Darwin-L Message Log 15: 1–30 — November 1994
Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences
Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.
This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during November 1994. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”
---------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 15: 1-30 -- NOVEMBER 1994 ---------------------------------------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:1>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Nov 1 10:36:35 1994 Date: Tue, 01 Nov 1994 11:05:54 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: List owner's monthly greeting To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Greetings to all Darwin-L subscribers. On the first of every month I send out a short note on the status of our group, along with a reminder of basic commands. Darwin-L is an international discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences. It is not devoted to any particular discipline, such as evolutionary biology, but rather endeavors to promote interdisciplinary comparisons among all the historical sciences, from historical linguistics and geology to archeology, systematics, cosmology, and textual criticism. The group was established in September 1993, and we have over 600 members from nearly 30 countries. I am grateful to all of our members for their interest and their many contributions. The Darwin-L gopher contains logs of our past discussions, as well as a collection of files and network links of interest to historical scientists. The Darwin-L gopher is located at rjohara.uncg.edu; on most mainframe systems you can simply type "gopher rjohara.uncg.edu" to get there. Darwin-L is occasionally a "high-volume" discussion group. Subscribers who feel burdened from time to time by their Darwin-L mail may wish to take advantage of the digest option described below. Because different mail systems work differently, not all subscribers can see the e-mail address of the original sender of each message in the message header (some people only see "Darwin-L" as the source). PLEASE include your name and e-mail address at the end of every message you post so that everyone can identify you and reply privately if appropriate. Remember also that in most cases when you type "reply" in response to a message from Darwin-L your reply is sent to the list as a whole, rather than to the original sender. The following are the most frequently used listserv commands that Darwin-L members may wish to know. All of these commands should be sent as regular e-mail messages to the listserv address (email@example.com), not to the address of the group as a whole (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu). In each case leave the subject line of the message blank and include no extraneous text, as the command will be read and processed by the listserv program rather than by a person. To join the group send the message: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L <Your Name> For example: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L John Smith To cancel your subscription send the message: UNSUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L If you feel burdened by the volume of mail you receive from Darwin-L you may instruct the listserv program to deliver mail to you in digest format (one message per day consisting of the whole day's posts bundled together). To receive your mail in digest format send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL DIGEST To change your subscription from digest format back to one-at-a-time delivery send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL ACK To temporarily suspend mail delivery (when you go on vacation, for example) send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL POSTPONE To resume regular delivery send either the DIGEST or ACK messages above. For a comprehensive introduction to Darwin-L with notes on our scope and on network etiquette, and a summary of all available commands, send the message: INFO DARWIN-L To post a public message to the group as a whole simply send it as regular e-mail to the group's address (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu). I thank you all for your continuing interest in Darwin-L and in the interdisciplinary study of the historical sciences. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Robert J. O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) Center for Critical Inquiry and Department of Biology 100 Foust Building, University of North Carolina at Greensboro Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:2>From email@example.com Fri Nov 4 15:58:57 1994 Date: Fri, 4 Nov 1994 13:56:14 -0800 To: Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu From: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Emergence of human intelligence Hello! I am a student at university of Victoria, B.C., Canada and working on my research paper for English class. My topic deals with human evolution and my concentration is on the emergence of human intelligence. I am just wondering if there is anybody working on this field and being able to answer my questions. What differenceate human beings from the rest of the animal kingdom? What do you think was a trigger that expanded human intelligence? What adventages did human acquired compered to the other animals? Well, any one who is willing to give me some ideas, I really appreciate!! Akiko Shimeno University of Victoria email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:3>From jsl@rockvax.ROCKEFELLER.EDU Fri Nov 4 17:33:54 1994 To: firstname.lastname@example.org Cc: Multiple recipients of list <email@example.com> Subject: Emergence of human intelligence; neoteny; warfare Date: Fri, 04 Nov 94 18:37:01 EST From: Joshua Lederberg <jsl@rockvax.ROCKEFELLER.EDU> See Encyclopedia of Human Biology, Academic Press (R. Dulbecco ed-in-chief). For special attributes of humans: Neoteny is what is usually quoted; and its implications for the displacement of instinct by learned behavior and socially transmitted tradition. But, unhappy thought, ponder Arthur Clarke's hypothesis in 2001*: intra-species warfare, and the accelerant premium that puts on intragroup social affiliation, and survival by tools and wits. More or less Koestler's Ghost in the Machine. *The jawbone transformed into the rocket. _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:4>From firstname.lastname@example.org Fri Nov 4 18:00:40 1994 Date: Fri, 4 Nov 1994 16:00:28 -0800 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Jason D. Patent) Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence Dear Akiko, Quite a broad bunch of questions! I hope and expect it will spark a long and interesting thread on this list. First off, I'd like to make clear that I am an AMATEUR OF AMATEURS when it comes to such issues. But I've recently taken an extreme interest in exploring thesequestions on my own. The first book I read was by William Calvin, a neurobiologist at the University of Washington, not too far from you. In his fascinating book, The River that Flows Uphill: The Journey from the Big Bang to the Big Brain (1986), he sets forth the theory that the rather uniquely human abilities to form discourses, compose intricate music, spin scenarios, and so forth did not evolve because they in and of themselves held a particularly weighty evolutionary advantage, but rather are emergent properties which result from the vast numbers of sequencer cells in the brain. He suggests that the most important advantage, from an evolutionary standpoint, of so many sequencers was the ability to throw accurately, allowing humans to be more successful in hunting, and thus survival. The emergence of language, music, and other abilities is merely a by-product of having so many sequencers, which are rarely employed in their "primary" function of aiming at targets, and throwing. I lack the scientific background thoroughly to critique Prof. Calvin's theory. Intuitively, it seems mostly appealing, except for its monocausality/linearity. Certainly anything as complex as human intelligence must have been the result of a multiplicity of mutually-interacting influences, and perhaps Calvin over-emphasizes the one factor. I don't know. One idea which is, I believe, widely agreed upon is that, whatever selection pressures were behind the rapid expansion in the size of the brain, these pressures must have been very, very strong, because they had to more than counterbalance the increase in deaths of mothers during childbirth due to babies' ever-larger skulls. More broadly speaking, may I recommend enthusiastically that you read up on some Chaos Theory and Complexity Science, especially the latter. In particular, see: 1. M. Mitchell Waldrop: Complexity: the emerging science at the edge of order and chaos 2. Roger Lewin: Complexity: life at the edge of chaos Why? Because Complexity Science takes as one of its foremost tasks the explanation and elucidation of emergence in virtually every imaginable field, evolutionary biology being paramount among them. One final point, which is directly in response to: > What differenceate human beings from the rest of the animal kingdom? Calvin argues (oh, yeah, you should also see his article, and others, in the October 1994 issue of Scientific American, which is devoted to "life in the universe") that humans are unique in our ability to SEQUENCE events in our mind--to plan, anticipate, wonder, on a scale far, far beyond that of any other animal. I realize that this is treading on somewhat more philosophical ground, and could draw the ire of some, so I'll leave it at this. Just to whet your appetite, here's a quote from Calvin's book: "Assigning a major role in language evolution to throwing will probably remain heresy for a long time, even if it turns out to be the least awkward solution to the difficulties. Given the usual fate of most scientific hypotheses, it may well turn out to be another deus ex machina when we are farther down the road. But maybe it is the fast track, maybe language is an emergent property of brain circuits facilitating fancy time sequences." (p. 358) I'd like to conclude by re-emphasizing my amateur (at best) status in this field. I certainly hope that more knowledgeable subscribers will join in--there's lots about this that I'd like to learn! Good luck! Jason D. Patent Graduate Student UC Berkeley Department of Linguistics email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:5>From firstname.lastname@example.org Mon Nov 7 09:50:44 1994 Date: Sat, 5 Nov 1994 18:20:37 -0500 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (James Stewart) Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence In Christopher Wills "Runaway Brain" he presents an interesting scenario. Most eutherian mammals are born with brain sizes at nearly adult levels. Only humans triple their cranial capacity outside the womb. He claims that relatively speaking, these animals do most of their brain growth and development in a sensory deprivation tank. Humans, on the other hand, are constantly stimulated during the majority of their brain growth. Since stimulation increases the linkages between brain cells and these linkages are thought to be more important than the actual number of cells (above a certain minimum), humans develop brains wholly different than other placental mammals. Of course, this argument is based upon my memory, I may be misrepresenting it or misattributing it. James Stewart _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:6>From email@example.com Mon Nov 7 12:00:09 1994 Date: Mon, 7 Nov 94 14:18 GMT From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Geoffrey Miller) To: email@example.com Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence Please, before reading William Calvin's rather implausible speculations about the evolution of human intelligence, have a look at some of the more mainstream works in this area: Ridley, Mark (1993). The Red Queen: Sex and the evolution of human nature. Viking. (A witty review of all the recent theories in this area.) Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. Oxford U. Press. (A good collection of evolutionary psychology.) Pinker, Steve (1994). The language instinct. Basic Books. (A compelling argument for language as a biological adaptation.) Byrne, R., & Whiten, A. (1988). Machiavellian intelligence: Social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes, and humans. Oxford U. Press. (A collection on the importance of social intelligence in human evolution.) Also, my book "Evolution of the human brain through runaway sexual selection" will be published next year by MIT Press. Cheers -- Geoffrey F. Miller, University of Sussex _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:7>From firstname.lastname@example.org Mon Nov 7 12:16:19 1994 Subject: Paleonet To: Address Darwin list <Darwinemail@example.com>, Palaeobotany list <firstname.lastname@example.org> Date: Mon, 7 Nov 1994 12:11:09 -0600 (CST) From: James Mahaffy <email@example.com> Folks, If you folks that are interested in fossils and missed it, there is a Paleonet starting. With the author's permisssion, I am passing on his announcement. Date: Fri, 4 Nov 94 13:38:04 PST From: firstname.lastname@example.org To: email@example.com Subject: Re: Paleonet I have received a number of inquiries about PaleoNet and so I thought I would send this general message about it and how to subscribe. ______________________________ Forward Header ________________________________ Subject: Re: Paleonet Author: H R. Lane at hous,gts Date: 11/4/94 1:50 PM Physically PaleoNet is a group of listservers, gopher holes, www pages, and anonymous ftp sites that provide the paleontological community a means whereby its members can communicate with others. In spirit, PaleoNet is a dynamic marketplace of information/ideas/ discussion whose rationale is to improve paleontology by more efficiently tapping into that community's most valuable resource, its people. In fact, PaleoNet is (and will be) whatever you want it to be. PaleoNet's operating model falls somewhere between an informal electronic journal and a very large social gathering of paleontological professionals (including students) convened to discuss current events in the field. As a subscriber (there is no charge), you can expect to find wide variety of information accessible through PaleoNet at any time. These include ongoing informal conversations about papers, ideas, techniques, requests for information, announcements, etc. set against a background of more formal contributions such as editorials, meeting reviews, book reviews, software reviews, overviews of current controversies, etc. all of which are designed to put you in touch with what is happening in paleontology. The key concept that makes PaleoNet work, however, is participation. In addition to the general PaleoNet list, a series of subordinate listservers have been created to facilitate ongoing topical discussions of interest to broad segments of the paleontological community. These are the places to go for detailed information in the following areas: TrainingNet Manager: Woody Wise (Wise@geomag.gly.fsu.edu) Description: Dissemination of information regarding the training of paleontologists (who is giving what courses where) with an eye toward creating a better match between skills and needs and allow them to take advantage of existing information technologies. CommNet Manager: Bob Pierce (RWPierce@amoco.com) Description: Discussion dealing with the development of better techniques to disseminate information about research needs and opportunities among the four main organizational subdivisions of paleontology (academia, industry, museums, and government). DataBaseNet Manager: Norman MacLeod (N.NacLeod@nhm.ac.uk) Description: Discussions dealing with the creation, organization, and dissemination of graphic and text-based information relating to paleontological species, species concepts, intra-specific variation, stratigraphic and geographic distributions, etc. CollectionsNet Manager: Steven Culver (S. Culver@nhm.ac.uk) Description: Discussions dealing with the organization and management of major paleontological collections in museum, university and industrial settings. You can subscribe to PaleoNet, or any of the specialty lists by e-mailing the message: subscribe PaleoNet (or subscribe TrainingNet, subscribe DataBaseNet, etc.) to firstname.lastname@example.org. Anyone who subscribes to any of the specialty lists is automatically added to the master PaleoNet list. PaleoNet was conceived by Norman MacLeod (N.MacLeod@nhm.ac.uk) and Rich Lane (email@example.com), who share joint responsibility for management of the PaleoNet system. Please direct all questions or comments on technical matters to Norm and on policy issues to either of us. PaleoNet is not affiliated with any present or future professional paleontological society but seeks to serve as a clearinghouse for any information of relevance to any form of paleontology. Norm MacLeod (N.MacLeod@nhm.ac.uk) Rich Lane (firstname.lastname@example.org) -- James F. Mahaffy e-mail: email@example.com Biology Department phone: 712 722-6279 Dordt College FAX 712 722-1198 Sioux Center, Iowa 51250 _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:8>From firstname.lastname@example.org Mon Nov 7 13:42:33 1994 From: email@example.com Date: Mon, 7 Nov 94 17:54:00 UTC To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Emergence of human intelligence Dr. Lederberger, Further to your comments and Koestler; could you give us an opinion on "zootypes" in Patel's essay on developmental biology (Science, 10/28)? Carlos. _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:9>From email@example.com Mon Nov 7 14:45:36 1994 Date: Mon, 7 Nov 94 15:45:11 -0500 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Mary Niepokuj) To: email@example.com 3rd WORKSHOP ON COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS Stanley Coulter Hall G 040 Purdue University, Nov. 12-13, 1994 Subgrouping, FINAL SCHEDULE Sat morning, 9:30 Opening remarks: Prof. Ronnie Wilbur, Interdeptal Program in Linguistics 10:00-12:00 Methods of Subgrouping Robert O'Hara, UNC-Greensboro Tandy Warnow & Donald Ringe, Penn Discussant: Mary Niepokuj, Purdue Sat afternoon, 1:30-3:00 Southeast Asian Hmong-Mien: Martha Ratliff, Wayne State Kadai: David Solnit, Michigan 3:30-5:30 Afro-Asiatic Gene Gragg, U of Chicago David Testen, U of Chicago Discussant: Paul Newman, Indiana [Sat evening: Party at Mary Niepokuj's] Map given out at conference Sun morning, 8:30-11:00 Indo-European Anatolian: Craig Melchert, UNC-Chapel Hill Hellenic: Donald Ringe, Penn Italo-Celtic: Jay Jasanoff, Cornell Italic: Rex Wallace, U Mass & Brian Joseph, Ohio State Discussant: Hans Henrich Hock, Illinois Sun afternoon, 12:00-2:30 Germanic Elmer Antonsen, Illinois Anthony Buccini, U of Chicago Robert Howell, Wisconsin-Madison Discussant: Garry Davis, UW-Milwaukee The workshop is sponsored by the Department of English Interdepartmental Program in Linguistics Dept of Foreign Languages & Literatures _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:10>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Nov 7 15:45:25 1994 Date: Sun, 06 Nov 1994 19:29:45 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Internet-accessible natural history collections (fwd from TAXACOM) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Tue, 01 Nov 1994 17:06:21 -0800 (PST) From: Robert Guralnick <robg@FOSSIL.BERKELEY.EDU> Subject: On-line catalogs --- compiling resources To: Multiple recipients of list TAXACOM <TAXACOM@cmsa.Berkeley.EDU> Hi --- The University of California Museum of Paleontology has begun to reorganize and update collections material accessible through the Internet in general and its Web server in particular. We are particularly interested in enhancing the effecient exchange of natural history collections information from sites around the world. To this end, we have linked together numerous collections sites with the hope that this will serve as a resource to the scientific community. We have added as many sites as we know of off hand that serve collections information, but could use some help. Take a look at our collection (URL=http://ucmp1.berkeley.edu/collections/other.html) and let us know if we missed any sites. If we have, we will add that link to the appropriate page. Thanks for the help. Cheers, Robert Guralnick | Museum of Paleontology | University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 | email@example.com | (510) 642-9696 --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:11>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Nov 7 15:45:30 1994 Date: Sun, 06 Nov 1994 19:20:08 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: NUMISM-L: New list on ancient numismatics and archeology To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro ******************************NEW LIST********************************** * * * NUMISM-L (ANCIENT/MEDIEVAL/BYZANTINE NUMISMATICS) * * * * NUMISM-L is an unmoderated list that provides a discussion forum for * * topics relating to the numismatics of Antiquity and the Middle Ages. * * It is not a collector's list, nor is it exclusively scholarly; but * * it is for serious students of coinage up to c.1454. It also offers * * an opportunity to announce the discovery of new coin hoards, newly * * discovered varieties (as well as newly identified forgeries), new * * books, recent thefts, and upcoming conferences. Coin shows and * * coin sales also may be announced, but sales of specific coins are * * absolutely forbidden, and anyone offering specific coins for sale * * will be summarily removed from the list. * * * * Potential Audience: Historians, Classicists, Medievalists, Byzan- * * tinists, Art Historians, Archaeologists, Economists, and Numisma- * * tists. * * * * To subscribe, send a note to: LISTSERV@UNIVSCVM.CSD.SCAROLINA.EDU * * with message: SUBSCRIBE NUMISM-L your name * * * * List owners: * * * * Ralph W. Mathisen, Dept. of History, * * Univ. of S. Carolina, Columbia SC 29208 * * email: email@example.com * * (for information on technical matters: subscribing, settings, etc.) * * * * William E. Metcalf, Chief Curator * * American Numismatic Society * * Broadway at 155th St., New York, N.Y. 10032 * * email: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: 212-234-3130 * * (for information on editorial and specialized numismatic matters) * * * ************************************************************************ _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:12>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Nov 7 18:55:33 1994 Date: Mon, 07 Nov 1994 02:42:26 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: November 7 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro NOVEMBER 7 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1817: JEAN ANDRE DELUC dies at Windsor, England. Born in Geneva in 1727, Deluc had emigrated to England following a business failure in 1773. A Biblical geologist, he published many works that attempted to demonstrate "the conformity of geological monuments with the sublime account of that series of the operations which took place during the Six days, or periods of time, recorded by the inspired penman." 1913: ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE dies at Broadstone, Dorset, England. Co-discoverer with Charles Darwin of the principle of natural selection, Wallace had been an extensive traveller and a prolific writer on topics ranging from evolution and spiritualism to astronomy and vaccination. His most enduring work will be his several volumes on historical biogeography: "If we take the organic productions of a small island, or of any very limited tract of country, such as a moderate-sized country parish, we have, in their relations and affinities -- in the fact that they are _there_ and others are _not_ there, a problem which involves all the migrations of these species and their ancestral forms -- all the vicissitudes of climate and all the changes of sea and land which have affected those migrations -- the whole series of actions and reactions which have determined the preservation of some forms and the extinction of others, -- in fact the whole history of the earth, inorganic and organic, throughout a large portion of geological time." (_Island Life_, second edition, 1892.) Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences. For more information about Darwin-L send the two-word message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org, or gopher to rjohara.uncg.edu (220.127.116.11). _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:13>From email@example.com Mon Nov 7 19:41:48 1994 Date: Mon, 7 Nov 1994 19:36:47 -0500 (CDT) From: Michelle Linden <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Information and communication To: email@example.com Good Afternoon, I am a Graduate Student in the School Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin, and wanted to present a topic for discussion which has has come about in my studies. The subject is that of scholarly research and communication and the changes that are/may occure due to the introduction of electronic information. I felt that DARWIN-L was a perticulary appropriate forum because it is an electronic form of communication between scholars, also I am very interested in viewing the shift away from print communication, it's implications on the way that people communicate, and the ways in which societies functions. The dawn of electronic information has raised many questions about the process of the dissemination of research information. Is the print publishing process still an effective method of screening and disseminating information or is electronic publishing of research and a realistic alternative? Even though electronic publishing increases the dissemination of information, scholarly researchers remain dependent on peer review to filter the information. There is a hesitation by many scholars to indulge in information not retrieved from a credible source. Wading through so much of the electronic information available now offered free of charge raises the question of the quality of the information. Does the quality increase when the cost of the information increases? If it does not now is there a possibility that this might be the case in the future? Even the possibility of such a dichotomy existing in the research could have devastating effects on those unable to pay for, or without access to, the information of the most value. Clifford Lynch raises two important points about electronic information in his article "Reaction, response, and Realization: From the Crisis in Scholarly Communication to the Age of Networked Information." What is the role and importance of publishing to scholars of the academic community without the publishing industry to support? Is publishing a byproduct of research and scholarly communication? Perhaps because scholarly communications evolved alongside the publications they depend on it is difficult to separate the two. It is an interesting prospect that if researchers have information they will make it available to the community in whatever format is available or acceptable. The question now is if the institutions and processes will facilitate such a shift. The second point Lynch raises is one which only time can answer: Are our concepts of the possibilities of electronic information limited by previously conceived methods of communication? Will they change as the way that we communicate changes or can they be motivated to change before? Can we really conceive of how this change can occur? Sources: Lynch, C.A. (1992, Sppring/Summer). Reaction, response, and realization: Fron the crisis in scholarly communication to the age of networked information. Serial Review,18, 107-112. McClure, C. (1994, Summer). So what are the impacts of networking on academic institutions? Internet Research. Okerson, A.L. (1993). Electronic journal publishing on the net: Developement and issues. Symposium on scholarly communication: New technologies and new directions. Meckler, 51-64. _____ Michelle Linden University of Texas at Austin _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:14>From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue Nov 8 09:11:31 1994 From: email@example.com (F. Neumann) Subject: Caucasians To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Tue, 8 Nov 1994 10:14:04 -0500 (EST) After arriving in North America I found out I was a Caucasian, which, apparently, means anybody of European descent. As far as I know the term is rarely, if ever, used in Europe. Could anybody enlighten us as to the origin and current usage of the term "Caucasians"? Has it any anthropological significance, or is it mereley a misguiding label, such as "blacks" or "Orientals"? And who, exactly, is a Caucasian -- e.g. are Turks or Jews Caucasians? (There're lots of Turkic peoples in the Caucasus!). -- Florin Neumann email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:15>From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue Nov 8 10:25:29 1994 Date: Tue, 08 Nov 1994 11:19:45 EST From: Crystal Niedzwiadek <email@example.com> To: Darwinfirstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Question on Malthus Hello, my name is Crystal Niedzwiadek and I am an undergraduate student at Frostburg State University in Western Maryland. This is my first interaction with this list, so I might make a mistake or two. The reason I joined was to possibly gain some insight on my topic for a historical analysis paper that I am currently working on for a scientific writing course here at Frostburg State. In the paper I would like to pinpoint how significant Darwin's discovery of the geometrical-arithmetical theory of population set forth by Malthus was to Darwin's development of his theory of Natural Selection. If anybody could provide me with any insights on this topic I would be grateful, being that the resources here at Frostburg are limited. I appreciate your time to read my message. Crystal Niedzwiadek C2HI014@fre.fsu.umd.edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:16>From email@example.com Tue Nov 8 23:21:05 1994 Date: Tue, 8 Nov 1994 21:20:57 -0800 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Jason D. Patent) Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence Dear Professor Miller, Could you please elaborate on why Calvin's theories are implausible? Thank you. Jason D. Patent Graduate Student UC Berkeley Department of Linguistics firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:17>From rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU Tue Nov 8 23:27:37 1994 Date: Tue, 8 Nov 94 05:31:32 PST From: rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence To: email@example.com I would have to agree with Geoffrey F. Miller at least insofar as the references he cites are evolutionary in orientation rather than simply morphological and developmental. I would think that if we are to ask what differentiates humans from other animals, we must not simply cite factors like cranial capacity, the extensive use of tools, or language but instead consider which, if any, of these, in evolutionary terms, has contributed most to the biological success of homosapiens. Furthermore, we need not assume that only one factor, abstract reasoning, for example, is entirely responsible in itself for this success. I suspect that population genetics in particular, though I am no expert in this area myself, and Darwinian evolution in general, clearly suggest that a variety of different genetic factors representing various morphological characteristics vary simultaneously due to randon variation and sexual selection, so that we would have no reason to believe that the pivotal combination of characteristics that first, due to its superior fitness for survival, began the slow trek of humans away from their kindred primates towards modern humans should have been distinctive in only one seminal way. One might instead be inclined to think that the pivotal combination, as I call it, would have at first made humans only marginally distinct from other primates in terms of the variables along which we now think humans so remarkably unique. These slight differences, however, would have not only made humans more fit to survive but would have made humans that differed more, more fit to survive than humans that differed less along the same variables. Perhaps this is a viable way of approaching the question. Mihran R. Herardian rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU Les prèjugè sont la raison des sots -- Voltaire _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:18>From firstname.lastname@example.org.Hawaii.Edu Tue Nov 8 23:38:40 1994 Date: Tue, 8 Nov 1994 19:38:08 -1000 From: Robert Cliver <email@example.com.Hawaii.Edu> Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence To: firstname.lastname@example.org Geoffery, Before you dismiss Calvin's hypothesis out of hand, you should remember that he is not suggesting that the "throwing Madonna" is the single factor in the evolution of human intelligence. Obviously (and I think Calvin's understanding of evolutionary processes is up to this) there is more to it. Evoluiton of any attribute is a complex process involving many different factors. However, the apparent link between a sense of time (all those coupled oscillators), music, language, thinking (narrativizing) and throwing things is striking. I think it would be wrong to read Calvin as saying "and ability to throw things is the sole survival advantage for the big brain." With this balanced appraisal, I find Calvin quite plausible. Could you tell us more about your book and "runaway sexuality"? Sounds exciting! Robert Cliver History email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:19>From BENEDICT@VAX.CS.HSCSYR.EDU Wed Nov 9 08:48:06 1994 Date: Wed, 09 Nov 1994 09:48:15 -0500 (EST) From: BENEDICT@VAX.CS.HSCSYR.EDU Subject: Re: Calvin's hypothesis To: firstname.lastname@example.org Probably the most attractive feature of Calvin's hypothesis is that it is one of the few that trys to explain what got humans "over the hump" from ape-level intelligence (which seems to be the general upper limit of non human abilites in the animal kingdom). It's hard to see how just a "little more" language could be helpful - apes seem to survive well (in the absence of human predation) with their communication system. It is easy to see how "just a little more accurate" will help a stone thrower. It's clear that once a lineage gets "over the hump" then other abilities, like language, temporal planning, etc., become important in themselves and probably contribute to a positive feedback accelerating the evolution of intelligence. But why did social canines, etc., fail to develope similar abilities? A good theory ought to explain both aspects of the question. There are some cultural traits that are associated with the hypothesis - the use of the "hand axes" as throwing stones, which [paraphasing] commonly end up embedded vertically in mud as if they'd fallen, that the anthropologists on the list can comment to [is this true?]. I'd welcome a discussion of why this is such a wild idea as well. Paul DeBenedictis SUNY Health Science Center at Syracuse _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:20>From Robert.Richardson@UC.Edu Wed Nov 9 10:41:23 1994 Date: Wed, 09 Nov 1994 11:37:17 -0500 (EST) From: "Bob Richardson, U Cincinnati" <Robert.Richardson@UC.Edu> Subject: Re: Caucasians To: email@example.com Florin Neumann (firstname.lastname@example.org) asks: > After arriving in North America I found out I was a Caucasian, which, >apparently, means anybody of European descent. As far as I know >the term is rarely, if ever, used in Europe. Could anybody enlighten >us as to the origin and current usage of the term "Caucasians"? Has it >any anthropological significance, or is it mereley a misguiding label, >such as "blacks" or "Orientals"? And who, exactly, is a Caucasian -- e.g. >are Turks or Jews Caucasians? (There're lots of Turkic peoples in the >Caucasus!). The origin, I believe, lies with Johann Blumenbach, who believed that the "races" has all degenerated from a root stock which was white. This root stock was supposedly best exemplified in people living in the Caucasians. The view is interesting in a number of ways, and important for the history of anthropology: Blumenbach, like his contemporary Buffon, thought the "races" developed by degeneration, but this degeneration was under environmental control and was reversible. E.g., darker pigmentation was supposedly the result of exposure to the tropical sun, and there is even an explanation in Buffon of whay the French are "ugly and ill made." I beleive that Blumenbach held the Caucasians were the root on largely aesthetic grounds -- they suited his vision of the Creator, who in turn created us in his image. The source is Blumenbach's *On the Generation of Native Human Varieties* (1775); Buffon's *Natural History* (1804?) is a natural complement. _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:21>From Robert.Richardson@UC.Edu Wed Nov 9 11:13:58 1994 Date: Wed, 09 Nov 1994 11:52:05 -0500 (EST) From: "Bob Richardson, U Cincinnati" <Robert.Richardson@UC.Edu> Subject: Re: Question on Malthus To: email@example.com Crystal Niedzwiadek asked about the influence of Malthus on Darwin. There are many excellent sources to read. Here's a short list of some I'm especially fond of: Young, Robert M. (1985), "Malthus and the Evolutionists: the Common Context of Biological and Social Theory," in Young, *Darwin's Metaphor* (Cambridge University Press), ch. 2. Schweber, Silvan S. (1980). "Darwin and the Political Economists: Divergence of Character," *Journal of the History of Biology 13: 195-289. Young, Robert M. (1985). "Darwinism Is Social," in Kohn, *The Darwinian Heritage* (Princeton), ch. 21. The classic passage, is, of course, from Darwin's *Autobiography*: "Fifteen months after I had begun my systematic enquiry [into evolution], I happended to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on, from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favorable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavorable ones destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here, then, I had at last got a theory by which to work." For some moderation concerning the story, it's worth also reading Hodge, M. J. S., and David Kohn. (1985). "The Immediate Origins of Natural Selection," in Kohn's *The Darwinian Heritage*, ch. 6. There are many more things one could read on this. But this is at least a small group I like. _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:22>From rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU Wed Nov 9 11:33:16 1994 Date: Tue, 8 Nov 94 17:32:16 PST From: rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU Subject: RE: Question on Malthus To: firstname.lastname@example.org Crystal, As I understand it, it was from Malthus' concepts of population pressure and the corresponding competition for survival that Darwin acquired the idea of survival of the fitest and the dynamic of survival of the fitest coupled with random genetic variation is precisely the engine of evolutionary change. Unfortunately, I do not have Malthus' famous essay or Darwin's "Origin of Species" on hand at the moment. Nevertheless, I feel confident that a careful reading of these, or even secondary sources specifically on your topic, will yield the insight that you seek. Since your task is that of historical analysis, you might also benefit from the recent, contextualist biography of Darwin ("Darwin" by Desmond and Moore) or from a book like "The Politics of Evolution." Good luck! Mihran R. Herardian rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU Les prèjugè sont la raison des sots -- Voltaire _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:23>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed Nov 9 12:01:19 1994 Date: Wed, 09 Nov 1994 13:01:03 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: November 9 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro NOVEMBER 9 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1623: WILLIAM CAMDEN dies. Camden studied at St. Paul's School and at Oxford University, where his interest in antiquities began to develop and where he later endowed the first professorship in history at an English university. Following the example of an earlier generation of continental European antiquarians, Camden spent much of his life travelling widely in the British Isles collecting and describing Roman remains, transcribing inscriptions, and searching through ecclesiastical and public archives. The product of his labors, _Britannia_ (London, 1586), was the first comprehensive historical and topographical survey of British antiquities, and it established a new standard of scholarship for an entire generation of British historians. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences. For more information about Darwin-L send the two-word message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org, or gopher to rjohara.uncg.edu (18.104.22.168). _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:24>From rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU Wed Nov 9 17:54:39 1994 Date: Tue, 8 Nov 94 23:20:05 PST From: rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU Subject: RE: Information and communication To: email@example.com Please find comments below, not prefaced with a 'greater than' character. Mihran R. Herardian rherardi@leland.Stanford.EDU >Good Afternoon, > >I am a Graduate Student in the School Library and Information Science at >the University of Texas at Austin, and wanted to present a topic for >discussion which has has come about in my studies. The subject is that >of scholarly research and communication and the changes that are/may >occur due to the introduction of electronic information. Setting aside the use of information technology in mathematics and all fields, from astronomy to economics, touched by it, it seems to me that very substantial changes have already taken place. The use of e-mail and list servers like the one hosting the DARWIN-L list, instantaneous electronic searches of bibliographical references from around the world, the growing number of electronic texts in all subjects, and scholarly organizations, such as the American Philosophical Association (APA) and others, using electronic media to maintain communications with their membership and to distribute and exchange information resources from software to scholarly articles, not to mention the tremendous impact of personal computers used for everything from word processing the more or less automated storage, search and retrieval of vast quantities of information whether text, images, video, or sound, all suggest that a revolution of scholarly enterprise has already taken place. What student or academic author today does not use an electronic library catalog or write using a word processing program that probably includes electronic checking of spelling and grammar and possibly an electronic thesaurus and dictionary? >I felt that DARWIN-L was a perticulary appropriate forum because it is >an electronic form of communication between scholars, also I am very >interested in viewing the shift away from print communication, it's >implications on the way that people communicate, and the ways in which >societies functions. It seems unlikely that print communication will vanish anytime soon but the way in which scolarly work product is produced in print has already changed. One thing that has come about in the software industry is the distribution of software documentation in electronic form so that hard copies of professionally prepared documents, such as software manuals, can be printed on paper by the end-user as apposed to the distribution of paper documentation by the software vendor. If in some respects academe or the publishing industry lags behind the software industry, this form of 'publication' may yet emerge in the publishing industry, hence in scholarly writing as well. In the Internet network community, the distribution of electronic 'magazines' and the electronic publication of texts already takes place. I see no reason why an electronic academic press might not be established. In this case, one would expect the publisher to filter these data in the same way that they do conventional books and magazines. However, there may be issues other than quality to prevent this, such as copyright and the collection of fees. The basic problem that I see is that once a text is available in electronic form there is no way, without excessively cumbersome safeguards, to prevent unauthorized electronic duplication and distribution (If you wish I could describe such as system but, in the end, either the safeguards are imperfect or excessively cumbersome, for example, the ChessBase database program used by competitive chess players is carefully protected against duplication but the data files upon which it operates are not and can be freely distributed via electronic means. To make the data accessible only to a specific user would increase costs and without the most extreme and almost certainly unacceptible safeguards, a user can still extract the data and distribute them in an alternative form). >The dawn of electronic information has raised many questions about the >process of the dissemination of research information. Is the print >publishing process still an effective method of screening and >disseminating information or is electronic publishing of research and a >realistic alternative? Even though electronic publishing increases the >dissemination of information, scholarly researchers remain dependent on >peer review to filter the information. There is a hesitation by many >scholars to indulge in information not retrieved from a credible source. I see no reason why electronic publication cannot be managed by a publisher in more or less the same way as ordinary books and magazines. Therefore, I think the above question lumps unrestricted distribution available to anyone at all and an electronic publishing industry that may evolve in the future into a single category. >Wading through so much of the electronic information available now >offered free of charge raises the question of the quality of the >information. Does the quality increase when the cost of the information >increases? If it does not now is there a possibility that this might be >the case in the future? Even the possibility of such a dichotomy >existing in the research could have devastating effects on those unable >to pay for, or without access to, the information of the most value. I see no reason why distribution of electronic publications need be invariably free of charge to end users. In spite of my comments above on the difficulty of preventing unauthorized distribution, it may well be that, like shareware software, a sufficient number of end users and institutions bound only by license agreements, would pay for electronic publications that such an enterprise maight be financially sustainable as a profit-making business like any commercial publisher. >Clifford Lynch raises two important points about electronic information >in his article "Reaction, response, and Realization: From the Crisis in >Scholarly Communication to the Age of Networked Information." >What is the role and importance of publishing to scholars of the academic >community without the publishing industry to support? Is publishing a >byproduct of research and scholarly communication? I believe that there is a false dilemma at work here stemming from the assumptions that (1) commercial publishing and electronic publishing are mutually exclusive; that (2), based on the above, that there can be no guarantees of quality in electronic publishing as there is in commercial publishing today; and that (3) it is in principle impossible to collect fees for electronic publications. None of these assumptions is necessarily true. What makes sense to me is to seriously consider how the publishing industry will eventually adapt to new media of electronic publication. With the invention of the printing press, for example, I am unaware of any decline in the quality of publications but certainly of their lowered cost and wider availability. The result was not merely an army of scribes displaced by by automation but the development of the publishing industry while access to documents was actually increased. It seems to me that we should be considering not a supposed crisis in scholarly communication so much as what the future will be. On the question of access, I would consider how widespread the use of computer information systems is today as compared with ten years ago. The question then, is simply this, will access to computer information systems even 25 years from now be more or less restricted than access to the corner bookstore is today? For the wealthier nations of the world I think the answer is quite clear. In fact, even today, in California at least, we see in the urban centers commercial business like Kinko's Copies, Copymat, and Alpha Graphics that rent computer access by the hour for a small fee almost next to every major bookstore. Furthermore, in San Francisco, there are public computer terminals accessible for a small fee located literally in cafes. These considerations hardly suggest a future problem of access, at least in the wealthier countries. In the less developed economies, access may be restricted more to educational institutions but in these instances, what portion of the common people, in the n\midst of the struggle for survival, frequent a local bookstore? >Perhaps because scholarly communications evolved alongside the >publications they depend on it is difficult to separate the two. It is >an interesting prospect that if researchers have information they will >make it available to the community in whatever format is available or >acceptable. The question now is if the institutions and processes will >facilitate such a shift. Since the publishing industry cannot possibly stop the electronic distribution of texts and the proliferation of networked information resources sustaining scholarly activities, it should only be a matter of time before publishers find a way to make a profit through electronic publication. The pressure to do this may come from a loss of revenues caused by the electronic distribution of texts by scholarly associations that also regulate the quality of these texts. At this time, publishers, like the parent company of the USA Today newspaper, are investing in on-line services that allow users access to information through the use of a computer, modem and telephone line. On-line servies charge a fee by the minute or hour and add a surcharge for access to specific information systems that offer everything from stock quotes to abstracts of medical articles. No such charges are possible at this time for access to information over the government sponsored Internet network. However, as Internet service providers grow to become like modern-day phone companies, it may become more easily possible to charge a fee. In any case, the only reason why today, there are no pay services over the Internet network is that the Internet network is non-commercial. I cannot imagine why this should remain true indefinitely or why, eventually, commercial interests might not be allowed to do business directly over the Internet. >The second point Lynch raises is one which only time can answer: >Are our concepts of the possibilities of electronic information limited >by previously conceived methods of communication? Will they change as >the way that we communicate changes or can they be motivated to change >before? Can we really conceive of how this change can occur? On the contrary, the answer is already clear and it is "no." Take, for example, the NCSA Mosaic application which is a multimedia information browser that integrates a variety of information resources from across the Internet network into a single user interface. This technology is referred to as "hypermedia" and is based on a system of information service indexes referred to as the World Wide Web or 'W3'. However, hypermedia, as a research tool pales in comparison to the graphical, relational, essentially hypermedia, Silicon Valley project database currently under development at Stanford University. In other words, the imaginability of the future that Lynch questions is clearly a non-issue. The future has not only been imagined but is taking form even as we write these e-mail messages. _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:25>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed Nov 9 22:00:13 1994 Date: Wed, 09 Nov 1994 22:55:31 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: NESTOR Classical studies bibliography (fwd from Aegeanet) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- From: Michael Fotiadis <MFOTIADI@ucs.indiana.edu> Subject: NESTOR bibliography--general information Sender: email@example.com To: firstname.lastname@example.org NESTOR (ISSN 0028-2812) NESTOR is an international bibliography of eastern Mediterranean and southeastern European prehistory, Homeric society, Indo-European linguistics, and related fields. It is published monthly from September to May by the Program in Classical Archaeology, Indiana University, Bloomington. Each volume includes an Authors Index. NESTOR is distributed in 30 countries world-wide. It is currently edited by Karen D. Vitelli. Suggestions from colleagues about titles for inclusion in the bibliography are welcome. Correspondence should be addressed to: NESTOR Program in Classical Archaeology Indiana University Bloomington, Indiana 47405 U.S.A. E-mail: Nestor@ucs.indiana.edu OR Nestor@indiana Current subscription rates per volume (9 issues) are as follows: U.S. Individuals $ 6.50 U.S. Institutions $ 11.50 Foreign Individuals (surface) $ 8.50 Foreign Individuals (air) $ 13.50 Foreign Institutions $ 14.00 Student rates (proof of student status necessary) for 1994 are as follows: U.S. Students $ 5.00 Foreign Students (surface) $ 7.00 Foreign Students (air) $ 12.00 Checks should be made payable to Indiana University Foundation and mailed to the address of Nestor (see above). Visa and Mastercard also are accepted. Volumes 1-4 (1957-1977) were edited by Emmett L. Bennett, Jr., and were published by the Institute for Research in the Humanities, University of Wisconsin. Volumes 5-20 (1978-1993), as well as most issues of Volumes 1-4, are available from the Program ($8.50 per volume or $0.20 per page, plus postage). Complete copies of volumes 1-4 also are available from University Microfilms at the following addresses: University Microfilms 300 North Zeeb Road Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 U.S.A. University Microfilms, International White Swan House Godstone, Surrey RH9 8LW United Kingdom The bibliography of back issues is also available on diskettes and via FTP (see below). updated Oct 94 ************************************************************************* NESTOR AS A COMPUTER DATABASE The Nestor bibliography (more than 30,000 entries) is now becoming progressively available on diskettes, as structured ASCII files (ready to import to database programs), for both IBM/PC and Apple computers. The 20 most recent volumes (NESTOR vols.4-20, years 1974-93, 18,000+ entries) are at this moment (Oc. '94) ready for distribution, and the remainder--back to the first issue of 1957--will become available in the course of the next 10 months. Diskettes, each containing several years of bibliography, will be announced in the monthly Nestor as they become ready. Distribution: Diskettes (3 1/2") are distributed at the cost of materials and mailing. For the 20 most recent volumes (package of 5 diskettes) that cost now is $ 13.00 for North American addresses, and $ 16.00 for overseas addresses. The remaining 18 volumes (1957-73, and 1994) will be distributed on 5 additional diskettes, as they become ready in the course of 1994-95. The cost for the latter is US $ 3.75/diskette for North American addresses, and US $ 6.00/diskette for overseas addresses. You may prepay for all 5 diskettes. Orders must specify Apple or IBM/PC version, and they should be accompanied by a check (in US $), payable to INDIANA UNIVERSITY FOUNDATION. They should be sent to the Nestor address (see above). Visa and Mastercard also are accepted. NESTOR ON THE INTERNET VIA FTP: All the Nestor volumes that have thus far been converted to ASCII files and are available on diskette, are also available via anonymous FTP. To get them, ftp to cica.cica.indiana.edu Log in as "anonymous" and use your full e-mail address as your password. The path is /pub/archaeology The Nestor ASCII files in the archive have the prefix "nesasc" (see also file "ReadMe" in the archive, which will tell you about the structure of the "nesasc..." files and what to do once you download them onto your computer--Mac, PC or whatever). New files will be added to the archive as the conversion of the hard copies into ASCII All the files will be periodically updated, as we continue identifying and correcting errors, inconsistencies, etc. For updated files, see file "NesascNews" in the archive. updated Oct 94 ************************************************************************* --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:26>From email@example.com Thu Nov 10 06:34:48 1994 From: Mary P Winsor <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Re: Question on Malthus To: email@example.com Date: Thu, 10 Nov 1994 07:34:18 -0500 (EST) Desmond takes pride that his book "The Politics of Evolution" does not mention Darwin [his point being that there was a lot of other evolutionary stuff going on in England in the 1830s besides the youth of Charles R. D.] so I wouldn't look there. Mike Ghiselin put his finger on what I consider the key insight many years ago (I suppose it was in his Triumph of the Darwinian Method but I'll have to double check). From reading Lyell's discussion (in Princ. of Geol.) of extinction and de Candolle's war of nature, Darwin was already thinking of the pressures each species is under. That the balance of nature is only acheived by death rate counteracting the birth rate was already a familiar notion. But everyone was thinking "typologically," that is, in the strife between The Wolf and The Deer, many baby deer die off, that the wolf kind may survive. But reading Malthus triggered in Darwin the insight that it's not just a lottery of identical tickets or balls; because here we are focussing on one species we are particularly fond of, and Malthus has a concluding chapter speculating on why God would want to institute such a harsh set of laws of nature (reproduction, dependence on food) - answer, it forces each soul to strive instead of staying lazy. So now you see population pressure not like the even-handed pressure of a gas, but as a pressure which falls on each individual who can deal with it differently. Thus the role in Darwin's discovery is slightly different from the role he assigns it in the Origin, where individual differences, variability, is treated first, and then the Malthusian ratios introduced. In his notebooks, he was aware of individual differences and aware of population pressure, but re-reading (not reading for the first time, if I remember rightly) Malthus made him focus on what Mayr calls "population thinking" rather than typological thinking. But this version is not the one promoted by Robert Young. Polly Winsor firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:27>From email@example.com Thu Nov 10 07:06:32 1994 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (raymond hames) Subject: Re: Caucasians To: email@example.com Date: Thu, 10 Nov 1994 07:05:51 -0600 (CST) For those interested, a short essay on Blumenbach and the origin of the classification Caucasian by SJ Gould can be found in the current issue of Discover magazine. In addition, there are other worthwhile articles on the topic of race written by well-known science writers (and researchers) such as Jared Diamond. A word on Blumenbach's use of the word degeneration: according to Gould the term is used in its literal sense as "from the type or genus" and it does not have a negative connotation we currently give it. It seems to me that Blumenbach uses it much in the same way that phylogeneticists use the term "derived". Ray Hames University of Nebraska _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:28>From firstname.lastname@example.org Thu Nov 10 09:04:52 1994 From: Mary P Winsor <email@example.com> Subject: p.s. to my earlier To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Thu, 10 Nov 1994 10:04:37 -0500 (EST) Post script: I was wrong about Desmond but right about Ghiselin citation: see indeed still good discussion in Triumph of the Darwinian Method, but compare it to places in Politics of Evolution where Desmond indeed discusses both Darwin and Malthus. Polly Winsor email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:29>From LKNYHART@macc.wisc.edu Thu Nov 10 11:06:56 1994 Date: Thu, 10 Nov 94 11:06 CDT From: Lynn K. Nyhart <LKNYHART@macc.wisc.edu> Subject: Re: Question on Malthus To: firstname.lastname@example.org Polly Winsor writes that Adrian Desmond doesn't mention Darwin in The Politics of Evolution. I take her point that Desmond wants to point out that there was much else of interest going on in 19thC British biology (and medicine), and it is also true that this book doesn't discuss Darwin's own development in any detail. But it is worth pointing out that Desmond did feel compelled to mention Darwin in the book, in his important Afterword, "Putting Darwin in the Picture." Those not familiar with Desmond's book might not realize that he does indeed discuss Darwin; in the historiography of 19thC British biology, it is just about impossible to escape Darwinism in one form or another. Lynn Nyhart University of Wisconsin-Madison email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <15:30>From JESUS@utkvx.utk.edu Fri Nov 11 14:59:18 1994 Date: Fri, 11 Nov 1994 00:32:55 -0500 (EST) From: Jesus Antonio Rivas <JESUS@utkvx.utk.edu> Subject: Re: Emergence of human intelligence To: firstname.lastname@example.org I wouldn't rate Calvin's hypothesis as "implausible", but I truly believe that Dr. Miller's approach is more on the track. I certainly would like to hear more about his hypothesis since It makes a lot of sense for me. Human inteligence is a huge departure form the mean (primates) of a trait to levels where it is somehow "useless" (as long as "strugle for survival" goes) unless a runaway process is involved. Jesus Antonio Rivas Graduate student in Ethology University of Tennessee Knoxville, TN 37996-0900 e-mail Jesus@utkvx.utk.edu _______________________________________________________________________________ Darwin-L Message Log 15: 1-30 -- November 1994 End
© RJO 1995–2016