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Darwin-L Message Log 19: 1–69 — March 1995

Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences

Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.

This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during March 1995. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.

The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”


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DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 19: 1-69 -- MARCH 1995
-------------------------------------------

DARWIN-L
A Network Discussion Group on the
History and Theory of the Historical Sciences

Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu is an international network discussion group on
the history and theory of the historical sciences.  Darwin-L was established
in September 1993 to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of
which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present,
and to encourage communication among academic professionals in these fields.
Darwin-L is not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles
Darwin but instead addresses the entire range of historical sciences from an
interdisciplinary perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical
linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology,
systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical
anthropology, historical geography, and related "palaetiological" fields.

This log contains the public messages posted to Darwin-L during March 1995.
It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease
of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been
reformatted, and some administrative messages and personal messages posted to
the group as a whole have been deleted.  No genuine editorial changes have been
made to the content of any of the posts.  This log is provided for personal
reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein
should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained in the archives of Darwin-L by
listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu, and is also available on the Darwin-L gopher at
rjohara.uncg.edu.  For instructions on how to retrieve copies of this and other
log files, and for additional information about Darwin-L, send the e-mail
message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu, or connect to the
Darwin-L gopher at rjohara.uncg.edu.

Darwin-L is administered by Robert J. O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu), Center for
Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and Department of Biology, University of
North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A., and it
is supported by the Center for Critical Inquiry, University of North Carolina
at Greensboro, and the Department of History and the Academic Computing Center,
University of Kansas.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:1>From RJOHARA@iris.uncg.edu  Wed Mar  1 01:05:44 1995

Date: Wed, 01 Mar 1995 12:05:40 -0400 (EDT)
From: RJOHARA@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: List owner's monthly greeting
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

Greetings to all Darwin-L subscribers.  On the first of every month I send
out a short note on the status of our group, along with a reminder of basic
commands.

Darwin-L is an international discussion group for professionals in the
historical sciences.  It is not devoted to any particular discipline, such
as evolutionary biology, but rather endeavors to promote interdisciplinary
comparisons among all the historical sciences.  Darwin-L was established in
September 1993, and we now have over 600 members from more than 30 countries.
I am grateful to all of our members for their continuing interest and their
many contributions.

Darwin-L is occasionally a "high-volume" discussion group.  Subscribers
who feel burdened from time to time by their Darwin-L mail may wish to take
advantage of the digest option described below.

Because different mail systems work differently, not all subscribers can
see the e-mail address of the original sender of each message in the message
header (some people only see "Darwin-L" as the source).  Please include your
name and e-mail address at the end of every message you post so that everyone
can identify you and reply privately if appropriate.  Remember also that in
most cases when you type "reply" in response to a message from Darwin-L your
reply is sent to the group as a whole, rather than to the original sender.

The following are the most frequently used listserv commands that Darwin-L
members may wish to know.  All of these commands should be sent as regular
e-mail messages to the listserv address (listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu),
not to the address of the group as a whole (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu).
In each case leave the subject line of the message blank and include no
extraneous text, as the command will be read and processed by the listserv
program rather than by a person.  To join the group send the message:

     SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L <Your Name>

     For example: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L John Smith

To cancel your subscription send the message:

     UNSUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L

If you feel burdened by the volume of mail you receive from Darwin-L you
may instruct the listserv program to deliver mail to you in digest format
(one message per day consisting of the whole day's posts bundled together).
To receive your mail in digest format send the message:

     SET DARWIN-L MAIL DIGEST

To change your subscription from digest format back to one-at-a-time
delivery send the message:

     SET DARWIN-L MAIL ACK

To temporarily suspend mail delivery (when you go on vacation, for example)
send the message:

SET DARWIN-L MAIL POSTPONE

To resume regular delivery send either the DIGEST or ACK messages above.

For a comprehensive introduction to Darwin-L with notes on our scope and
on network etiquette, and a summary of all available commands, send the
message:

     INFO DARWIN-L

To post a public message to the group as a whole simply send it as regular
e-mail to the group's address (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu).

I thank you all for your continuing interest in Darwin-L and in the
interdisciplinary study of the historical sciences.

Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner

Robert J. O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu)
Center for Critical Inquiry and Department of Biology
100 Foust Building, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:2>From snow@wustlb.wustl.edu  Thu Mar  2 08:39:37 1995

Date: Thu, 2 Mar 1995 08:30:46 -0600
From: snow@wustlb.wustl.edu
To: "Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu"@WUGATE.wustl.edu

The term "robust" is occasionally used in phylogenetic studies.  I
am curious to see if there is any general agreement to what exactly
"robust" means.  Anyone willing to share his or her understanding of
the term?  Thanks.

Neil Snow
Snow@wustlb.wustl.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:3>From GREENBERG%UTK_BIOSCI%UTCC1%HUB@UTKVX  Fri Mar  3 09:01:40 1995

Date: Fri, 03 Mar 1995 09:59:43 -0500 (EST)
From: Neil Greenberg <GREENBERG%UTK_BIOSCI%UTCC1%HUB@UTKVX>
Subject: - Reply
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Robust:  At least a few ethology colleagues and I understand the
term to characterize an animal or a particular behavioral trait
(or ensemble of traits) that manifests itself even in a
presumably inhospitable or inhibitory context.  A little like the
dictionary def, "firm and assured in purpose"  and involving
"strength and vigor" but with a heavy touch of persistence.  For
example, a "robust behavior" is one that will be expressed in
response to appropriate stimuli in its typical form despite the
animal being transplanted to a laboratory.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:4>From MNHVZ082@SIVM.SI.EDU  Fri Mar  3 11:00:38 1995

Date: Fri, 03 Mar 1995 11:52:10 -0500 (EST)
From: Kevin de Queiroz <@KUHUB.CC.UKANS.EDU:MNHVZ082@SIVM.BITNET>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

This is in response to the question from Neil Snow concerning the
use of the term "robust" in phylogenetic studies.  I don't think
I've ever seen the term defined explicitly, but my impression that
it is used to describe the phenomenon of a tree, or one of its
subtrees/nodes, remaining intact in the face of analytical permutations
(such as randomly subsampling the data,  deliberately excluding certain
characters, or using a different optimality criterion).

Kevin de Queiroz
mnhvz082@sivm.si.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:5>From gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu  Mon Mar  6 19:28:28 1995

From: "Gessler, Nicholas (G)   ANTHRO" <gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu>
To: DARWIN - postings <DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>
Subject: picture of Darwin
Date: Mon, 06 Mar 95 14:48:00 PST

Artistic advice requested:

I'm looking for a picture of Darwin to use as part of a photocomposite
photo-montage for a book cover for the Proceedings of Evolutionary Computing
IV.  What I had in mind is an engraved profile of a pensive man in his
reflective years.  The idea is to render this against a background of a
photomicrograph of a microcomputer chip.  Overall look is a sepia portrait
against a background of white and gold (yellow and tan).  Does anyone know of
a suitable portrait?

Many thanks, Nick Gessler
gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:6>From wcalvin@u.washington.edu  Tue Mar  7 01:50:40 1995

Date: Mon, 6 Mar 1995 23:47:21 -0800 (PST)
From: William Calvin <wcalvin@u.washington.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: DARWIN-L digest 372

> I'm looking for a picture of Darwin to use as part of a photocomposite
> photo-montage for a book cover for the Proceedings of Evolutionary Computing
> IV.  What I had in mind is an engraved profile of a pensive man in his
> reflective years.  The idea is to render this against a background of a
> photomicrograph of a microcomputer chip.  Overall look is a sepia portrait
> against a background of white and gold (yellow and tan).  Does anyone know of
> a suitable portrait?
>
> Many thanks, Nick Gessler
> gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu

Best such portrait that I know appears on the cover of the new biography
by Janet Browne, Voyages (Knopf 1995).  The original is at Down House;
write the curator there, Solene Morris.  Address on my web page,
http://weber.u.washington.edu/wcalvin/down_hse.html

----------------------------best wishes-------------------------------
 William H. Calvin  University of Washington
                    Box 351800, Seattle WA 98195-1800
 WCalvin@U.Washington.edu   http://weber.u.washington.edu/wcalvin/

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:7>From CRAVENS@macc.wisc.edu  Wed Mar  8 06:07:35 1995

Date: Wed, 08 Mar 95 06:07 CDT
From: Tom Cravens <CRAVENS@macc.wisc.edu>
Subject: first- and second-order knowledge
To: DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

The terms "first-order knowledge" and "second-order knowledge"
appear to have entered the world of historical linguistics only
recently. Could anyone point me to their (field of) origin?

Tom Cravens
cravens@macc.wisc.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:8>From dmcclary@bigmac.mta.ca  Thu Mar  9 07:02:48 1995

Date: Thu, 9 Mar 1995 07:02:48 -0600
From: "Daniel McClary"  <dmcclary@bigmac.mta.ca>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: robust trees

   This is a follow-up query to all phylogenetic-types out there.  Kevin de
Queiroz suggests that the term 'robust' is applied to 'good' phylogenetic
trees.  My question is, what are the criteria for assessing tree 'quality?'
I've read about consistency indices, homoplasy slope ratios, etc, but which
is/are the most appropriate method(s) for examining phylo-trees?  Do different
types of data call for different measures of 'robust-ness?'
Thanks........Dan

------------------------------
Dan McClary
-----------------------------------
Department of Biology
Mount Allison University
Sackville, New Brunswick
E0A 3C0   CANADA

phone: 506.364.2500
fax:  506.364.2505
email:  dmcclary@bigmac.mta.ca
***********************************
Disclaimer:
Life is messy.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:9>From cliver@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu  Tue Mar 14 05:07:43 1995

Date: Tue, 14 Mar 1995 01:07:14 -1000
From: Robert Cliver <cliver@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: first- and second-order knowledge

Tom,
   I had just finished reading a chapter from Pierre Bourdieu's _Outline
of a Theory of Practice_ when I checked my e-mail and read your posting.
Although I'm not entirely certain of his meaning (still a lot to get
through!) he uses first order knowledge to refer to practical knowledge,
that of the participant in social activities, and second order knowledge
to refer to knowledge about the principles or structures in which
practice is performed. His field is anthropology. Mine is history. I
wonder if anyone can relate this to first and second order laws in
physics? I hope to learn more if this sparks any discussions on the
listserver. Just a final note, Bourdieu also observes that participants
are necessarily ignorant of second-order structures. Without this
ignorance they would be unable to enjoy the flexibility and ambiguity of
practice or the habitus. At least that is how I understand it. I'm not
sure I agree entirely, though I think I would agree with the implication
that the act of reflection, of theorizing about structures, or in the
Sophist pedagogical tradition, establishing rules for the application of
rules of practice, must lead to transformation of structures and
behaviors. Again, I don't have a very firm grasp of most of this yet.

Robert Cliver
History
cliver@uhunix.uhcc.hawaii.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:10>From CRAVENS@macc.wisc.edu  Tue Mar 14 18:36:22 1995

Date: Tue, 14 Mar 95 18:36 CST
From: Tom Cravens <CRAVENS@macc.wisc.edu>
Subject: Re: first- and second-order knowledge
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Robert,

Thanks very much, indeed, for the tip on Bourdieu's use of
first- and second-order knowledge. What you say seems to
jibe with the use I've seen, although it's not identical.

For the list, I should, perhaps, clarify what I take to be
the usage I've seen in historical linguistics. First-order
knowledge of linguistic features in the past would be first-
hand reports, unequivocal instantiation in surviving documents,
that sort of thing. Second-hand knowledge is gained more
inferentially at some remove, following interpretative principles.
At least that's my understanding at this point.

Has anyone else run across first- and second-order knowledge
as terms?

Thanks,
Tom Cravens
cravens@macc.wisc.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:11>From Agoldenk@aol.com  Tue Mar 14 23:42:40 1995

Date: Wed, 15 Mar 1995 00:42:38 -0500
From: Agoldenk@aol.com
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: end of evolution

Today's New york times reports on the end ov natural selection as it applies
to humans. Our  high species survival rate to reproductive age, etc. etc.,
render us immune to classical principles of selection. They quote gould as
"speciation probably won't occur without space colonization (Isaac, are you
listening?)", and several HGP researchers citing genetic engineering mixed
with biology as the new path for evolution.

So. . .was Lamarck right after all?  comments please.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:12>From sakura@business.ynu.ac.jp  Thu Mar 16 02:03:06 1995

Date: Thu, 16 Mar 95 16:58:42 JST
From: sakura@business.ynu.ac.jp
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re:  end of evolution

I have not yet seen "Today's New York Times" yet, but the evolution of humans
is quite stimulative issue.  I agree that the "biological" evolution would be
almost stop.  Another option for further evolution may be the "symbiosis" with
artificial life.  This seems to me more interesting than genetic engineering.

REFERENCES
B. Mazlish, The Fourth Discontinuity. 1994.
H. Moravec, The Mind Children. 1988.
J.D. Farmer & A. Belin, in Artificial Life II, (ed. by C.G. Langton, et al.),
   1992.

  Osamu Sakura
  Behavioral Sciences, Yokohama National University
  Hodogaya, Yokohama 240, Japan
  e-mail: sakura@business.ynu.ac.jp
  Phone: +81-45-335-1451; Fax: +81-45-335-2596

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:13>From BENEDICT@VAX.CS.HSCSYR.EDU  Thu Mar 16 09:44:43 1995

Date: Thu, 16 Mar 1995 10:45:03 -0500 (EST)
From: BENEDICT@VAX.CS.HSCSYR.EDU
Subject: Re: end of evolution
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

  That's the opinion of someone who thinks we are ENTIRELY in control. What's
changed is the playing field.

Paul DeBenedictis
SUNY Health Science Center at Syracuse

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:14>From brewer@cs.wmich.edu  Fri Mar 17 13:32:01 1995

Date: Fri, 17 Mar 95 14:22:54 EST
From: brewer@cs.wmich.edu (Steven D. Brewer)
To: Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: A research program on phylogenetic problem solving

For the past couple of years Bob Hafner and I have been
looking for ways to improve the teaching and learning of
evolution and systematics.  We have embarked on a
research program to study problem-solving in
phylogenetic analysis.  We believe that students should
be engaged in problem-solving as a means to increase not
only their content knowledge, but their understanding of
general and domain specific heuristics and the nature of
science as an intellectual activity.  We believe our
work will inform development of curricula and teaching
materials that can greatly improve teaching and learning
of evolution and systematics.  My dissertation, a study
of expert phylogenetic tree construction, will be the
beginning of this research program.

We have developed a computer-based problem-solving
environment, called Phylogenetic Investigator (PI), that
can be used for students to pose and solve problems of
phylogenetic inference.  This environment is different
from most phylogenetic research tools in several
important ways.  First, PI simply provides an
environment with tools where the problem solver can
record and summarize data and then use that data to
manually draw phylogenetic or cladistic hypotheses:  It
does not automatically generate trees.  Second, PI can
internally generate plausible data of specific problem
types while varying the surface characteristics of the
problems.  This allows students to practice problems
repeatedly and facilitates teachers being able to model
the problem-solving process and to act as a coach or
guide.  Third, PI does not generate statistics or check
the validity of trees produced by students.  PI is
intended for an environment where students generate
hypothesis and then try to persuade peers that their
approach to the problem is the best one.  Toward this
end, we have sought to allow students a full range of
expression in this medium: students can represent
variable rates of divergence among species, anastamosing
tree forms, and other patterns which are difficult or
impossible to represent using other programs we have
examined.

Eventually, we hope to extend this work by studying
other aspects of phylogenetic problem-solving.  To do
that, we are planning to also extend the capabilities of
our problem-solving environment.  Our most ambitious
plan would be to create two or more data sets that
include morphological, biogeographical, ontogenetic,
stratigraphic, karyotypic, and molecular data.  One of
these data sets would be based on an imaginary set of
organisms, possibly the Caminalcules.  Others would be
real data sets of well-studied groups.  In conjunction
with the data sets would be a set of software tools for
viewing and comparing data from different sources and
using this data to construct phylogenetic histories.  We
have thought of many ways that an environment like this
could be used.  For example, students could be divided
into groups that has access to fossils and living
organisms from a restricted geographic area.
Subsequently, from the individual studies the class
would be challenged to try to construct a unified
phylogenetic history of the group.  The possibilities
are endless.

We're looking for people who would be willing to
collaborate with us on a project like this.  We need
people who can increase the biological background and
content of our project and who can help us find, create,
and organize phylogenetic data sources.  Most
importantly (from my standpoint, anyway) I need experts
who would be willing to volunteer to solve a few
problems using Phylogenetic Investigator and help me to
gather data for my dissertation.

My dissertation examines how experts construct
phylogenetic trees from coded and polarized data.  I'm
studying experts in order to develop a model of desired
performance for students -- a model that describes what
content knowledge, strategic knowledge, and organization
of knowledge is desirable for students to achieve in
this domain.  This model is based partly on textbooks
and methodological articles, but a careful study of
experts greatly increases the trustworthiness by
providing evidence of the kinds of mental processes that
practitioners actually use when working these problems.
If you perform phylogenetic analysis as part of your
regular research, I hope you will seriously consider
volunteering for my study.

I'm planning to make Phylogenetic Investigator available
free of charge (as 'freeware') to anyone who is
interested in using it in the classroom.  Please reply
to me via email if you're interested in finding out more
about Phylogenetic Investigator, potentially
collaborating with us, or (please oh please)
participating in my study.

To find out more and/or volunteer, please call me (616-
387-7638) or send me some email (brewer@cs.wmich.edu).
We also have a website from which you can download
Phylogenetic Investigator, my dissertation proposal, and
other supporting documents.  Point your web-browser to:
http://141.218.91.93/PIGuide/piguide.html

Steve Brewer <brewer@cs.wmich.edu>      | Se iu diras 'Mi havas korpon,' oni
http://141.218.91.93/WWW/I_sbrewer.html | povas demandi 'Kiu parolas tie ^ci
Science Studies WMU Kalamazoo MI 49008  | per tiu ^ci bu^so?' --Wittgenstein

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:15>From jrines@gsosun1.gso.uri.edu  Sat Mar 18 13:00:51 1995

Date: Sat, 18 Mar 1995 13:58:17 -0500 (EST)
From: Jan Rines <jrines@gsosun1.gso.uri.edu>
Subject: Linnaeus' Chaos
To: Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

	I recall a Darwin-L message a couple of months ago (perhaps in the
discussions on the term 'biodiversity') which mentioned Linnaeus' class
_Chaos_, proposed for microscopic organisms.  I've come across this again
while reading De Kruif's (1926, p. 59) _The Microbe Hunters_:

"The Swede Linnaeus, most enthusiastic pigeonholer, who toiled at putting
all living things in a neat vast card catalogue, threw up his hands at the
very idea of studying the wee beasts.  'They are too small, too confused,
no one will ever know anything exact about them, we will simply put them
in the class of Chaos!' said Linnaeus."

	I work with diatoms, a group of protistan organisms, and I am
currently working on a review paper on Systematic Theory and Species
Concepts for the Diatom literature.  Many (not all, of course) diatomists
have resisted the theoretical rigor developed in systematics in the last
20 years on the grounds that we still no so little about species and
speciation in diatoms etc. that it is too difficult to apply contemporary
methodology and theory.  I am trying to refute this.

	Linnaeus' "quote" is highly relevant to my discussion, and
I would love to use it.  Did Linnaeus actually state something like this,
or is it de Kruif's poetic interpretation?  Can anyone direct me to the
original source/reference in Linnaeus' work (and is there a translation)?

	Thanks, Jan Rines

******************************************************************************
Jan Rines
Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island
Narragansett Bay Campus, South Ferry Road
Narragansett, Rhode Island 02882-1197

Voice 401-792-6691
Fax 401-792-6240
email jrines@gsosun1.gso.uri.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:16>From jel@christa.unh.edu  Sun Mar 19 08:31:11 1995

Date: Sun, 19 Mar 1995 09:31:07 -0500 (EST)
From: John E Limber <jel@christa.unh.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: identity of "Anthropo-pithecus calvus"?

I have come upon a reference (ca 1914) to an organism whose "scientific
name is  Anthropo-pithecus calvus."  Can anyone tell me what this is likely
to be in contemporary terms? And--if you know--where that name came from?

Thanks. (I'll post a summary and the entire quotation if I get any response)

John Limber
Department of Psychology
University of New Hampshire, Durham NH 03824, USA
email: jel@christa.unh.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:17>From zinjman@uog9.uog.edu  Mon Mar 20 03:24:20 1995

Date: Mon, 20 Mar 1995 19:28:45 +0000 (WET)
From: "Gary M.Z. Heathcote" <zinjman@uog9.uog.edu>
Subject: Re: morphostories
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

	I am working on a joint paper, and have penned a section entitled
"Occupational Marker Interpretations as Morphostories".   Occupational
markers, as written about by human osteologists, are bony changes that
are thought to "mark" chronic motor activity patterns that "scarred" the
skeleton, e.g. at tendon and ligament attachment sites.

	I draw the analogy that occupational marker interpretations are
analogous to historical fiction, as we often base them on incomplete
anatomical, low level kinesiological, and limited or no ethnohistorical
evidence (of the habitual job-related activities of the folks whose
skeletons we have in hand).   Worse yet, we have no corpus of control
data in the form of reference skeletons with known occupational histories.
And so the (morpho)stories we weave are based on weak to strong inferences,
sometimes layered, where we must interpolate through the layers.  In the
end, we strive for constructed personal and group stories that converge
on past (actual) osteobiographies.

My question to the Darwin-l group is this:  Have I co-opted the term
"morphostories"?   If so, who should be credited?   And has the term been
previously defined in the manner that I use it?   I have an uneasy
feeling that someone else coined the term, and would like to give credit
where credit is due.

Cheers!

-gh
=====================================================================
| Dr. Gary Heathcote         | voice: {671}-734-0520                |
| Anthropology Lab           | fax: {671}-734-7930                  |
| University of Guam         | addr:  zinjman@uog.edu               |
| House 32, Dean's Circle    |                                      |
| UOG Station, Mangilao      | coordinates: 13.5N, 144.7E           |
| Guam       U.S.A. 96923    | GMT +10, EST +15                     |
=====================================================================

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:18>From MEYERR@axe.humboldt.edu  Mon Mar 20 10:48:02 1995

Date: Mon, 20 Mar 1995 08:43:46 -0700 (PDT)
From: MEYERR@axe.humboldt.edu
Subject: Text for history of biology?
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Hello members of Darwin-L,

I am a biologist developing a course in the history of biology.
I am pretty naive about this field, so am asking for advice,
especially on what to use for a text for this course.

It will be a one-semester course, available to upper-division
majors and nonmajors alike, it will include elements of cultural
diversity and cross-disciplinary connections, and gender analysis.
Beyond those things, I envision a conventional survey of the
history of biology.

What textbook would be good?  Any suggestions appreciated.

Dick Meyer
Dept. Biological Sciences
Humboldt State University
Arcata, CA 95521

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:19>From tenner@clarity.Princeton.EDU  Mon Mar 20 13:31:12 1995

Date: Mon, 20 Mar 95 14:15:36 EST
From: "Edward Tenner" <tenner@clarity.Princeton.EDU>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Max von Stephanitz, Glenn Radde

I've been following up on an old reference to the developer of the
German shepherd dog, Max von Stephanitz, and his relationship to
the German eugenics movement of the 1920s and later to the
National Socialist regime. A scholar named Glenn Radde, about whom
I can find little in standard bibliographies and biographies, is said
to have written on this issue. I'd be grateful for information,
by e-mail, about Radde's essay or at least whereabouts, and more
generally about library and archival holdings in North America
and the Federal Republic about von. S. and the German shepherd dog.
I know of the AKC library in NYC but have been unable to reach
them so far. Many thanks.

Ed Tenner
=================================================
Edward Tenner    tenner@clarity.princeton.edu
Visiting Fellow  Princeton University
Department of Geological and Geophysical Sciences
7-T Magie Apartments, Faculty Road
Princeton, NJ 08540-5509
voice 609 921-1828
=================================================

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:20>From g-cziko@uiuc.edu  Mon Mar 20 18:26:52 1995

Date: Mon, 20 Mar 1995 18:29:38 -0600
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: g-cziko@uiuc.edu (CZIKO Gary)
Subject: New Dennett and Dawkins Books

I understand that both Daniel Dennett and Richard Dawkins have new books out.

Dennett's is called _Darwin's Dangerous Idea_, but I don't know the title
of Dawkins's.

I would appreciate finding out more about these books, including title (for
Dawkins), contents, publisher, and ordering information.--Gary

------------------------------------------------------------------
Gary Cziko
Associate Professor              Telephone 217-333-8527
Educational Psychology           FAX: 217-244-7620
University of Illinois           E-mail: g-cziko@uiuc.edu
1310 S. Sixth Street             Radio: N9MJZ
210 Education Building           http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/csg/gary.gif
Champaign, Illinois 61820-6990
-------------------------------------------------------------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:21>From CHARBEL@BRUFBA.BITNET  Mon Mar 20 20:04:06 1995

Date: Mon, 20 Mar 1995 15:01:56 +0000
From: Charbel Nino El-Hani <@KUHUB.CC.UKANS.EDU:CHARBEL@BRUFBA.BITNET>
Subject: End of evolution
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Sometime ago I read an interesting text by Richard Levins and Richard
Lewontin where they proposed that the theoretical structure of evolutionary
theory is emphasizing now stability and not evolution. The idea of climax,
arising, I think, from evolutionary ecology, suggests a direction to
evolution, which leads, in successive states of an evolutionary system,
to an increase in complexity, diversity, homeostasis, and then dynamic
equilibrium. So, when a climax is reached, no changes in this descriptive
parameters are possible. The climax is like a *telos* in the enlightenment
theory of history. But if the system cannot change anymore in the descriptive
parameters, is there any evolution? We cannot deny that evolution is still
happening. This is also true for human species, although the concepts of
adaptattion, struggle for existence and natural selection must be examined
in the light of social and cultural systems. Humans adapt the environment to
themselves in a very higher degree when compared with other animals. This
leads to a homogeneous environment. Selection is culturally and socially
determined, so it is not natural anymore, at least not in the sense thought
by Darwin.
Well, We cannot deny evolution is happening, but the theory of dynamic
equilibrium tells us that evolution is like a series of minor adjustments
of the living beings' adaptations to an environment which is becoming poorer.
So, evolutionary theories emphasize  stability, and not change. Can we say
that this is the end of evolution?
I always wanted to discuss these ideas, published in *The Dialectical Biologist
*, Harvard University Press (1985). I think this is a good oportunity.

                          Charbel

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:22>From BIOL-WAJ@nich-nsunet.nich.edu  Tue Mar 21 07:29:41 1995

To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: BIOL-WAJ@nich-nsunet.nich.edu
Organization: Nicholls State University
Date: Tue, 21 Mar 1995 7:31:48 CST
Subject: End of Evolution?

It seems to me that what is happening in America's inner city today is a
pretty good example of natural selection in action, as are events in much of
the rest of the world (Bosnia-Herzegovnia, etc.). The main things that
separate humans from the rest of the animals are hyperbole and rhetoric!

Bill Johnson
Department of Biological Sciences
Nicholls State University
Thibodaux, Louisiana  70310
biol-waj@nich-nsunet.nich.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:23>From tmarks@gac.edu  Tue Mar 21 15:48:54 1995

Date: Tue, 21 Mar 1995 15:53:44 -0600
To: Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: tmarks@gac.edu (Tom Marks)
Subject: Post research question

Please post the following question (I am a new internet user and this is
the first time I have posted a question to a listserv.  Please inform me if
I am not doing this correctly.):

I am a student of  geology at Gustavus Adolphus College in St. Peter,
Minnesota.  This semester I am beginning my senior reseach project.

 I am interested in a certain Blue Earth  siltstone or clay bed  that I
believe occurs at the Cambrian/Ordovician boundary between the Jordon and
Oneota Formations that outcrop in the vicinity of Mankato Minnesota and for
which Blue Earth County and the Blue Earth River are named.   A number of
early explorers, including Pierre Le Sueur, Nicollet, Featherstonehaugh and
B.F. Shumard of the D. D. Owens survey of the late 1840's searched for and
noted the substance. I myself believe that I have seen some of the same
stuff.  I am interested in what it is, how extensive it is and how it got
there.

I am beginning to gather a number of references.  Please suggest to me any
references of which you are aware.

Tom Marks
Gustavus Adolphus College

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:24>From LKNYHART@macc.wisc.edu  Wed Mar 22 10:33:51 1995

Date: Wed, 22 Mar 95 10:13 CST
From: Lynn K. Nyhart <LKNYHART@macc.wisc.edu>
Subject: Re: Text for history of biology?
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

I use Peter Bowler's Evolution: The History of an Idea, supplemented by a
course reader of primary sources.  This approach allows for drawing in other
issues Bowler doesn't make much of (e.g., gender, non-Western perspectives).
However, it is still pretty much an evolution course, neglecting most of
physiology and major changes in 20thC biology like the rise of molecular
biology.  In one semester, though, and for a course open to non-majors, I think
the evolution focus works well.  My students are very comfortable with Bowler's
book, because it reads like a textbook and they know what textbooks are like.
It is also good for the neophyte professor because of its excellent
bibliography of primary and secondary sources.

You might want to get hold of a copy of the History of Science Syllabus
Sampler, put out by the Committee on Education of the History of Science
Society in 1992; it has several interesting syllabi covering the history of
biology.  You may purchase it by sending $10.00 to Henry Steffens, University
of Vermont, Dept. of History, Wheeler House, Burlington, VT 05405. Note that
there are relevant syllabi and readings within courses in parts of the Sampler
beyond Part 5: Topics in the History of Biology.

Good luck!

Lynn Nyhart
History of Science
University of Wisconsin-Madison
lknyhart@macc.wisc.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:25>From witkowsk@cshl.org  Wed Mar 22 15:13:34 1995

Date: Wed, 22 Mar 1995 15:18:05 -0500
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: witkowsk@cshl.org (J. A. Witkowski - Banbury Center, CSHL)
Subject: Re: DARWIN-L digest 379

>Date: Mon, 20 Mar 1995 19:28:45 +0000 (WET)
>From: "Gary M.Z. Heathcote" <zinjman@uog9.uog.edu>
>To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
>Subject: Re: morphostories
>
>My question to the Darwin-l group is this:  Have I co-opted the term
>"morphostories"?   If so, who should be credited?   And has the term been
>previously defined in the manner that I use it?   I have an uneasy
>feeling that someone else coined the term, and would like to give credit
>where credit is due.

With due respect, is it really necessary to coin such an ugly word? Isn't
there enough jargon in the world already?

Jan A. Witkowski, Ph.D.
Director, Banbury Center
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
PO Box 534
Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724-0534

(516) 549-0507
(516) 549-0672 [fax]
witkowsk@cshl.org

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:26>From Neve@ecol.ucl.ac.be  Wed Mar 22 16:35:26 1995

Date: Wed, 22 Mar 95 23:40:16 +0100
To: MEYERR@axe.humboldt.edu, darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: Neve@ecol.ucl.ac.be
Subject: textbooks in History of Biology

On top of Bowler's 'Evolution: The History of an Idea' (University of
California Press, Revised edition 1989) I strongly suggest the following :

Mayr. E. 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought. Belknap Press
A very scholarly book. Not as easy to read as Bowlers, but very detailed.

Barlow, C. (Ed.) 1991. From Gaia to Selfish Genes: Selected Writings in the
Life Sciences. MIT Press.

Barlow, C. (Ed.) 1994. Evolution Extended : Biolgical Debates on the
Meaning of Life. MIT Press.
Barlow's books are my favourites, as anthologies of the great biologists'
writings. An excellent introduction to primary sources. Very well edited,
and each text is put into its right time and perspective by Connie Barlow.
Excellent and entertaining reading !

Best wishes for the course.

Gabriel

===========================================================
Gabriel NEVE                                  o   o
Unite d'Ecologie et de Biogeographie           \ /
Universite Catholique de Louvain           ***  Y  ***
Croix du Sud 5                            *   * I *   *
B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve                   *    *I*    *
Belgium                                   *    *I*    *
                                          *   * I *   *
EMAIL: NEVE@ECOL.UCL.AC.BE                 ***     ***
Fax  : +32/10/473490
Tel  at work : +32/10/473495
     at home : +32 10 61 62 36

"It has been shown that  order and stability may be derived at
broad scales from finer scale chaos. or fine scale determinism
may produce broad scale chaos, depending on circumstances."

J.A. Wiens (1989)
===========================================================

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:27>From ncse@crl.com  Wed Mar 22 17:36:21 1995

Date: Wed, 22 Mar 1995 15:38:13 -0800 (PST)
From: "Eugenie C. Scott" <ncse@crl.com>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: New Dennett and Dawkins Books

Dear Dr. Cziko,

I believe that Dawkin's "newest" book is "The Extended Phenotype", from
Oxford Univ. Press, actually a paperback version of an earlier (1982)
book.  At least Oxford is treating it as a new book!  There may be
another, and I'll be happy to be corrected.

The organization I work for can give you a 20% discount, if you care to
e-mail me back.

Eugenie C. Scott

*****************************************************************
                   SUPPORT SCIENCE EDUCATION!

                        Eugenie C. Scott
                              NCSE
                         925 Kearney Street
                     El Cerrito, CA 94530-2810
                          510-526-1674
                        FAX: 510-526-1675
                         1-800-290-6006
                          ncse@crl.com
*****************************************************************

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:28>From bouckaer@csuvax1.murdoch.edu.au  Wed Mar 22 20:31:15 1995

From: Hugo Bouckaert <bouckaer@csuvax1.csu.murdoch.edu.au>
Subject: Textbooks for course in evolutionary biology
To: Darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

I'm in the process of designing a popular course in evolutionary
biology. It is envisaged the course will contain three parts: an account
of major evolutionary changes; mechanisms responsible for evolutionary
change and, lastly, aspects of human evolution. The course will run over
what is called here the winter term, and is open to first year uni students
and the general public alike. The problem that I have is that some of
these people have no prior science background whatsoever.Ihave quite a
few textbooks at my disposal, but I am gradually realising they might be
too difficult for the general public. My question is this: does anybody
know about textbooks dealing with the above topics, that have up to date
quality information but are not too difficult for people with no science
background whatsoever? Difficult question, but I'm sure the answer is out
there somewhere.

                Thanks

Hugo Bouckaert
Murdoch University
Murdoch WA
Bouckaer@csuvax1.murdoch.edu.au

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:29>From dasher@netcom.com  Wed Mar 22 23:14:05 1995

Date: Wed, 22 Mar 1995 21:12:49 -0800
From: dasher@netcom.com (Anton Sherwood)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: new Dawkins book

Dawkins' latest, I'm told, is called
"River Out of Eden: A Darwinian View of Life"

*\\* Anton                                        Ubi scriptum?

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:30>From zomv@hippo.ru.ac.za  Thu Mar 23 00:58:21 1995

From: zomv@hippo.ru.ac.za (Dr MH Villet)
Subject: Re: DARWIN-L digest 379
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Thu, 23 Mar 1995 08:58:12 +0200 (GMT+0200)

> >My question to the Darwin-l group is this:  Have I co-opted the term
> >"morphostories"?   If so, who should be credited?

Jargon? I was caught wondering if morph-ost-ories was a pun!  ;)
--
 Martin H. Villet

 Department of Zoology and Entomology   Telephone: 27 [0]461 318-527
 Rhodes University                              FAX: 27 [0]461 24377
 Grahamstown 6140 RSA                  Internet: zomv@hippo.ru.ac.za

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:31>From wcalvin@u.washington.edu  Thu Mar 23 07:42:29 1995

Date: Thu, 23 Mar 1995 05:42:28 -0800 (PST)
From: William Calvin <wcalvin@u.washington.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: DARWIN-L digest 379

Richard Dawkins book is THE RIVER OUT OF EDEN (Basic Books SCIENCE
MASTERS series, due out soon).

Dan Dennett's book is DARWIN'S DANGEROUS IDEA (Simon & Schuster) and is
due out next month sometime.  I read it in galleys and it is very good.

   William H. Calvin, University of Washington
       Box 351800, Seattle WA 98195-1800 USA
       WCalvin@U.Washington.edu   http://weber.u.washington.edu/wcalvin/

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:32>From ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu  Thu Mar 23 07:53:51 1995

Date: Thu, 23 Mar 1995 08:56:05 -0500
To: "Eugenie C. Scott" <ncse@crl.com>, darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu (Jeremy)
Subject: Re: Dawkins Books

Hi Eugenie,
        Actually Dawkins has 2 books since the "The Extended Phenotype";
_The blind watchmaker_ and _River out of eden : a Darwinian view of life_.
He also wrote the forword to THE CAMBRIDGE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HUMAN EVOLUTION.
The initial question was probably about his latest unapologetically
positivist _River out of eden_.

        - Jeremy

     LC Call Number: QH430 .D39 1995
             Author: Dawkins, Richard, 1941-
              Title: River out of eden : a Darwinian view of life / Richard
                      Dawkins ; illustrations by Lalla Ward.
   Publication Info: New York, NY : Basic Books, c1995.
  Phys. Description: xiii, 172 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
        Series Name: Science masters

    LC Call Number: QH366.2 .D37 1987
             Author: Dawkins, Richard, 1941-
              Title: The blind watchmaker / Richard Dawkins.
   Publication Info: New York : Norton, c1987.

      LC Call Number: QH375 .D38 1983
             Author: Dawkins, Richard, 1941-
              Title: The extended phenotype : the long reach of the gene /
                      Richard Dawkins.
   Publication Info: Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1983 (1989
                      printing)

also editor of:
     LC Call Number: QH359 .O93
              Title: Oxford surveys in evolutionary biology.
   Publication Info: Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1984-
   Publication Info: Vol. 1 (1984)-
  Phys. Description: v. : ill. ; 24 cm.
              Notes: Editors: R. Dawkins and M. Ridley, 1984-   .
              Notes: Biological abstracts 0006-3169 1985-

wrote foreword:
THE CAMBRIDGE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF HUMAN EVOLUTION / edited by Steve
    Jones, Robert Martin, and David Pilbeam ; foreword by Richard
    Dawkins. -- Cambridge ; New York, NY : Cambridge University
    Press, 1992.
  Includes index.
 1. Human evolution--Encyclopedias.
 ISBN 0-521-32370-3

__________________________________________________________
Jeremy Creighton Ahouse
Biology Dept.
Brandeis University
Waltham, MA 02254-9110

(617)736-4954 Lab
     736-2405 FAX
ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu
___________________________________________________________

                 o/    \  /    \ /     /      \o
                /#      ##o     #     o##      #\
                / \    /  \    /o\    / |\    / \

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:33>From ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu  Thu Mar 23 07:59:13 1995

Date: Thu, 23 Mar 1995 09:01:38 -0500
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu (Jeremy)
Subject: Re: Dennett Books

refs for the new (and the previous) books by Dan Dennett:

     LC Call Number: QH375 .D45 1995
             Author: Dennett, Daniel Clement.
              Title: Darwin's dangerous idea : evolution and the meanings of
                      life / Daniel C. Dennett.
   Publication Info: New York : Simon & Schuster, c1995.

     LC Call Number: B105.C477 D45 1991
             Author: Dennett, Daniel Clement.
              Title: Consciousness explained / Daniel C. Dennett ; illustrated
                      by Paul Weiner.
            Edition: 1st ed.
   Publication Info: Boston : Little, Brown and Co., c1991.

        - Jeremy

__________________________________________________________
Jeremy Creighton Ahouse
Biology Dept.
Brandeis University
Waltham, MA 02254-9110

(617)736-4954 Lab
     736-2405 FAX
ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu
___________________________________________________________

                 o/    \  /    \ /     /      \o
                /#      ##o     #     o##      #\
                / \    /  \    /o\    / |\    / \

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:34>From SIPAD002@SIVM.SI.EDU  Thu Mar 23 08:29:01 1995

Date: Thu, 23 Mar 1995 09:27:43 -0500 (EST)
From: Peter Cannell <SIPAD002@sivm.si.edu>
Subject: Re: New Dennett and Dawkins Books
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

I have seen an ad for a new book by Dawkins that I think is called Out of the
River of Eden.  I haven't seen the book yet, and don't recall the publisher.
I think the ad I saw was in the current Natural History magazine (April).

Peter F. Cannell
Science Editor, Smithsonian Institution University Press
sipad002@sivm.si.edu
voice: 202/287-3738 ext. 328    fax: 202/287-3637

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:35>From lkoerner@husc.harvard.edu  Thu Mar 23 09:07:47 1995

Date: Thu, 23 Mar 1995 10:06:09 -0500 (EST)
From: Lisbet Koerner <lkoerner@husc.harvard.edu>
Subject: Simultaneous Discovery, Science
To: mersenne@mailbase.ac.uk

For a lecture welcoming our sophomores into the History and Science
concentration at Harvard, I am interested in collecting examples of
simultaneous discoveries in science (like Darwin-Wallace, the microscope,
etc). You can reach me directly at: lkoerner@fas.harvard.edu
Sincerely,
Lisbet Koerner
Assistant Professor
Department of the History of Science
Harvard University

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:36>From VISLYONS@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu  Thu Mar 23 09:43:00 1995

Date: Thu, 23 Mar 1995 10:42:17 -0500 (EST)
From: VISLYONS@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu
Subject: Re: Text for history of biology?
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University at Buffalo

A book that was sent me that looks promising as  history of biology
text is  called Science as a Way of Knowing by John Moore.  It unlike
some of the others gives more attention to other fields than evolution.
The whole first part is devoted to the early history (ie pre Greek,
Greek thought etc.)  There is a large section on development.
Let me second the recommendation of GAIA to Selfish Genes.  I use it
in a freshman class on Origins.  It is not a conventional hist. of
bio. text but is an extremely provocative collection of readings.
Sherrie Lyons
Daemen College
vislyons@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:37>From mclain+@andrew.cmu.edu  Thu Mar 23 15:04:19 1995

Date: Thu, 23 Mar 1995 16:03:40 -0500 (EST)
From: Gary Willingham-Mclain <mclain+@andrew.cmu.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: Text for history of biology?

Concerning texts for a course in the history of biology.  If you want a
single writer who does all the knowledge activities you name--history of
biology, gender studies, and cross disciplinary connections par
excellence--choose something by Donna Haraway.  Her earlier book,
Crystals, Fabrics and Fields (20th c. biology), would be a good place to
look, as well as the two more recent Primate Visions (on primatology)
and the most recent, whose exact title escapes me for the moment, but I
think begins Simians, Cyborgs, and Women.  Primate Visions might offer
some of the most readable and delightfully provocative discussion
material--but admittedly it is all focused on primatology--hardly the
privileged center of current biological research.

Gary Willingham-McLain
Carnegie Mellon University

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:38>From arkeo4@uniwa.uwa.edu.au  Fri Mar 24 06:25:43 1995

Date: Fri, 24 Mar 1995 14:13:58 +0800 (WST)
From: Dave Rindos <arkeo4@uniwa.uwa.edu.au>
To: Hugo Bouckaert <bouckaer@csuvax1.murdoch.edu.au>
Subject: Re: Textbooks for course in evolutionary biology

On Thu, 23 Mar 1995, Hugo Bouckaert wrote:

> I'm in the process of designing a popular course in evolutionary
> biology. It is envisaged the course will contain three parts: an account
> of major evolutionary changes; mechanisms responsible for evolutionary
> change and, lastly, aspects of human evolution.

A few years ago I used to teach a introductory class for non-science
majors with the very same coverage as you describe here.  It was at a Uni
on the quarters system.  If you (or others) would like the syllabus,
reading list (as I recall most are still in print) or lectures (I think I
still have them around), do let me know and I can arrange to forward them
to you.

Dave

	Dave Rindos		  arkeo4@uniwa.uwa.edu.au
    20 Herdsmans Parade    Wembley   WA    6014    AUSTRALIA
    Ph:+61 9 387 6281 (GMT+8)  FAX:+61 9 387 1415 (USEST+13)
      [you may also reach me on rindos@perth.dialix.oz.au]

  Rabbits exist, hence we may speak meaningfully to the evolution of
     the rabbit.  Some people attempt to study the evolution of
      human intelligence. We may well have a real problem here.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:39>From straker@unixg.ubc.ca  Fri Mar 24 07:57:16 1995

Date: Fri, 24 Mar 1995 05:57:12 -0800 (PST)
From: Stephen Straker <straker@unixg.ubc.ca>
To: William Calvin <wcalvin@u.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: Dennett's book

As it is written:  he who lives by the title ...

People lined up at the bookstalls are anxiously wondering:

Why is Darwin's "idea" "dangerous" (accdg to Dennett)?
(Because it's true or because people believe it's true or ...???)

Stephen Straker             straker@unixg.ubc.ca
History / UBC               (604) 822-6863 / -5173 / -2561
Vancouver, BC               (604) 734-4464  or  733-6638
Canada  V6T 1Z1

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:40>From LKNYHART@macc.wisc.edu  Fri Mar 24 15:23:49 1995

Date: Fri, 24 Mar 95 15:20 CST
From: Lynn K. Nyhart <LKNYHART@macc.wisc.edu>
Subject: Re: Text for history of biology?
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Gary Willingham-Maclain recommends Haraway's works. They are extremely
thought-provoking and original, but he is the first person I have ever seen
refer to any of her work as "readable."  I find her work quite difficult to
teach to undergraduates (that is, to have them get much out of what she
writes), though I have worked a number of her ideas into my lectures and
discussions. I think her writing works much better for teachers than for
students. In fact, I think anyone who already reads well should read Primate
Visions, a spectacular and brilliant book that makes a lot of people very
angry but raises a host of fascinating ideas.  Just don't expect undergrads
to get it without a LOT of help.

Lynn Nyhart
lknyhart@macc.wisc.edu
University of Wisconsin-Madison

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:41>From bonn@qcvaxa.acc.qc.edu  Fri Mar 24 17:38:57 1995

Date: Fri, 24 Mar 1995 18:34:35 EDT
From: "Bonnie Blackwell, x 3332" <bonn@qcvaxa.acc.qc.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: couldn't reach l koener thru harvard:  coincidences

two i can think of:
1.  the simultaneous discovery of sea floor spreading by the group from
woods hole and the scripts (i think).  apparently, according to geologic
foldk lore, the papers arrived at the nature office on the same day,
one in morning post and on e in the afternoon post.
2. this one i can vouch for because i was one of them:
jeff bada and i both reported that diagenetic alteration of the bones
was responsible for the faulty amino acid dates that had been obtained for
numerous sites on the same afteronon at the GSA meeting in Orlando,
oct 1985.  jeff talked at 1.30, my poster started at 2pm.
we used different samples but our conclusions were dentical.
i am sorry about the lousy tuyping, my terminal dies and i am using a
cobbled together connection which will not back space.
the abstracts for those two papers are tin the gsa programs with abstracts
for 1985.  gsa = geol soc of am.
hope this helps
b

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Bonnie Blackwell,                          bonn@qcvaxa.acc.qc.edu
Dept of Geology,                                (718) 997-3332
Queens College, City University of New York,    fax:  997-3349
Flushing, NY 11367-1597
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:42>From Agoldenk@aol.com  Fri Mar 24 23:50:10 1995

Date: Sat, 25 Mar 1995 00:50:10 -0500
From: Agoldenk@aol.com
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: End of Evolution?

Since our main enemies (other than ourselves, of course), continue to be
starvation and infectious disease, perhaps natural selection is alive and
well after all.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:43>From bouckaer@csuvax1.murdoch.edu.au  Sat Mar 25 05:53:59 1995

Date: Sat, 25 Mar 1995 19:40:03 +0800 (WST)
From: Hugo Bouckaert <bouckaer@csuvax1.csu.murdoch.edu.au>
Subject: evolution and ethics
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Something I found in last month's "logbook" of this discussion
group got me to think about the evolutionary foundations of ethical
behaviour (or the absence thereof) in human societies.
What may also be interesting is that popular culture may have a role to
play in "adapting" the ethical norm to inevitable social change. Ideas?
I'm sure someone this is a topic that cannot fail to elicit some comment.

Hugo Bouckaert
Murdoch University
Bouckaer@csuvax1.murdoch.edu.au

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:44>From g-cziko@uiuc.edu  Sun Mar 26 17:33:40 1995

Date: Sun, 26 Mar 1995 17:36:36 -0600
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: g-cziko@uiuc.edu (CZIKO Gary)
Subject: Darwin on Trial on Trial

Phillip Johnson, criminal lawyer and creationist author of _Darwin on
Trial_, will be speaking on my campus this week.

Has anybody out there seen his show?  Does he allow for questions and
comments?  Is he really going to argue at a leading research university
that science should resort to miracles as explanations?--Gary Cziko

------------------------------------------------------------------
Gary Cziko
Associate Professor              Telephone 217-333-8527
Educational Psychology           FAX: 217-244-7620
University of Illinois           E-mail: g-cziko@uiuc.edu
1310 S. Sixth Street             Radio: N9MJZ
210 Education Building           http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/csg/gary.gif
Champaign, Illinois 61820-6990
-------------------------------------------------------------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:45>From mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca  Mon Mar 27 06:52:41 1995

From: Mary P Winsor <mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca>
Subject: Re: Simultaneous Discovery, Science
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Mon, 27 Mar 1995 07:52:07 -0500 (EST)

Renier de Graaf and Jan Swammerdam both described the mammalian ovary
(late 17th c - check DSB); Swammerdam's description of the anatomy of
the silkworm was independent of Malpighi's.
Polly Winsor mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:46>From @uunet.uu.net:rdpub!berney  Mon Mar 27 13:51:53 1995

Subject: Re: Simultaneous Discovery, Science
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Mon, 27 Mar 1995 13:50:49 -0600 (CST)
From: Berney Williams <@uunet.uu.net:rdpub!berney>

Lisbet Koerner writes:

> For a lecture welcoming our sophomores into the History and Science
> concentration at Harvard, I am interested in collecting examples of
> simultaneous discoveries in science (like Darwin-Wallace, the microscope,
> etc). You can reach me directly at: lkoerner@fas.harvard.edu
> Sincerely,
> Lisbet Koerner
> Assistant Professor
> Department of the History of Science
> Harvard University

The literature on this is large and the various interpretative
approaches are wide ranging. I recommend that you see my Master's
thesis: Bernard O. Williams, "Simultaneous Scientific Discovery, an
Historiographic Critique," Department of History, University of Kansas, 1976.

I haven't kept up on the literature since then.

Berney Williams
=============================================================================
<Bernard Orion Williams PhD>       berney@rdpub.com or ...!uunet!rdpub!berney
R&D Publications, Inc.          Voice: (913) 841-1631     FAX: (913) 841-2624
       Suite 200, 1601 West 23rd Street, Lawrence, Kansas 66046
Publishers of: The C/C++ Users Journal, Windows/DOS Developer's Journal,
               SysAdmin, Network Administrator, and R&D Technical Books

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:47>From elanier@crl.nmsu.edu  Mon Mar 27 17:51:17 1995

Date: Mon, 27 Mar 1995 16:50:53 -0700
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: elanier@crl.nmsu.edu (Ellery Lanier)
Subject: somatotypes & schizophrenia

An additional footnote to my recent data on physical correlates of
schizophrenia:
In The Human Situation (1977), Aldous Huxley wrote concerning W.H. Sheldon,
"On the basis of standardized photographs of three thousand schizophrenics
in various mental hospitals, he has come to some very intersting conclusions.
He found, first of all, that Kretschmer's earlier insight that schizophrenia
was very largely correlated with a high degree of ectomorphy is true. But he
goes on to say  that what Kretschmer did not make clear is that in a very
large proportion of these cases there was not merely ectomorphy but also a
high degree of disharmony within the body, which was clearly reflected by a
disharmony within the temperament. Consequently. one has to consider the
idea that while schizophrenia may be precipitated by traumatic experiences,
these experiences are felt to be traumatic because they occur to people in a
high ectomorphic region with a high degree of dysplasia. There wouldn't have
been such disastrous effects if these people had been shaped differently."

On another wavelength. . .Does anyone have any leads on good data on the
gracile hominids? Most texts are just too skimpy.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:48>From gordon.hewitt@vuw.ac.nz  Mon Mar 27 19:00:21 1995

Date: Tue, 28 Mar 1995 13:00:15 +1200
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: gordon.hewitt@vuw.ac.nz
Subject: Re: End of Evolution?

As long as there are differences in death rates between different genotypes
then evolution will continue.  These differentials may result from
differential rates of disease, famine, accidental processes, etc.
As long as there are differences in birth rates between different genotypes
then evolution will continue.  These differences may be due to differences
of nutrition, enthusiasm for sex, etc.
Gordon
Gordon Hewitt
30 Totara Street
Eastbourne
New Zealand
Tel/Fax 64 (4) 562 7101
gordon.hewitt@vuw.ac.nz
       ( :-{)>

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:49>From ronald@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu  Mon Mar 27 19:38:43 1995

Date: 	Mon, 27 Mar 1995 15:38:29 -1000
From: Ron Amundson <ronald@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: Darwin on Trial on Trial

Michael Ruse discussed Johnson in his Booknotes section in Bio and
Phil 1993pp 353-358 and gave Johnson a chance to reply in 1994 pp
439-441.

And I don't care.  ;-)

Ron

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:50>From GOLLAV@axe.humboldt.edu  Tue Mar 28 01:20:20 1995

Date: Mon, 27 Mar 1995 23:15:57 -0700 (PDT)
From: GOLLAV@axe.humboldt.edu
Subject: Re: Simultaneous Discovery, Science
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Simultaneous discovery in science was a topic that much interested the
anthropologist Alfred L. Kroeber, since it seemed to him to confirm
the emergent, "superorganic" nature of culture.  He wrote about it
in several places, but it is a dominant theme in his sadly neglected
masterpiece, _Configurations of Culture Growth_ (1944).  The following
paragraphs are from the introductory chapter (p. 12-13):

> The type of phenomenon included under the term "culture"...is illustrated
> by the frequency of simultaneous but independent diacoveries and
> inventions.  This simultaneity may now be considered as well-established.
> Familiar examples are the devising of calculus by Newton and Leibnitz,
> the discovery of oxygen by Scheele and Priestley, the formulation of
> the principle of natural selection by Darwin and Wallace in 1858, the
> discovery of anaaesthetics by four separate American physicians, the
> invention of the telephone in the same year by Bell and Gray, and
> innumerable others.  [Kroeber refers here to Ogburn and Thomas, "Are
> Inventions Inevitable?" _Political Science Quarterly_ 37:83-98, 1922.]
> Probably a large proportion of the many contested priorities of
> discovery are due precisely to this fact: the discoveries were made
> in genuine independence, so far as relations of the personalities are
> concerned; the independence was then stretched into priority by their
> partisans, national or other.  The same sort of simultaneity obviously
> occurs in aesthetic innovations: the first use of blank verse, of a
> metrical form, of a chord, of an architectural proportion, of a theme
> in painting such as shadow or atmosphere or a manner of brush handling.
>
> In a world only partly conscious of culture, these contemporary and
> near-identical phenomena are apparently attributed to chance, and are
> noted as dramatic coincidences.  They are, however, far too numerous
> for that.  The explanation now generally given is that "the times were
> ripe"--the development of a science or art was sufficiently advanced
> for a certain next step to be in order.  I have used in this book the
> concept of pattern growth, saturation, and exhaustion.  These are all
> ways of saying substantially the same thing, however vaguely we can
> yet express it: the causal participation of a cultural factor, the
> intervention of a superpersonal element in the personal activity of
> genius.  In proportion as a greater number of sociocultural innovations
> can be shown to have begun independently with several persons at or
> near the same time, the influence of superpersonal or cultural factors,
> in distinction from personal ones, will be construable as greater.

--Victor Golla
  Humboldt State University
  Arcata, California 95521
  gollav @ axe.humboldt.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:51>From THOMASS@mmf.ruc.dk  Tue Mar 28 01:58:26 1995

From: "Thomas Soederqvist" <THOMASS@mmf.ruc.dk>
Organization:  Roskilde Universitetscenter
To: Lisbet Koerner <lkoerner@husc.harvard.edu>, lkoerner@husc.harvard.edu,
        darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Tue, 28 Mar 1995 09:57:07 +0100
Subject: Re: Simultaneous Discovery, Science

Dear Lisbet,

there are several books on the book market about multiple discovery:
not only Robert Mertons old idea, but also one by Susan Cozzens which
might be worth looking into.  I forgot the title but you could easily
find it.

Best regards,

Thomas

PS  how's the new child?

Thomas Soderqvist
Unit of History of Science
Department of Life Sciences
Roskilde University
P.O. Box 260
DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark
fax:   + 45 46757721
phone: + 45 46757711, ext. 2714 (work)
       + 45 35372086 (home)
e-mail:thomass@ruc.dk

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:52>From cliver@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu  Tue Mar 28 05:53:06 1995

Date: Tue, 28 Mar 1995 01:52:30 -1000
From: Robert Cliver <cliver@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: evolution and ethics

On Mon, 27 Mar 1995, Hugo Bouckaert wrote:

> Something I found in  last month's "logbook" of this discussion
> group got me to think about the evolutionary foundations of ethical
> behaviour (or the absence thereof) in human societies.
> What may also be interesting is that popular culture may have a role to
> play in "adapting" the ethical norm to inevitable social change. Ideas?
> I'm sure someone this is a topic that cannot fail to elicit some comment.
>
> Hugo Bouckaert
> Murdoch University
> Bouckaer@csuvax1.murdoch.edu.au

   While I am not much of an evolutionary biologist (particularly unable
to speak to the issue of evolution and ethics) I am a historian concerned
with culture as a dynamic process and was interested by this posting. I
feel that culture is very much a means by which we adapt our beliefs,
eithics, practices, etc. to our changing environments. This is why our
ethics and principles are necessarily vague, contingent, contextual and
adaptable. They are heuristic "rules of thumb" rather than hard and fast
universal laws. If we become too conservative or too set in our ways, we
run the risk of losing our ability to adapt to our environment, one which
we are taking an active (if unconscious) role in changing. I've been
reading a lot of Marshall Sahlins, Pierre Bourdieu and Anthony Giddens
lately and would be very interested to hear of anyone who has thought
about culture, beliefs, consciousness, etc. in terms of complex, dynamic
systems. Any takers?
Robert Cliver
cliver@uhcc.uhunix.hawaii.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:53>From jsl@rockvax.rockefeller.edu  Tue Mar 28 07:50:05 1995

To: Multiple recipients of list <darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>
Subject: Re: End of Evolution?
Date: Tue, 28 Mar 95 08:53:52 EST
From: Joshua Lederberg <jsl@rockvax.rockefeller.edu>

<<< To the question: has human evolution reached its end?

Changes of gene frequency will continue to arise from new mutation,
differential fecundity, interchange of populations, etc.

There is no doubt that all of these are influenced by culture:
different factors play on natural selection, and of course population
structure is vastly altered.

The question is the relative importance to the human condition of
changes in the biological heritage in comparison with changes in
the social, material and technological environment.  In that sense,
human evolution can be said to have played a minor role during the
last 5 to 10,000 years.   EXCEPTION: the near extinction of many
isolates, which prompts the urgency of conserving at least the DNA
information in human genomic biodiversity.  The anthropologists will
say the same for their cultural heritage.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:54>From AFLEMING@CCIT.ARIZONA.EDU  Tue Mar 28 12:49:14 1995

Date: Tue, 28 Mar 1995 11:39:35 -0700 (MST)
From: AFLEMING@CCIT.ARIZONA.EDU
Subject: paridigm shifts in geology
To: DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

I'm currently doing research on how paradigms shift in science.
Specifically, I'm tracing the history of Alfred Wegener and his theory on
continental drift/ plate tectonics.

Plate tectonics, the theory that the crustal components of the earth,
including the continents, float on the more viscous underlayer of the
mantle, was  proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912.

He published his theory, then called continental drift in an article titled
"Die Entsehung der Kontinente", in the journal, Geologische Rundschau.
Although he had 170 subsequent scholarly publications about continental
drift between 1912 and his death in 1930, his theory was widely rejected
by the geological research community until the mid 1960's and early
1970's.

Does anyone have any information or an opinion on why his theory
was so negatively received by the geologic research community?

Also, I'm looking for any information about the controversy between Alfred
Wegener and Frank B. Taylor and who really originated the theory of
continental drift/plate tectonics.

Thank you
Adonna Fleming
Graduate Student
Information Resources
University of Arizona
afleming@library.arizona.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:55>From mn4cppd@bath.ac.uk  Tue Mar 28 19:43:53 1995

Date: Wed, 29 Mar 1995 02:33:25 +0100 (BST)
From: TheSender <mn4cppd@bath.ac.uk>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: evolution and ethics

   I would like to hear some opinions on the following subjects:
Evolution of ethics as society: would it follow a Lamarckian scheme
rather than a Darwinian (?). Would each individual partly break the rules
he has been taught in order to adapt to the environment? Would then the
rules than make their users successful (partly due to social
reinforcement) be the ones selected?
   What about imposed rules (the rules of a powerful organization/social
group, imposed to the rest of society)?
   This ideas are partly taken from Richard Dawkins (The Selfish
Gene), who calls the evolutionary units memes (I think, I could be
wrong). They have also been influenced by Spencer.
   It could also be interesting to relate all this to NIetzsche's
@Genealogy of Moral" (?).
   I believe this is quite a good topic, although perhaps more
interesting for sociologists than biologists...perhaps not.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:56>From junger@pdj2-ra.F-REMOTE.CWRU.Edu  Tue Mar 28 20:21:24 1995

Date: Tue, 28 Mar 1995 21:21:06 +0000
From: "Peter D. Junger" <junger@pdj2-ra.F-REMOTE.CWRU.Edu>
Subject: Re: paridigm shifts in geology
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

On Tue, 28 Mar 1995 AFLEMING@CCIT.ARIZONA.EDU wrote:

> I'm currently doing research on how paradigms shift in science.
> Specifically, I'm tracing the history of Alfred Wegener and his theory on
> continental drift/ plate tectonics.
>
> Plate tectonics, the theory that the crustal components of the earth,
> including the continents, float on the more viscous underlayer of the
> mantle, was  proposed by Alfred Wegener in 1912.
>
> He published his theory, then called continental drift in an article titled
> "Die Entsehung der Kontinente", in the journal, Geologische Rundschau.
> Although he had 170 subsequent scholarly publications about continental
> drift between 1912 and his death in 1930, his theory was widely rejected
> by the geological research community until the mid 1960's and early
> 1970's.
>
> Does anyone have any information or an opinion on why his theory
> was so negatively received by the geologic research community?

I will take a stab at answering this since my father was a
geologist/geophysicist who became very interested in--and worked
with--plate tectonics in the sixties and seventies.  I think that the
answer is that Wegner argued that the distribution of animal and plant
species--and the way that Africa and the Americas can be fit together as
if they were parts of a jigsaw puzzle suggested contintental drift, but he
had no theory of plate tectonics--or of plates--to explain how continents
could drift.  It was not until the physical model of the earth's crust as
being composed of ``floating'' plates was proposed that it was possible to
understand how continents _could_ drift.

The not-quite theory of continental drift was based on some suggestive
correlations; the physical model of plate tectonics, on the other hand,
supplies a theoretical explanation of the causes of those correlations.
It was not until that explanation was available--not until the theory of
plate tectonics was available--that geologists could actually integrate
continental drift into their understanding of geological processes.

Peter D. Junger--Case Western Reserve University Law School--Cleveland, OH
Internet: junger@pdj2-ra.f-remote.cwru.edu     junger@samsara.law.cwru.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:57>From J.Carr@uts.edu.au  Tue Mar 28 22:07:09 1995

Date: Wed, 29 Mar 1995 14:07:04 +1000
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: J.Carr@uts.edu.au (John Carr)
Subject: Re: evolution and ethics

On Mon, 27 Mar 1995, Hugo Bouckaert wrote:

>  that popular culture may have a role to
> play in "adapting" the ethical norm to inevitable social change. Ideas?

For our type of species, able to form - and virtually obsessed with - images
of our nature, it may be that popular culture is not just supporting
"inevitable" social change.  Rather it could be that popular culture has
become a primary determinant of the change that is occurring, regardless of
whether the specific type of change was "inevitable".  This is concern some
of have regarding the portrayal of human relationships in the media, with a
its emphasis on aggression and usually aggressive sex.

What underlies this concern in part is the broader notion that evolutionary
change in our species is being driven now not so much by a changing natural
environment, but by our own culture.  The paradox of our species is that we
may be the only one on this planet which understands the power of natural
selection and yet - never totally but more than other species - we have
become progressively free from the natural forces of selection.  In place of
those forces we now are changed in part by our image of who we are and what
we yet might become.  If the media is the primary avenue for developing such
images then we have I believe great cause for concern.

John Carr
Communication Studies
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences,
University of Technology, Sydney
Sydney Australia
j.carr@uts.edu.au

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:58>From JHOFMANN@CCVAX.FULLERTON.EDU  Tue Mar 28 22:44:50 1995

Date: Tue, 28 Mar 1995 20:44:45 -0800 (PST)
From: JHOFMANN@CCVAX.FULLERTON.EDU
Subject: Re: paridigm shifts in geology
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Mott Greene has written extensively on Wegener, although I don't have
references at hand.  Jim Hofmann

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:59>From PHL6SF@LUCS-MAC.NOVELL.LEEDS.AC.UK  Wed Mar 29 01:58:50 1995

From: Steven French <PHL6SF@LUCS-MAC.NOVELL.LEEDS.AC.UK>
Organization: University of Leeds
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Tue, 28 Mar 1995 21:14:36 GMT
Subject: Re: paridigm shifts in geology

Check out:
R. Lauden, 'The method of multiple working hypotheses and the
development of plate tectonic theory' in T. Nickles (ed) Scientific
Discovery: Case Studies, Reidel 1980 pp. 331-343

R. Lauden 'The recent revolution in geology and Kuhn's theory of scientific
change' in PD Asquith and I. Hacking, PSA 1978, Vol. 2, Phil. of Sci. Assoc.
1981

R. Giere, Explaining Science: A Cognitive Approach, Univ. of Chicago Press
1988, Ch. 8 Explaining the Revolution in Geology.

Cheers,
Steven French
s.r.d.french@leeds.ac.uk
'His mind was good, but he only understood one or two things
in the whole world - samurai movies and the Macintosh - and
he understood them far, far too well.' (Snow Crash, Neal
Stephenson)
- well, I've got the Mac, now all I need are the swords!!

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:60>From MNHVZ082@SIVM.SI.EDU  Wed Mar 29 08:13:20 1995

Date: Wed, 29 Mar 1995 09:05:02 -0500 (EST)
From: Kevin de Queiroz <@KUHUB.CC.UKANS.EDU:MNHVZ082@SIVM.BITNET>
Subject: Re: paridigm shifts in geology
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Did Wegener actually propose the theory that "crustal components of the
earth, including the continents, float on the more viscous underlayer of
the mantle" (plate techtonics) as opposed to the idea that the continents
had moved (continental drift)?  Most introductory treatments credit him
with the latter but not with the former, but I have never read the primary
literature on this topic.

Kevin de Queiroz
mnhvz082@sivm.si.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:61>From bonn@qcvaxa.acc.qc.edu  Wed Mar 29 09:11:34 1995

Date: Wed, 29 Mar 1995 10:08:50 EDT
From: "Bonnie Blackwell, x 3332" <bonn@qcvaxa.acc.qc.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: RE: paridigm shifts in geology

According to the geological heresay, continental drift was not rejected
by all geologists.  Paleontologists and botanists,m esp in Europe
supposed ly embraced it.  It was the North American stratigraphers and
classical geoloigsts who appearently rejected it out of hand.  According
to some sources, the geophysics community in Europe, esp. colleagues
of Benioff accepted the theory in the mid-50's.  Tuzo Wilson and his group
at Toronto embraces it by the mid-lete 50's.
b

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Bonnie Blackwell,                          bonn@qcvaxa.acc.qc.edu
Dept of Geology,                                (718) 997-3332
Queens College, City University of New York,    fax:  997-3349
Flushing, NY 11367-1597
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:62>From mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca  Wed Mar 29 12:30:27 1995

From: Mary P Winsor <mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca>
Subject: Re: End of Evolution?
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Wed, 29 Mar 1995 13:29:49 -0500 (EST)

Pretty clever of Bill Johnson, writing a purely rhetorical posting
that is all hyperbole, which it is obvious no other animal but a H.
sapiens could have posted.  It did get written in language, and posted
by means of a tool...but these are so well-known they are no longer
interesting.
Polly Winsor
mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:63>From mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca  Wed Mar 29 12:35:04 1995

From: Mary P Winsor <mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca>
Subject: Re: Mayr's use of "Darwinian"
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Wed, 29 Mar 1995 13:34:20 -0500 (EST)

Someone pointed out, I think on this list a while back, that Ernst
Mayr has attempted to assign the name "darwinian" to the principles of
taxonomy he favours ("evolutionary" in contrast to
"phylogenetic"=cladistic).

Can anyone give me the reference (or references - was there response
to Mayr's proposal?)

I am in the early stages of a project looking at how systematists use
the history of systematics.  Kevin de Queiroz claims that until
Hennig's principles are widely accepted, the "Darwinian Revolution"
will not be complete.  This is a rather different claim than simply
advocating the adoption of cladistics because it is more rigorous than
what was in use before.

Clearly Mayr and de Queiroz are partly just invoking a great name
for rhetorical effect, but I think that is not all they are doing.
They are proposing a narrative of the history of their field to
give it forward momentum, a future direction....

I'd be grateful for any comments.
Polly Winsor
mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:64>From elanier@crl.nmsu.edu  Wed Mar 29 15:35:27 1995

Date: Wed, 29 Mar 1995 14:35:08 -0700
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: elanier@crl.nmsu.edu (Ellery Lanier)
Subject: earth's crust

Sorry, but I lost the name of the person asking about the plate tectonics
theory so I am sending this to the list.. Sometime in the late 1950's I had
a friend named Hapgood who wrote a book titled The Earth's Shifting Crust.
If I can locate my copy in my mess I will be glad to give it to you.
I am in an altogether field now working on my dissertation on Somatotypes.
I have used the analogy of plate tectonics in reference to psychology. Once
the underlying forces of behavior are discovered we may know something
about why we behave the way we do.

Ellery Lanier        elanier@crl.nmsu.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<19:65>From bouckaer@csuvax1.murdoch.edu.au  Thu Mar 30 05:10:44 1995

Date: Thu, 30 Mar 1995 18:54:24 +0800 (WST)
From: Hugo Bouckaert <bouckaer@csuvax1.csu.murdoch.edu.au>
Subject: Cladistics and the completion of the Darwinian revolution
To: Darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

One can equally say that, until molecular indices of similarity have
found their proper place in cladistics, gene-eyed views on
evolutionary change, advocated and made widely popular by R. Dawkins are
not complete.
But what does "completion" stand for in this context? Surely the
history of Darwinism or neo-Darwinism should not be
examined in terms of its completion? It seems more interesting to me to
examine how and why, at certain times, certain kinds of explanations are
favoured.

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<19:66>From MEYERR@axe.humboldt.edu  Thu Mar 30 09:53:50 1995

Date: Thu, 30 Mar 1995 07:49:47 -0700 (PDT)
From: MEYERR@axe.humboldt.edu
Subject: Re: Mayr's use of "Darwinian"
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Ernst Mayr used the term "Darwinian classification" in contrast to
"Hennigian ordering," the former referring to grouping organisms
according to similarity and genetic relationship, the latter meaning
grouping organisms according to the branch of the phylogenetic tree,
in a letter to _Science_ entitled "Cotylorhynchus: not a mammal,"
published in the 10 June 1994 issue.

Dick Meyer

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<19:67>From ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu  Thu Mar 30 12:21:12 1995

Date: Thu, 30 Mar 1995 13:23:35 -0500
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu (Jeremy)
Subject: Re: Mayr's use of "Darwinian"

Polly,

        Ernst Mayr made his claim; "There are now two systems of ordering
organisms in use - Darwinian classification by which organisms are grouped
according to both similarity and genetic relationship, and Hennigian
ordering, by which organisms are grouped according to the branch of the
phylogenetic tree on which they occur" in a letter to Science in June (Mayr
1994a).  He was writing to complain that _Cotylorhynchus_ was to be grouped
with mammals in a new exhibit at the Natural History museum in New York
(Random Samples 1994).

        At the time I mentioned (to this group) Mayr's rhetorical use of
'Darwinian' to throw support behind his preferred (delicate) mix of
gradistic and cladistic classification.  He used to call this approach
evolutionary taxonomy.  Several members of this group found my comments
abrasive.

        Kevin Padian responded to Mayr in August that year (Padian 1994).
Padian pointed out that Darwin might not feel at home with Mayr's approach
to classification.  Padian suggests that Mayr's "Darwinian" classification
has more in common with Linnaean classification than it does with a
classification based on common descent.  Padian clearly wants to reserve
"Darwinian" for classification based on this criterion of strict
propinquity of descent if it is to be used as an adjective at all.

        In November, Mayr responded to this with a lecture on the history
of classification (Mayr 1994b).  I am not sure that Mayr really got that
Padian was _against_ Mayr's particular use of 'Darwinian'.  Mayr writes
"Padian, by implying that the Linnaean and Darwinian systems are the same,
ignores the history of taxonomy."  But Padian was claiming that it was Mayr
who was reanimating the "abhorent convention" of Linnaean taxonomy,
smuggling it in as 'Darwinan.'  Padian was certainly squeezing a sore spot
to suggest that Mayr was synonymizing 'Darwinian' and 'Linnaean'.  Mayr
reiterates his claim that Darwin (Ch 13 of _The Origin_) holds dear the
(primary) importance  of genealogy but also insists that similarity of form
is necessary to build a "sound" classification.  He doesn't really offer a
theory to undergird this claim and does allow that if one is "only
interested in phylogeny, then, by all means, one should use the Hennigian
system."  (Was there an audible sigh of relief by the taxonomy community?)

        Mayr ends by insisting that ecologically important information can
be contained in a classification based (in part) on similarity.  Presumably
this is because, Mayr might argue, (non-synapomorphic) similarity is due to
convergence which is due to environmental selection.  Thus similarity is a
way to make useful inferences about to shared selection regimes.  But, as
cladists would quickly point out, this kind of approach doesn't distinguish
homoplasies (convergences and parallelisms) and symplesiomorphies (shared
ancestral homologies).  The argument might still be made that homoplasies
indicate shared environmental selection, but (and this is crucial) the
argument needs to be made each time.  We don't yet have a good way to
insert all of the life history, developmental, and ecological information
that we have into our classifications.  To do so will require careful use
of databases and multivariate statistics and may happen as everyone brings
their radio-networked powerbooks into the field...  It surely won't happen
because we include a vague notion of similarity in "sound" (?!)
classifications.

        Kevin de Queiroz is on this list and will probably have some things
to add.  Mayr has previously used language that can foreclose discussion.
How do you explain to non-biologists (or for me, to molecular biologists)
that there is more to species concepts than the "biological species
concept."  And who would want to argue against an "evolutionary" taxonomy.
Luckily both of these issues have still generated a bit of discussion.
Still it is unfortunate that one end of a worthwhile disagreement wears
such a blatantly rhetorical predicate.  The result is that we spend an
inordinate amount of time battling for language territory.

        cheers,

                Jeremy

p.s. "There is a crack, a crack in everything, that's how the light gets
in." from _The Dove_ by Leonard Cohen

Random Samples (1994) "Natural History in New York" ed. Constance Holden
p1688, Science v263, 25 March.
Mayr, E. (1994a) "Cotylorhynchus: Not a Mammal" p1519, Science v264, 10 June.
Padian, K. (1994) "Ordering Organisms" p1017, Science v265, 19 August.
Mayr, E. (1994b) "Ordering Systems" p715, Science v266, 4 November.

__________________________________________________________
Jeremy Creighton Ahouse
Biology Dept.
Brandeis University
Waltham, MA 02254-9110

(617)736-4954 Lab
     736-2405 FAX
ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu
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<19:68>From MNHVZ082@SIVM.SI.EDU  Thu Mar 30 17:24:03 1995

Date: Thu, 30 Mar 1995 17:12:42 -0500 (EST)
From: Kevin de Queiroz <@KUHUB.CC.UKANS.EDU:MNHVZ082@SIVM.BITNET>
Subject: Re: Mayr's use of "Darwinian"
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

This is a response to the message from Polly Winsor concerning use
of the term "Darwinian" by Mayr as well as the use of narratives of the
history of systematics to give the field a direction for the future.

I'm not sure whether Mayr ever used the term specific adjective
"Darwinian" in connection with the approach to systematics that he advocates
(though I wouldn't be surprised if he did).  He does, however, often
argue that Darwin endorsed this approach.  Some important references
are 1)  Mayr, E.  1974.  Cladistic analysis or cladistic classification?
Z. Zool. Syst. Evol.-forsch. 12:94-128 (see response by Hennig, W. 1975.
Syst. Zool. 24:244-256), 2) Mayr, E. 1981.  Biological classification:
Toward a synthesis of opposing methodologies.  Science 214:510-516,
and 3)  Mayr, E. and P. D. Ashlock 1991.  Principles of systematic
zoology.  McGraw Hill, New York (see also 1969 edition by Mayr alone).

I can't speak for Dr. Mayr, but Dr. Winsor is most definitely correct
in her conjecture that I am using a narrative of the history of syste-
matics to give this field "forward momentum, a future direction" (as
well as a basis for evaluating what we are doing at present).  I wasn't
aware that I was doing this in some of my early papers on the subject
(1985, 1988), but in more recent papers I did it consciously (influenced
by a paper sent to me by Bob O'Hara).  I would also like to take this
opportunity to modify the argument that I presented in my early papers
on this subject.  As Dr. Winsor noted, I argued
(in those early papers) that the Darwinian Revolution would not be
complete until some of Hennig's principles became more widely accepted.
Although I still believe that Hennig's principles are necessary, I now
realize that they are not sufficient.  Indeed, most of my recent work (with
Jacques Gauthier) deals with what I consider the next stage of the
Darwinian Revolution in taxonomy--namely,  extending evolutionary
approaches to the principles and rules of biological nomenclature.

I'm delighted that Dr. Winsor interpreted these papers the way I intended
them to be interpreted (many systematists think that I am trying to
take credit for Hennig's ideas rather than to explain their significance
in the context of the historical development of taxonomy), and I am
very interested to find out more about her project.

Kevin de Queiroz
mnhvz082@sivm.si.edu

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<19:69>From bouckaer@csuvax1.murdoch.edu.au  Fri Mar 31 01:43:09 1995

Date: Fri, 31 Mar 1995 10:06:55 +0800 (WST)
From: Hugo Bouckaert <bouckaer@csuvax1.csu.murdoch.edu.au>
Subject: Popular culture and inevitable social change
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

The question whether popular culture drives social change or is a
response to it depends on to what degree human society is
still fundamentally linked to our natural environment. To acknowledge
that that link is very indirect does not mean it is not important.
Popular culture may drive itself, but to state it is a motor of
inevitable social change is harder to accept. It seems to me that our
image of who we are and what we might yet become are responses to our
relationship to nature, rather than causes for it.

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Darwin-L Message Log 19: 1-69 -- March 1995                                 End

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