases the
dissemination of information, scholarly researchers remain dependent on
peer review to filter the information.  There is a hesitation by many
scholars to indulge in information not retrieved from a credible source.
Wading through so much of the electronic information available now
offered free of charge raises the question of the quality of the
information.  Does the quality increase when the cost of the information
increases?  If it does not now is there a possibility that this might be
the case in the future?  Even the possibility of such a dichotomy
existing in the research could have devastating effects on those unable
to pay for, or without access to, the information of the most value.

Clifford Lynch raises two important points about electronic information
in his article "Reaction, response, and Realization:  From the Crisis in
Scholarly Communication to the Age of Networked Information."

What is the role and importance of publishing to scholars of the academic
community without the publishing industry to support?  Is publishing a
byproduct of research and scholarly communication?

Perhaps because scholarly communications evolved alongside the
publications they depend on it is difficult to separate the two.   It is
an interesting prospect that if researchers have information they will
make it available to the community in whatever format is available or
acceptable.  The question now is if the institutions and processes will
facilitate such a shift.

The second point Lynch raises is one which only time can answer:
Are our concepts of the possibilities of electronic information limited
by previously conceived methods of communication?  Will they change as
the way that we communicate changes or can they be motivated to change
before?  Can we really conceive of how this change can occur?

Sources:
Lynch, C.A.  (1992, Sppring/Summer).  Reaction, response, and
realization:  Fron the  crisis in scholarly communication to the age of
networked information.  Serial  Review,18, 107-112.

McClure, C.  (1994, Summer).  So what are the impacts of networking on
academic institutions?  Internet Research.

Okerson, A.L. (1993).  Electronic journal publishing on the net:
Developement and issues.  Symposium on scholarly communication:
New technologies and new directions.  Meckler, 51-64.

_____
Michelle Linden
University of Texas at Austin

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:14>From florin@quartz.geology.utoronto.ca  Tue Nov  8 09:11:31 1994

From: florin@quartz.geology.utoronto.ca (F. Neumann)
Subject: Caucasians
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Tue, 8 Nov 1994 10:14:04 -0500 (EST)

After arriving in North America I found out I was a Caucasian, which,
apparently, means anybody of European descent. As far as I know
the term is rarely, if ever, used in Europe. Could anybody enlighten us
as to the origin and current usage of the term "Caucasians"? Has it
any anthropological significance, or is it mereley a misguiding label,
such as "blacks" or "Orientals"? And who, exactly, is a Caucasian -- e.g.
are Turks or Jews Caucasians? (There're lots of Turkic peoples in the
Caucasus!).

--
  Florin Neumann
  florin@quartz.geology.utoronto.ca

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:15>From c2hi014@fre.fsu.umd.edu  Tue Nov  8 10:25:29 1994

Date: Tue, 08 Nov 1994 11:19:45 EST
From: Crystal Niedzwiadek <c2hi014@fre.fsu.umd.edu>
To: Darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Question on Malthus

Hello, my name is Crystal Niedzwiadek and I am an undergraduate student at
Frostburg State University in Western Maryland.  This is my first interaction
with this list, so I might make a mistake or two.  The reason I joined was to
possibly gain some insight on my topic for a historical analysis paper that I
am currently working on for a scientific writing course here at Frostburg
State.  In the paper I would like to pinpoint how significant Darwin's
discovery of the geometrical-arithmetical theory of population set forth by
Malthus was to Darwin's development of his theory of Natural Selection.  If
anybody could provide me with any insights on this topic I would be grateful,
being that the resources here at Frostburg are limited.

I appreciate your time to read my message.

Crystal Niedzwiadek
C2HI014@fre.fsu.umd.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:16>From chefboy@violet.berkeley.edu  Tue Nov  8 23:21:05 1994

Date: Tue, 8 Nov 1994 21:20:57 -0800
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: chefboy@violet.berkeley.edu (Jason D. Patent)
Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence

Dear Professor Miller,

Could you please elaborate on why Calvin's theories are implausible? Thank you.

Jason D. Patent
Graduate Student
UC Berkeley Department of Linguistics
chefboy@violet.berkeley.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:17>From rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU  Tue Nov  8 23:27:37 1994

Date: Tue,  8 Nov 94 05:31:32 PST
From: rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU
Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

I would have to agree with Geoffrey F. Miller at least insofar as the
references he cites are evolutionary in orientation rather than
simply morphological and developmental.

I would think that if we are to ask what differentiates humans from other
animals, we must not simply cite factors like cranial capacity, the
extensive use of tools, or language but instead consider which, if any, of
these, in evolutionary terms, has contributed most to the biological success
of homosapiens.  Furthermore, we need not assume that only one factor,
abstract reasoning, for example, is entirely responsible in itself for this
success.

I suspect that population genetics in particular, though I am no expert in
this area myself, and Darwinian evolution in general, clearly suggest that a
variety of different genetic factors representing various morphological
characteristics vary simultaneously due to randon variation and sexual
selection, so that we would have no reason to believe that the pivotal
combination of characteristics that first, due to its superior fitness for
survival, began the slow trek of humans away from their kindred primates
towards modern humans should have been distinctive in only one seminal way.

One might instead be inclined to think that the pivotal combination, as I
call it, would have at first made humans only marginally distinct from other
primates in terms of the variables along which we now think humans so
remarkably unique.  These slight differences, however, would have not only
made humans more fit to survive but would have made humans that differed
more, more fit to survive than humans that differed less along the same
variables.

Perhaps this is a viable way of approaching the question.

Mihran R. Herardian
rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU
Les prèjugè sont la raison des sots -- Voltaire

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:18>From cliver@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu  Tue Nov  8 23:38:40 1994

Date: 	Tue, 8 Nov 1994 19:38:08 -1000
From: Robert Cliver <cliver@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu>
Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Geoffery,
   Before you dismiss Calvin's hypothesis out of hand, you should
remember that he is not suggesting that the "throwing Madonna" is the
single factor in the evolution of human intelligence. Obviously (and I
think Calvin's understanding of evolutionary processes is up to this)
there is more to  it. Evoluiton of any attribute is a complex process
involving many different factors. However, the apparent link between a
sense of time (all  those coupled oscillators), music, language, thinking
(narrativizing) and throwing things is striking. I think it would be
wrong to read Calvin as saying "and ability to throw things is the sole
survival advantage for the big brain." With this balanced appraisal, I
find Calvin quite plausible.
   Could you tell us more about your book and "runaway sexuality"? Sounds
exciting!
Robert Cliver
History
cliver@uhunix.uhcc.hawaii.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:19>From BENEDICT@VAX.CS.HSCSYR.EDU  Wed Nov  9 08:48:06 1994

Date: Wed, 09 Nov 1994 09:48:15 -0500 (EST)
From: BENEDICT@VAX.CS.HSCSYR.EDU
Subject: Re: Calvin's hypothesis
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

  Probably the most attractive feature of Calvin's hypothesis is that it is
one of the few that trys to explain what got humans "over the hump" from
ape-level intelligence (which seems to be the general upper limit of non
human abilites in the animal kingdom). It's hard to see how just a "little
more" language could be helpful - apes seem to survive well (in the absence of
human predation) with their communication system. It is easy to see how "just
a little more accurate" will help a stone thrower. It's clear that once a
lineage gets "over the hump" then other abilities, like language, temporal
planning, etc., become important in themselves and probably contribute to a
positive feedback accelerating the evolution of intelligence. But why did
social canines, etc., fail to develope similar abilities? A good theory ought
to explain both aspects of the question.
  There are some cultural traits that are associated with the hypothesis - the
use of the "hand axes" as throwing stones, which [paraphasing] commonly end up
embedded vertically in mud as if they'd fallen, that the anthropologists on
the list can comment to [is this true?]. I'd welcome a discussion of why this
is such a wild idea as well.

Paul DeBenedictis
SUNY Health Science Center at Syracuse

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:20>From Robert.Richardson@UC.Edu  Wed Nov  9 10:41:23 1994

Date: Wed, 09 Nov 1994 11:37:17 -0500 (EST)
From: "Bob Richardson, U Cincinnati" <Robert.Richardson@UC.Edu>
Subject: Re: Caucasians
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Florin Neumann  (florin@quartz.geology.utoronto.ca) asks:

> After arriving in North America I found out I was a Caucasian, which,
>apparently, means anybody of European descent. As far as I know
>the term is rarely, if ever, used in Europe. Could anybody enlighten
>us as to the origin and current usage of the term "Caucasians"? Has it
>any anthropological significance, or is it mereley a misguiding label,
>such as "blacks" or "Orientals"? And who, exactly, is a Caucasian -- e.g.
>are Turks or Jews Caucasians? (There're lots of Turkic peoples in the
>Caucasus!).

The origin, I believe, lies with Johann Blumenbach, who believed that the
"races" has all degenerated from a root stock which was white.  This root stock
was supposedly best exemplified in people living in the Caucasians.  The view
is interesting in a number of ways, and important for the history of
anthropology:  Blumenbach, like his contemporary Buffon, thought the "races"
developed by degeneration, but this degeneration was under environmental
control and was reversible.  E.g., darker pigmentation was supposedly the
result of exposure to the tropical sun, and there is even an explanation in
Buffon of whay the French are "ugly and ill made."

I beleive that Blumenbach held the Caucasians were the root on largely
aesthetic grounds -- they suited his vision of the Creator, who in turn created
us in his image.

The source is Blumenbach's *On the Generation of Native Human Varieties*
(1775); Buffon's *Natural History* (1804?) is a natural complement.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:21>From Robert.Richardson@UC.Edu  Wed Nov  9 11:13:58 1994

Date: Wed, 09 Nov 1994 11:52:05 -0500 (EST)
From: "Bob Richardson, U Cincinnati" <Robert.Richardson@UC.Edu>
Subject: Re: Question on Malthus
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Crystal Niedzwiadek asked about the influence of Malthus on Darwin.  There are
many excellent sources to read.  Here's a short list of some I'm especially
fond of:

Young, Robert M. (1985), "Malthus and the Evolutionists:  the Common Context of
Biological and Social Theory," in Young, *Darwin's Metaphor* (Cambridge
University Press), ch. 2.

Schweber, Silvan S.  (1980).  "Darwin and the Political Economists:  Divergence
of Character," *Journal of the History of Biology 13:  195-289.

Young, Robert M. (1985).  "Darwinism Is Social," in Kohn, *The Darwinian
Heritage* (Princeton), ch. 21.

The classic passage, is, of course, from Darwin's *Autobiography*:

"Fifteen months after I had begun my systematic enquiry [into evolution], I
happended to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared
to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on, from
long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once
struck me that under these circumstances favorable variations would tend to be
preserved, and unfavorable ones destroyed.  The result of this would be the
formation of new species.  Here, then, I had at last got a theory by which to
work."

For some moderation concerning the story, it's worth also reading

Hodge, M. J. S., and David Kohn.  (1985).  "The Immediate Origins of Natural
Selection," in Kohn's *The Darwinian Heritage*, ch. 6.

There are many more things one could read on this.  But this is at least a
small group I like.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:22>From rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU  Wed Nov  9 11:33:16 1994

Date: Tue,  8 Nov 94 17:32:16 PST
From: rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU
Subject: RE: Question on Malthus
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Crystal,

As I understand it, it was from Malthus' concepts of population pressure and
the corresponding competition for survival that Darwin acquired the idea of
survival of the fitest and the dynamic of survival of the fitest coupled
with random genetic variation is precisely the engine of evolutionary
change.  Unfortunately, I do not have Malthus' famous essay or
Darwin's "Origin of Species" on hand at the moment.  Nevertheless, I feel
confident that a careful reading of these, or even secondary sources
specifically on your topic, will yield the insight that you seek.  Since
your task is that of historical analysis, you might also benefit from the
recent, contextualist biography of Darwin ("Darwin" by Desmond and Moore) or
from a book like "The Politics of Evolution."  Good luck!

Mihran R. Herardian
rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU
Les prèjugè sont la raison des sots -- Voltaire

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:23>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu  Wed Nov  9 12:01:19 1994

Date: Wed, 09 Nov 1994 13:01:03 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: November 9 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

NOVEMBER 9 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1623: WILLIAM CAMDEN dies.  Camden studied at St. Paul's School and at Oxford
University, where his interest in antiquities began to develop and where he
later endowed the first professorship in history at an English university.
Following the example of an earlier generation of continental European
antiquarians, Camden spent much of his life travelling widely in the British
Isles collecting and describing Roman remains, transcribing inscriptions, and
searching through ecclesiastical and public archives.  The product of his
labors, _Britannia_ (London, 1586), was the first comprehensive historical and
topographical survey of British antiquities, and it established a new standard
of scholarship for an entire generation of British historians.

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences.  For
more information about Darwin-L send the two-word message INFO DARWIN-L to
listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu, or gopher to rjohara.uncg.edu (152.13.44.19).

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:24>From rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU  Wed Nov  9 17:54:39 1994

Date: Tue,  8 Nov 94 23:20:05 PST
From: rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU
Subject: RE: Information and communication
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Please find comments below, not prefaced with a 'greater than' character.

Mihran R. Herardian
rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU

>Good Afternoon,
>
>I am a Graduate Student in the School Library and Information Science at
>the University of Texas at Austin, and wanted to present a topic for
>discussion which has has come about in my studies.  The subject is that
>of scholarly research and communication and the changes that are/may
>occur due to the introduction of electronic information.

Setting aside the use of information technology in mathematics and all fields,
from astronomy to economics, touched by it, it seems to me that very
substantial changes have already taken place.  The use of e-mail and list
servers like the one hosting the DARWIN-L list, instantaneous electronic
searches of bibliographical references from around the world, the growing
number of electronic texts in all subjects, and scholarly organizations, such
as the American Philosophical Association (APA) and others, using electronic
media to maintain communications with their membership and to distribute and
exchange information resources from software to scholarly articles, not to
mention the tremendous impact of personal computers used for everything from
word processing the more or less automated storage, search and retrieval of
vast quantities of information whether text, images, video, or sound, all
suggest that a revolution of scholarly enterprise has already taken place.
What student or academic author today does not use an electronic library
catalog or write using a word processing program that probably includes
electronic checking of spelling and grammar and possibly an electronic
thesaurus and dictionary?

>I felt that DARWIN-L was a perticulary appropriate forum because it is
>an electronic form of communication between scholars, also I am very
>interested in viewing the shift away from print communication, it's
>implications on the way that people communicate, and the ways in which
>societies functions.

It seems unlikely that print communication will vanish anytime soon but the
way in which scolarly work product is produced in print has already changed.
One thing that has come about in the software industry is the distribution of
software documentation in electronic form so that hard copies of
professionally prepared documents, such as software manuals, can be printed on
paper by the end-user as apposed to the distribution of paper documentation by
the software vendor.  If in some respects academe or the publishing industry
lags behind the software industry, this form of 'publication' may yet emerge
in the publishing industry, hence in scholarly writing as well.  In the
Internet network community, the distribution of electronic 'magazines' and the
electronic publication of texts already takes place.

I see no reason why an electronic academic press might not be established.  In
this case, one would expect the publisher to filter these data in the same way
that they do conventional books and magazines.  However, there may be issues
other than quality to prevent this, such as copyright and the collection of
fees.  The basic problem that I see is that once a text is available in
electronic form there is no way, without excessively cumbersome safeguards, to
prevent unauthorized electronic duplication and distribution (If you wish I
could describe such as system but, in the end, either the safeguards are
imperfect or excessively cumbersome, for example, the ChessBase database
program used by competitive chess players is carefully protected against
duplication but the data files upon which it operates are not and can be
freely distributed via electronic means.  To make the data accessible only to
a specific user would increase costs and without the most extreme and almost
certainly unacceptible safeguards, a user can still extract the data and
distribute them in an alternative form).

>The dawn of electronic information has raised many questions about the
>process of the dissemination of research information.  Is the print
>publishing process still an effective method of screening and
>disseminating information or is electronic publishing of research and a
>realistic alternative?  Even though electronic publishing increases the
>dissemination of information, scholarly researchers remain dependent on
>peer review to filter the information.  There is a hesitation by many
>scholars to indulge in information not retrieved from a credible source.

I see no reason why electronic publication cannot be managed by a publisher in
more or less the same way as ordinary books and magazines.  Therefore, I think
the above question lumps unrestricted distribution available to anyone at all
and an electronic publishing industry that may evolve in the future into a
single category.

>Wading through so much of the electronic information available now
>offered free of charge raises the question of the quality of the
>information.  Does the quality increase when the cost of the information
>increases?  If it does not now is there a possibility that this might be
>the case in the future?  Even the possibility of such a dichotomy
>existing in the research could have devastating effects on those unable
>to pay for, or without access to, the information of the most value.

I see no reason why distribution of electronic publications need be invariably
free of charge to end users. In spite of my comments above on the difficulty
of preventing unauthorized distribution, it may well be that, like shareware
software, a sufficient number of end users and institutions bound only by
license agreements, would pay for electronic publications that such an
enterprise maight be financially sustainable as a profit-making business like
any commercial publisher.

>Clifford Lynch raises two important points about electronic information
>in his article "Reaction, response, and Realization:  From the Crisis in
>Scholarly Communication to the Age of Networked Information."

>What is the role and importance of publishing to scholars of the academic
>community without the publishing industry to support?  Is publishing a
>byproduct of research and scholarly communication?

I believe that there is a false dilemma at work here stemming from the
assumptions that (1) commercial publishing and electronic publishing are
mutually exclusive; that (2), based on the above, that there can be no
guarantees of quality in electronic publishing as there is in commercial
publishing today; and that (3) it is in principle impossible to collect fees
for electronic publications.  None of these assumptions is necessarily true.

What makes sense to me is to seriously consider how the publishing industry
will eventually adapt to new media of electronic publication.  With the
invention of the printing press, for example, I am unaware of any decline in
the quality of publications but certainly of their lowered cost and wider
availability.  The result was not merely an army of scribes displaced by by
automation but the development of the publishing industry while access to
documents was actually increased.  It seems to me that we should be
considering not a supposed crisis in scholarly communication so much as what
the future will be.

On the question of access, I would consider how widespread the use of computer
information systems is today as compared with ten years ago.  The question
then, is simply this, will access to computer information systems even 25
years from now be more or less restricted than access to the corner bookstore
is today?  For the wealthier nations of the world I think the answer is quite
clear.  In fact, even today, in California at least, we see in the urban
centers commercial business like Kinko's Copies, Copymat, and Alpha Graphics
that rent computer access by the hour for a small fee almost next to every
major bookstore.  Furthermore, in San Francisco, there are public computer
terminals accessible for a small fee located literally in cafes.  These
considerations hardly suggest a future problem of access, at least in the
wealthier countries.  In the less developed economies, access may be
restricted more to educational institutions but in these instances, what
portion of the common people, in the n\midst of the struggle for survival,
frequent a local bookstore?

>Perhaps because scholarly communications evolved alongside the
>publications they depend on it is difficult to separate the two.   It is
>an interesting prospect that if researchers have information they will
>make it available to the community in whatever format is available or
>acceptable.  The question now is if the institutions and processes will
>facilitate such a shift.

Since the publishing industry cannot possibly stop the electronic distribution
of texts and the proliferation of networked information resources sustaining
scholarly activities, it should only be a matter of time before publishers
find a way to make a profit through electronic publication.  The pressure to
do this may come from a loss of revenues caused by the electronic distribution
of texts by scholarly associations that also regulate the quality of these
texts.  At this time, publishers, like the parent company of the USA Today
newspaper, are investing in on-line services that allow users access to
information through the use of a computer, modem and telephone line.  On-line
servies charge a fee by the minute or hour and add a surcharge for access to
specific information systems that offer everything from stock quotes to
abstracts of medical articles.  No such charges are possible at this time for
access to information over the government sponsored Internet network.
However, as Internet service providers grow to become like modern-day phone
companies, it may become more easily possible to charge a fee.  In any case,
the only reason why today, there are no pay services over the Internet network
is that the Internet network is non-commercial.  I cannot imagine why this
should remain true indefinitely or why, eventually, commercial interests might
not be allowed to do business directly over the Internet.

>The second point Lynch raises is one which only time can answer:
>Are our concepts of the possibilities of electronic information limited
>by previously conceived methods of communication?  Will they change as
>the way that we communicate changes or can they be motivated to change
>before?  Can we really conceive of how this change can occur?

On the contrary, the answer is already clear and it is "no."  Take, for
example, the NCSA Mosaic application which is a multimedia information browser
that integrates a variety of information resources from across the Internet
network into a single user interface.  This technology is referred to as
"hypermedia" and is based on a system of information service indexes referred
to as the World Wide Web or 'W3'.  However, hypermedia, as a research tool
pales in comparison to the graphical, relational, essentially hypermedia,
Silicon Valley project database currently under development at Stanford
University.  In other words, the imaginability of the future that Lynch
questions is clearly a non-issue.  The future has not only been imagined  but
is taking form even as we write these e-mail messages.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:25>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu  Wed Nov  9 22:00:13 1994

Date: Wed, 09 Nov 1994 22:55:31 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: NESTOR Classical studies bibliography (fwd from Aegeanet)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

--begin forwarded message--------------

From: Michael Fotiadis <MFOTIADI@ucs.indiana.edu>
Subject: NESTOR bibliography--general information
Sender: aegeanet-owner@acpub.duke.edu
To: aegeanet@acpub.duke.edu

NESTOR  (ISSN 0028-2812)

NESTOR is an international bibliography of eastern Mediterranean and
southeastern European prehistory, Homeric society, Indo-European linguistics,
and related fields.  It is published monthly from September to May by the
Program in Classical Archaeology, Indiana University, Bloomington.  Each
volume includes an Authors Index.  NESTOR is distributed in 30 countries
world-wide.  It is currently edited by Karen D. Vitelli.

Suggestions from colleagues about titles for inclusion in the bibliography
are welcome.  Correspondence should be addressed to:

                NESTOR
                Program in Classical Archaeology
                Indiana University
                Bloomington, Indiana 47405
                U.S.A.

E-mail:  Nestor@ucs.indiana.edu OR Nestor@indiana

Current subscription rates per volume (9 issues) are as follows:

U.S. Individuals                $  6.50
U.S. Institutions               $ 11.50
Foreign Individuals (surface)   $  8.50
Foreign Individuals (air)       $ 13.50
Foreign Institutions            $ 14.00

Student rates (proof of student status necessary) for 1994 are as follows:

U.S. Students                   $  5.00
Foreign Students (surface)      $  7.00
Foreign Students (air)          $ 12.00

Checks should be made payable to Indiana University Foundation
and mailed to the address of Nestor (see above).  Visa and Mastercard
also are accepted.

Volumes 1-4 (1957-1977) were edited by Emmett L. Bennett, Jr.,
and were published by the Institute for Research in the Humanities,
University of Wisconsin.  Volumes 5-20 (1978-1993), as well as
most issues of Volumes 1-4, are available from the Program
($8.50 per volume or $0.20 per page, plus postage).  Complete
copies of volumes 1-4 also are available from University Microfilms
at the following addresses:

                University Microfilms
                300 North Zeeb Road
                Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106
                U.S.A.

                University Microfilms, International
                White Swan House
                Godstone, Surrey RH9 8LW
                United Kingdom

The bibliography of back issues is also available on diskettes and via FTP (see
below).

                                                        updated Oct 94

*************************************************************************
NESTOR AS A COMPUTER DATABASE

The Nestor bibliography (more than 30,000 entries) is now becoming
progressively available on diskettes, as structured ASCII files (ready
to import to database programs), for both IBM/PC and Apple
computers.  The 20 most recent volumes (NESTOR vols.4-20, years
1974-93, 18,000+ entries) are at this moment (Oc. '94) ready for
distribution, and the remainder--back to the first issue of 1957--will
become available in the course of the next 10 months.  Diskettes,
each containing several years of bibliography, will be announced in
the monthly Nestor as they become ready.

Distribution:  Diskettes (3 1/2") are distributed at the cost of materials
and mailing.  For the 20 most recent volumes (package of 5 diskettes)
that cost now is $ 13.00 for North American addresses, and $ 16.00 for
overseas addresses.  The remaining 18 volumes (1957-73, and 1994)
will be distributed on 5 additional diskettes, as they become ready in
the course of 1994-95.  The cost for the latter is US $ 3.75/diskette
for North American addresses, and US $ 6.00/diskette for overseas
addresses.  You may prepay for all 5 diskettes.  Orders must specify
Apple or IBM/PC version, and they should be accompanied by a check
(in US $), payable to INDIANA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION.  They should be
sent to the Nestor address (see above).  Visa and Mastercard also are
accepted.

NESTOR ON THE INTERNET VIA FTP:  All the Nestor volumes that
have thus far been converted to ASCII files and are available on diskette,
are also available via anonymous FTP.  To get them, ftp to

                 cica.cica.indiana.edu

Log in as "anonymous" and use your full e-mail address
as your password.  The path is

                 /pub/archaeology

The Nestor ASCII files in the archive have the prefix "nesasc"
(see also file "ReadMe" in the archive, which will tell you about the
structure of the "nesasc..." files and what to do once you download
them onto your computer--Mac, PC or whatever).  New files will be
added to the archive as the conversion of the hard copies into ASCII
All the files will be periodically updated, as we continue identifying
and correcting errors, inconsistencies, etc.  For updated files, see
file "NesascNews" in the archive.

                                                        updated Oct 94
*************************************************************************

--end forwarded message----------------

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<15:26>From mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca  Thu Nov 10 06:34:48 1994

From: Mary P Winsor <mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca>
Subject: Re: Question on Malthus
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Thu, 10 Nov 1994 07:34:18 -0500 (EST)

Desmond takes pride that his book "The Politics of Evolution" does not
mention Darwin [his point being that there was a lot of other
evolutionary stuff going on in England in the 1830s besides the youth
of Charles R. D.] so I wouldn't look there.
 Mike Ghiselin put his finger on what I consider the key insight many
 years ago (I suppose it was in his Triumph of the Darwinian Method
 but I'll have to double check).  From reading Lyell's discussion (in
 Princ. of Geol.) of extinction and de Candolle's war of nature,
 Darwin was already thinking of the pressures each species is under.
 That the balance of nature is only acheived by death rate
 counteracting the birth rate was already a familiar notion.  But
 everyone was thinking "typologically," that is, in the strife between
 The Wolf and The Deer, many baby deer die off, that the wolf
 kind may survive.  But reading Malthus triggered in Darwin the
 insight that it's not just a lottery of identical tickets or balls;
 because here we are focussing on one species we are particularly fond
 of, and Malthus has a concluding chapter speculating on why God would
 want to institute such a harsh set of laws of nature (reproduction,
 dependence on food) - answer, it forces each soul to strive instead
 of staying lazy.  So now you see population pressure not like the
 even-handed pressure of a gas, but as a pressure which falls on each
 individual who can deal with it differently.
    Thus the role in Darwin's discovery is slightly different from the
    role he assigns it in the Origin, where individual differences,
    variability, is treated first, and then the Malthusian ratios
    introduced.  In his notebooks, he was aware of individual
    differences and aware of population pressure, but re-reading (not
    reading for the first time, if I remember rightly) Malthus made
    him focus on what Mayr calls "population thinking" rather than
    typological thinking.

    But this version is not the one promoted by Robert Young.

    Polly Winsor   mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca

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<15:27>From rhames@unlinfo.unl.edu  Thu Nov 10 07:06:32 1994

From: rhames@unlinfo.unl.edu (raymond hames)
Subject: Re: Caucasians
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Thu, 10 Nov 1994 07:05:51 -0600 (CST)

     For those interested, a short essay on Blumenbach and the origin
of the classification Caucasian by SJ Gould can be found in the
current issue of Discover magazine.  In addition, there are other
worthwhile articles on the topic of race written by well-known science
writers (and researchers) such as Jared Diamond.
     A word on Blumenbach's use of the word degeneration: according to
Gould the term is used in its literal sense as "from the type or
genus" and it does not have a negative connotation we currently give it.
It seems to me that Blumenbach uses it much in the same way that
phylogeneticists use the term "derived".

Ray Hames
University of Nebraska

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<15:28>From mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca  Thu Nov 10 09:04:52 1994

From: Mary P Winsor <mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca>
Subject: p.s. to my earlier
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Thu, 10 Nov 1994 10:04:37 -0500 (EST)

Post script: I was wrong about Desmond but right about Ghiselin
citation: see indeed still good discussion in Triumph of the Darwinian
Method, but compare it to places in Politics of Evolution where
Desmond indeed discusses both Darwin and Malthus.
Polly Winsor  mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca

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<15:29>From LKNYHART@macc.wisc.edu  Thu Nov 10 11:06:56 1994

Date: Thu, 10 Nov 94 11:06 CDT
From: Lynn K. Nyhart <LKNYHART@macc.wisc.edu>
Subject: Re: Question on Malthus
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Polly Winsor writes that Adrian Desmond doesn't mention Darwin in The Politics
of Evolution.  I take her point that Desmond wants to point out that there was
much else of interest going on in 19thC British biology (and medicine), and it
is also true that this book doesn't discuss Darwin's own development in any
detail.  But it is worth pointing out that Desmond did feel compelled to
mention Darwin in the book, in his important Afterword, "Putting Darwin in the
Picture."  Those not familiar with Desmond's book might not realize that he
does indeed discuss Darwin; in the historiography of 19thC British biology, it
is just about impossible to escape Darwinism in one form or another.

Lynn Nyhart
University of Wisconsin-Madison
lknyhart@macc.wisc.edu

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<15:30>From JESUS@utkvx.utk.edu  Fri Nov 11 14:59:18 1994

Date: Fri, 11 Nov 1994 00:32:55 -0500 (EST)
From: Jesus Antonio Rivas <JESUS@utkvx.utk.edu>
Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
	I wouldn't rate Calvin's hypothesis as "implausible", but I truly
believe that Dr. Miller's approach is more on the track.  I certainly would
like to hear more about his hypothesis since It makes a lot of sense for
me.  Human inteligence is a huge departure form the mean (primates) of a
trait to levels where it is somehow "useless" (as long as "strugle for
survival" goes) unless a runaway process is involved.

Jesus Antonio Rivas
Graduate student in Ethology
University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN 37996-0900

e-mail Jesus@utkvx.utk.edu

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Darwin-L Message Log 15: 1-30 -- November 1994                              End

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