Darwin-L Message Log 25: 1–50 — September 1995
Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences
Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.
This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during September 1995. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”
----------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 25: 1-50 -- SEPTEMBER 1995 ----------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L A Network Discussion Group on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu is an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Darwin-L was established in September 1993 to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among academic professionals in these fields. Darwin-L is not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin but instead addresses the entire range of historical sciences from an interdisciplinary perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical anthropology, historical geography, and related "palaetiological" fields. This log contains the public messages posted to Darwin-L during September 1995. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and some administrative messages and personal messages posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster. The master copy of this log is maintained in the archives of Darwin-L by email@example.com, and is also available on the Darwin-L Web Server at http://rjohara.uncg.edu. For instructions on how to retrieve copies of this and other log files, and for additional information about Darwin-L, send the e-mail message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org, or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server. Darwin-L is administered by Robert J. O'Hara (email@example.com), Center for Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A., and it is supported by the Center for Critical Inquiry, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and the Department of History and the Academic Computing Center, University of Kansas. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:1>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri Sep 1 00:13:47 1995 Date: Fri, 01 Sep 1995 01:13:31 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: List owner's monthly greeting To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Greetings to all Darwin-L subscribers. On the first of every month I send out a short note on the status of our group, along with a reminder of basic commands. For additional information about the group please visit the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu). Darwin-L is an international discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences. The group is not devoted to any particular discipline, such as evolutionary biology, but rather seeks to promote interdisciplinary comparisons across the entire range of palaetiology. This week Darwin-L will celebrate its second anniversary, and we now have more than 600 members from over 30 countries. I am very grateful to all of you for the continuing success of Darwin-L and the high level of discussion for which the group has become known. Over the last two years we have generated thousands of messages and have brought together a great many palaetiologists who would not otherwise have encountered one another in the normal course of academic life (and who might not even have known that they were all laboring in different corners of the same field). I am confident that, with your help, the coming years of Darwin-L will be as rewarding as the first two we have just completed. Because Darwin-L has a large membership and is sometimes a high-volume discussion group it is important for all participants to try to keep their postings as substantive as possible so that we can maintain a favorable "signal-to-noise" ratio. Personal messages should be sent by private e-mail rather than to the group as a whole. Subscribers who feel burdened from time to time by the volume of their Darwin-L mail may wish to take advantage of the digest option described below. Because different mail systems work differently, not all subscribers see the e-mail address of the original sender of each message in the message header (some people only see "Darwin-L" as the source). It is therefore very important to include your name and e-mail address at the end of every message you post so that everyone can identify you and reply privately if appropriate. Remember also that in most cases when you type "reply" in response to a message from Darwin-L your reply is sent to the group as a whole, rather than to the original sender. The following are the most frequently used listserv commands that Darwin-L members may wish to know. All of these commands should be sent as regular e-mail messages to the listserv address (email@example.com), not to the address of the group as a whole (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu). In each case leave the subject line of the message blank and include no extraneous text, as the command will be read and processed by the listserv program rather than by a person. To join the group send the message: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L Your Name For example: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L John Smith To cancel your subscription send the message: UNSUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L If you feel burdened by the volume of mail you receive from Darwin-L you may instruct the listserv program to deliver mail to you in digest format (one message per day consisting of the whole day's posts bundled together). To receive your mail in digest format send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL DIGEST To change your subscription from digest format back to one-at-a-time delivery send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL ACK To temporarily suspend mail delivery (when you go on vacation, for example) send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL POSTPONE To resume regular delivery send either the DIGEST or ACK messages above. For a comprehensive introduction to Darwin-L with notes on our scope and on network etiquette, and a summary of all available commands, send the message: INFO DARWIN-L To post a public message to the group as a whole simply send it as regular e-mail to the group's address (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu). I thank you all for your continuing interest in Darwin-L and in the interdisciplinary study of the historical sciences. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Robert J. O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) Center for Critical Inquiry and Department of Biology 100 Foust Building, University of North Carolina at Greensboro Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:2>From email@example.com Fri Sep 1 04:13:09 1995 Date: Thu, 31 Aug 1995 23:12:06 -1000 From: Ron Amundson <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: Darwin-L List <email@example.com> Subject: Emerson and essentialism (fwd) Martin Doudna, a colleague and Emerson scholar, sent me the following comment on Bob O'Hara's post of Emerson's apparent essentialism, which I am quoting without permission (don't tell him): --------- Ron-- Thanks for the Emerson quotations. I don't think the first verse O'Hara quotes, with its reference to "The perfect Adam lives," proves anything. Nineteenth century American literature contains a lot of references to Adam, usually referring to the fresh potential awaiting each new generation--an idea more central to Transcendentalism, incidentally, than Neo-Platonism. (Emerson was NOT a philosopher, as I have to keep reminding students, but a thinker, who can be quoted on most sides of nearly every question.) A counterpart to the "Adam" quotation--much more to the point than the verse quoted from "Illusions" is the motto Emerson added in 1849 to his book NATURE (first published in 1836): A subtle chain of endless rings The next unto the farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes And speaks all languages the rose; And, striving to be man, the worm Mounts through all the spires of form. The last two lines, esp., are often quoted in studies of Emerson's thought. Martin ---------------------------- <Ron back again> Sounds like Ralph Waldo might have read the Vestiges, eh? Or some Naturphilosophen? Cheers, Ron _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:3>From firstname.lastname@example.org Fri Sep 1 06:43:58 1995 From: email@example.com (Roger B. Blumberg) Subject: MendelWeb 95.1 To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Fri, 1 Sep 1995 07:31:31 -0400 (EDT) Some of the readers of darwin-l may be interested in this: The first edition of MendelWeb (http://www.netspace.org/MendelWeb/) is now available. MendelWeb is a teaching and learning "sourcebook" built upon Gregor Mendel's famous pea plant paper of 1865, and designed to show how primary texts can be used to construct educational resources that take advantage of hypertext, the connectivity of the World Wide Web, and the collaborative possibilites of the Internet. MendelWeb contains the texts of Mendel's original paper and an English translation, texts that can be viewed as plain or annotated html, and downloaded in a variety of formats. Also included are notes, discussion and homework questions, and various secondary materials linked to a variety of content-based sites on the Web. In an effort to foster collaborative learning and teaching, MendelWeb includes the Mendelroom (a Moo environment) and collaborative hypertexts of both the German and English versions of Mendel's paper. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:4>From email@example.com Fri Sep 1 07:18:54 1995 Date: Fri, 1 Sep 95 05:19:36 PDT From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Peter H. Salus) To: email@example.com Subject: Re: Emerson and essentialism (fwd) In response to Ron's question as to whether Emerson had read some of the Naturphilosophen, I don't think there's really much of a question here: he certainly did. Peter _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:5>From firstname.lastname@example.org Fri Sep 1 08:00:51 1995 From: Mark Hineline <email@example.com> Subject: Re: Emerson and essentialism (fwd) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Fri, 1 Sep 95 6:00:49 PDT Thought I would add a little confusion to the question of Emerson and essentialism. Note the date of Bob's final quotation from Emerson -- 1860. Now note the following, from Walter Harding's biography of Thoreau. On January 1, 1860, when Charles Brace came to Concord to speak about his Children's Aid movement in New York City, he brought with him a copy of Charles Darwin's *Origin of Species*, which had been first published only five weeks before and which he had picked up just that day from Asa Gray, the botanist, in Cambridge. [Bronson] Alcott, Brace, and Thoreau dined at [F.B.] Sanborn's and their talk centered primarily on Darwin's new book and his theories of evolution. Thoreau was so impressed that he quickly got hold of a copy, took six pages of notes on it in one of his commonplace books, and told Sanborn that he liked the book very much. When Emerson told Thoreau that Agassiz had scoffed at the new theories, Thoreau replied: "If Agassiz sees two thrushes so alike that they bother the ornithologist to discriminate them, he insists that they are two species; but if he sees Humboldt and Fred Cogswell [a dim-witted inmate of the Concord Almshouse], he insists that they come from one ancestor." But despite the fact that Thoreau was impressed with Darwin's theories, they had appeared too late to have any significant influence on his own thinking [Thoreau died in 1862]. So there it is -- make of it what you will. If nothing else, this anecdote should make us humble about the "information superhighway." Mark Hineline Department of History UCSD La Jolla, CA email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:6>From firstname.lastname@example.org Fri Sep 1 15:19:51 1995 From: Mark Hineline <email@example.com> Subject: Re: Emerson and essentialism (fwd) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Fri, 1 Sep 95 12:59:23 PDT C. Loring Brace writes: And the reason Brace went to Concord via Asa Gray in Cambridge was that Gray's wife, Jane, was his first cousin. If Thoreau died too soon for Darwin to have an effect on his natural history writings, Brace was heavily influenced by Darwin in his own future work. Thanks to Gray, he even visited Darwin at Down in 1872. Unfortunately, one of the things he picked up with particular enthusiasm was pangenesis, and he used that as partial support for his own piously optimistic social programs. No harm done, but it makes him look just a bit woolly-headed in retrospect -- although no more so than his other social-reformer contemporaries. C. L. Brace Museum of Anthropology University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Mi. Talk about a world-wide web! C. Loring Brace is the great-grandson of Charles Brace. Mark Hineline _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:7>From KIMLER@social.chass.ncsu.edu Fri Sep 1 17:12:16 1995 From: "Dr. William C. Kimler, History" <KIMLER@social.chass.ncsu.edu> To: email@example.com Date: Fri, 1 Sep 1995 15:47:46 EDT Subject: Agassiz's thrushes Mark Hineline related an anecdote about Thoreau, on Agassiz: >When Emerson told Thoreau that Agassiz had scoffed at the new >theories, Thoreau replied: "If Agassiz sees two thrushes so alike >that they bother the ornithologist to discriminate them, he insists >that they are two species; but if he sees Humboldt and Fred >Cogswell [a dim-witted inmate of the Concord Almshouse], he insists >that they come from one ancestor." What's the reference? I'm interested in the reputation of Agassiz's species work, and this seems to be a snide remark about "splitters" as well as essentialism. Thanks, William Dr. William Kimler Department of History - Box 8108 North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-8108 (919) 515-2483 firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:8>From KIMLER@social.chass.ncsu.edu Fri Sep 1 17:13:18 1995 From: "Dr. William C. Kimler, History" <KIMLER@social.chass.ncsu.edu> To: email@example.com Date: Fri, 1 Sep 1995 16:03:21 EDT Subject: genealogical trees On 28 Aug 95, Kent E. Holsinger wrote > ... the history of three alleles >chosen at random from an ancestral species population. Label these >alleles 1, 2, and 3, and suppose that 1 and 2 share a more recent >common ancestor than either does with 3, i.e., the genealogical tree >for the alleles looks like > > /\ > / \ > /\ \ > / \ \ > 1 2 3 > >(For some reason population geneticists have the convention of drawing >geneaological relationships in the opposite way from systematists.) Here's a tongue-in-cheek response, or is it serious? As we all know, Darwin drew a diagram like the one above for The Origin, which literally shows descent/descendants. It was a part of his argument for the new idea of descent with modification (selection operating on heredity). So geneticists are more purely following the imagery of a genetic process, keeping cause at the forefront.. Haeckel and others switched to the "tree" with modern spp. -- and us -- at the top. Is this perhaps more in keeping with an idealist-morphological tradition? All form ascending to perfection, or at least its latest attempt at such? Are taxonomic trees more reflective of pure form than cause and process? Ah, I see "essentialism" creeping in once more.... Just a thought to stir things up, but imagery is revealing. William Dr. William Kimler Department of History - Box 8108 North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-8108 (919) 515-2483 firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:9>From email@example.com Fri Sep 1 18:19:53 1995 From: Mark Hineline <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Re: Agassiz's thrushes To: email@example.com Date: Fri, 1 Sep 95 15:32:50 PDT The anecdote is from Walter Harding, 1982, *The Days of Henry Thoreau* (Princeton, N.J.) Princeton University Press, 429. Thoreau's words were recorded in Emerson's journal: (Boston, 1910), v. IX, p. 270. Which I should have noted in the first place. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:10>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sun Sep 3 00:05:35 1995 Date: Sun, 03 Sep 1995 01:05:28 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: September 3 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro SEPTEMBER 3 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1603: JOHN JONSTON is born at Sambter, Poland. Jonston will travel widely as a scholar and physician, and will study at universities in England, Scotland, Germany and the Netherlands. He will publish extensively on many subjects, but will be best remembered for his encyclopedic works on natural history. 1704: JOSEPH DE JUSSIEU is born at Lyon, France. Member of a distinguished family of botanists, Jussieu will travel to South America as a physician with the French navy in 1735. Although he will attempt to return to France at the conclusion of the voyage, financial difficulties and medical emergencies will keep him in South America, and he will spend the next 36 years exploring the continent. He will investigate the botanical sources of quinine and cinnamon, examine the Huancavelica mercury mines and the Potosi silver mines, and collect birds at Lake Titicaca. Returning at last to France in 1771, he will spend the final years of his life in sickness and depression. 1801: CHRISTIAN ERICH HERMANN VON MEYER is born at Frankfurt, Germany. The son of a Frankfurt lawyer, Meyer will work for the greater part of his life in the disparate fields of finance and paleontology. Study at Berlin, Munich, and Heidelberg will bring him into contact with many of the leading scientists of his day, and he will quickly become known as a skillful paleontologist. Starting in 1837, however, he will make his living in the government financial service, turning down a professorship at Gottingen in order to maintain his academic independence. In 1846 with Wilhelm Duncker he will found the journal _Palaeontographica_, and in subsequent years that journal will publish many of his researches on fossil vertebrates. 1993: DARWIN-L, an interdisciplinary discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences, is opened to the public. Administered by Robert O'Hara from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Darwin-L will generate thousands of messages over the next two years and will come to have more than 600 members from 30 countries. O'Hara will be very grateful to all of the group's members for their many contributions and for their continuing interest in the comparative study of the historical sciences. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:11>From J.Carr@uts.edu.au Mon Sep 4 02:31:04 1995 Date: Mon, 4 Sep 1995 17:30:25 +1000 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: J.Carr@uts.edu.au (John Carr) Subject: Re: iiwi adaptation? Jeremy Ahouse provided a very intriguing account of the change which occurred in the length of the beak [3% shorter] of the iiwi as it switched from its previous but now extinct food-source to one which does not need a long beak. For this result to really "have made Darwin proud" we would need to know if other causative factors other than adaptation may have been involved. For example, could it have been that not only the beaks but the entire body mass of the iiwi birds may have reduced in that time period, given the loss of their major food source? I [and perhaps Charles too] would be pleased to hear of whether the original findings reported whether the beak change was independent of an overall body change. John Carr Communication Studies Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Technology, Sydney Sydney Australia email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:12>From firstname.lastname@example.org Mon Sep 4 11:26:13 1995 Date: Mon, 4 Sep 1995 11:26:10 -0500 (CDT) From: Gregory Mayer <email@example.com> Subject: Re: genealogical trees To: firstname.lastname@example.org Sorry to slay a beautiful theory with an ugly fact, but Darwin's diagram of descent in the _Origin_ used (started?) the systematists' convention of having time proceed from bottom-to-top, not the top-to- bottom form used in Kent Holsinger's illustration. Darwin used the bottom-to-top form in a notebook sketch much earlier, as well (sorry, I don't have the exact reference to hand). The choice of the bottom-to-top form follows naturally from the long established geologists' convention of depicting geological strata in that way, which in turn follows from the nature of the strata as seen in section (as in a roadcut). Darwin is explicit about comparing the time intervals of his diagram to geological strata (p. 124), and it thus would have made little sense to adopt a convention contrary to the geologists'. The top-to-bottom convention is not universal in genetics; John Avise (1994. Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution. Chapman Hall, New York), for example, uses top-to-bottom, bottom-to-top, and left-to-right, with perhaps a preference for the last of these. Dobzhansky (1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia, New York) used a diagram best described as radial, but perhaps also really a network (i.e. not showing which condition is the most primitive) rather than a tree. In his last rewrite of this book (1970, retitled Genetics of the Evolutionary Process), he uses the radial and left-to-right (and perhaps others: I didn't check every illustration). Who did originate the top-to-bottom form? Gregory C. Mayer email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:13>From HAAVN@Corelli.Augustana.AB.CA Mon Sep 4 13:06:59 1995 From: "Bruce Janz" <JANZB@Corelli.Augustana.AB.CA> Organization: Augustana University College To: CIRLA-L@AUGUSTANA.AB.CA Date: Mon, 4 Sep 1995 11:43:42 MDT Subject: Update on CIRLA Conference Well, conference preparation is off and running. A local planning committee has been established. They are: Conference Organizer: Bruce Janz, Philosophy (firstname.lastname@example.org) Conference Administrator: Chris Jensen McCloy (email@example.com) Planning Committee: Ross Emmett, Economics (firstname.lastname@example.org) Bill Hackborn, Mathematics (email@example.com) Skye Hughes, Sociology (firstname.lastname@example.org) Paula Marentette, Psychology (email@example.com) We are already starting to receive submissions, for papers, panels, and sessions. We are looking for more -- if you have an idea, contact one of us. The announced deadline is November 30, so you have some time yet. If this is the first you have heard of this conference, please contact me, and I will send you the e-mail call for papers posted in May. We will have a poster and registration info out in a couple of weeks as well, and those will be mailed to whomever we have a regular mail address for. I will also post the registration info on this list, and others. As well, we want to publicize this conference as broadly as possible. It will be of interest to both academics, who are concerned about the state of liberal arts education, as well as administrators, who are concerned about the implementation of liberal arts and interdisciplinary programs. We plan on having a panel on teaching in an interdisciplinary setting, a dean's panel, a panel on funding of liberal arts research, and others. Several excellent ideas have been floated already, which we are working on. I will update this list as the conference develops. +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ |Bruce B. Janz | |Assistant Professor of Philosophy | |Director, CIRLA (Centre for Interdisciplinary | | Research in the Liberal Arts) | |Augustana University College (403)679-1524| |4901-46 Avenue 1-800-661-8714| |Camrose, Alberta Fax: (403)679-1129| |CANADA T4V 2R3 e-mail: JANZB@CORELLI.AUGUSTANA.AB.CA| +--------------------------------------------------------------------+ _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:14>From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue Sep 5 06:20:53 1995 Date: Tue, 5 Sep 95 07:22:47 EDT From: email@example.com (Kent E. Holsinger) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: September 3 -- Today in the Historical Sciences >>>>> "Bob" == DARWIN <DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu> writes: Bob> 1993: DARWIN-L, an interdisciplinary discussion group for Bob> professionals in the historical sciences, is opened to the Bob> public. Administered by Robert O'Hara from the University of Bob> North Carolina at Greensboro, Darwin-L will generate Bob> thousands of messages over the next two years and will come Bob> to have more than 600 members from 30 countries. O'Hara will Bob> be very grateful to all of the group's members for their many Bob> contributions and for their continuing interest in the Bob> comparative study of the historical sciences. More importantly, all of us are indebted to Bob for making this possible. -- Kent ------------------------------- Kent E. Holsinger Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology University of Connecticut, U-43 Storrs, CT 06269-3043 Kent@Darwin.EEB.UConn.Edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:15>From email@example.com Tue Sep 5 06:36:58 1995 Date: Tue, 5 Sep 95 07:38:52 EDT From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Kent E. Holsinger) To: email@example.com Subject: Re: genealogical trees Gregory Mayer points out that Avise uses a variety of different tree shapes, as does Dobzhansky. I should have been a little more precise when I said in an earlier message that geneticists tend to draw trees top down like /\ / \ /\ \ 1 2 3 What I should have said is that we tend to draw them that way *when talking about the coalescent process*. I just checked Kingman's original papers, and there are no coalescent diagrams in them (as you might expect, given that they were published in probability journals). I'm not sure who originated the convention, but I suspect it has something to do with emphasizing that the coalescent approach to understanding genetic drift looks at time backwards from the classical approach. In the classical approach population geneticists make predictions about the probability of certain events in the future or about the stationary probability distribution alleles in populations in the present. In the coalescent approach, the emphasis is on the historical structure implicit in a particular sample of alleles. In other words, classical approaches are prospective. The coalescent approach is retrospective. -- Kent ------------------------------- Kent E. Holsinger Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology University of Connecticut, U-43 Storrs, CT 06269-3043 Kent@Darwin.EEB.UConn.Edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:16>From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue Sep 5 14:16:02 1995 From: Joe Felsenstein <email@example.com> Subject: Re: genealogical trees To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Tue, 5 Sep 1995 12:19:07 -0700 (PDT) There were a spate of top-down trees in the 1960's. I think you will find that the trees in the early-1960's papers of Zuckerkandl and Pauling were top-down rather than bottom-up. In Thomas Jukes's 1965 book "Molecules and Evolution" there is one left-to-right tree (p. 155, attributed to Ingram, 1963) and one top-to-bottom tree (p. 176). Fitch and Margoliash, in their 1967 paper (in Science) that introduced distance matrix methods for phylogenies, had top-down trees. Walter Fitch told me that he couldn't figure out which way to make them go, and then he remembered that evolutionists were always talking about the "descent" of species! In general, this way of drawing trees came from people who were not trained as systematists but who were making phylogenies. Computer scientists, for example, always make them top-down, though they are meant to be data structure diagrams and not phylogenies. There must have been earlier examples, given that there are only so many directions available, but these are the earliest examples I know of. Left-to-right trees have become popular since their use as clustering diagrams in the phenetics literature of the 1950's and 1960's: they have the great advantage of fitting the names in better, and thus have been almost universally used in computer programs. ----- Joe Felsenstein email@example.com (IP No. 188.8.131.52) Dept. of Genetics, Univ. of Washington, Box 357360, Seattle, WA 98195-7360 _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:17>From smithkel@Trenton.EDU Tue Sep 5 16:26:05 1995 Date: Tue, 5 Sep 1995 17:33:10 -0400 (EDT) From: Kelly C Smith <smithkel@Trenton.EDU> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Sociobiology Text Folks, Can anyone reccommend a good, comprehensive anthology in sociobiology? Thanks in advance. Kelly Kelly C. Smith "Teaching is not a lost art, but the regard Philosophy Department for it is a lost tradition" - Barzun Trenton State College Hillwood Lakes CN 4700 "For every complex problem there is a simple, Trenton, NJ 08650-4700 easy to understand, incorrect answer." (609) 771-2524 Office - Svent Gorgi (215) 702-7008 Home (609) 771-3439 Fax "One should always keep an open mind, but not Smithkel@trenton.edu so open that one's brains fall out." - Russell _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:18>From email@example.com Tue Sep 5 18:29:06 1995 Date: Tue, 5 Sep 95 16:29:39 PDT From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Peter H. Salus) To: email@example.com Subject: Re: Sociobiology Text A.L. Caplan, ed., THE SOCIOBIOLOGY DEBATE NY: Harper & Row, 1978. ISBN 0-06-010633-6. Peter _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:19>From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue Sep 5 23:12:11 1995 From: "Gessler, Nicholas (G) ANTHRO" <email@example.com> To: DARWIN - postings <DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu> Subject: Refs? Evolution of Social Deception Date: Tue, 05 Sep 95 21:10:00 PDT I am looking for some literature on the evolution of deviousness, deception, and downright deceit in primate and human and other societies. What I'd like to find are some theoretical attempts to understand the dynamics of disinformation practiced by the individual upon him/her self, and by individuals upon others within a population. In particular, I'd like to see if there are some references to fitness and selection on guile in societal systems. I'm looking for some theories to test using distributed agent simulations on computer, and would appreciate any pointers readers may have towards relevant literature. I have not found much to date. Please reply to my e-mail address, and I will post the results back to the list after a few days. Many thanks, Nick Gessler UCLA - Anthropology firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:20>From email@example.com Wed Sep 6 07:43:59 1995 Date: 6 Sep 1995 08:38:32 -0400 From: "p stevens" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: trees, and Agassiz's species To: email@example.com Top-down trees are like human genealogies, which I suppose you can say are retrospective - after all, it mattered who one's ancestors were. Representations of the scala naturae, which influenced many early drawings of trees, is drawn so that man/god ended up on top, and I think Lamarck's series went in this direction; Bonnet's certainly did. I seem to remember that Ramean (logical) trees ended up with the species infima at the bottom, i.e., were more like genealogical trees, but I can't lay my hands on a representation of such a tree. Interestingly, perhaps, when the sequence of linear arrangements was committed to paper, this might well start of with the basal member first - at least it does in Lamarck's work, both botanical and zoological, and also A.-L. de Jussieu's. However, it seemed better to some people when teaching to start off with what was well known, which would be something like mammals or flowering plants. I don't know if there is any relationship between linear sequences and graphical representations; perhaps not. A comment was made a little while back about Agassiz's species concepts. I wonder if the quotation referred less to Agassiz's own work, but was more a negative assessment of species work in general. I remain impressed (or depressed) about the negative connotations carried by systematics-as-classifying through the 19thC, and species work (meaningless splitting, arguments about names) epitomised the systematist. There was an offhand remark in the last Times Literary Supplement about "plan[t] taxonomy" being on the borderlines of science. Peter Stevens. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:21>From VISLYONS@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu Wed Sep 6 10:43:12 1995 Date: Wed, 06 Sep 1995 11:41:54 -0400 (EDT) From: VISLYONS@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu Subject: Re: Sociobiology Text To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University at Buffalo Regarding a text, the Sociobiology Debates edited by Arthur Kaplan is not bad, but it is old and I think that many of the excerpts are a bit too short, but it does have many historical selections. I too would be interested in a more recent anthology. Sherrie Lyons email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:22>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu Sep 7 00:07:30 1995 Date: Thu, 07 Sep 1995 01:07:17 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: September 7 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro SEPTEMBER 7 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1707: GEORGES-LOUIS LECLERC, later COMTE DE BUFFON, is born at Montbard, France. He will become one of the most important scientific figures of 18th century France, doing work in optics, chemistry, mathematics, botany, and geology, and publishing the encyclopedic _Histoire Naturelle_ in 36 volumes beginning in 1749. Convinced that the earth began in a molten state, Buffon will conduct experiments on the cooling of spheres of various sizes in an attempt to estimate its age. In _Epoques de la Nature_ (1779) he will propose 75,000 years as the age of the earth, but in his private manuscripts he will revise this to a more daring 3,000,000 years. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:23>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Sep 11 16:03:15 1995 Date: Mon, 11 Sep 1995 11:49:08 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: September 11 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro SEPTEMBER 11 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1522: ULISSE ALDROVANDI born at Bologna, Italy, to noble parents. After studying medicine and mathematics at Padua, he will take a teaching position in Bologna and establish a natural history collection and a botanical garden there. A paradigmatic "Renaissance man", Aldrovandi will be best remembered for his encyclopedic works in Latin on birds, fishes, insects, and metals. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:24>From KOLB@ucla.edu Tue Sep 12 01:02:00 1995 Date: Mon, 11 Sep 1995 23:01:52 -0700 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Jack Kolb <KOLB@ucla.edu> Subject: (COPY) stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home Apologies if this has appeared before on the DARWIN list: I don't remember seeing it. >-------------------------TEXT-OF-FORWARDED-MAIL---------------------------- >Sender: owner-skeptic@LISTPROC.HCF.JHU.EDU >From: Martin Adamson <MARTIN@SRV0.EMS.ED.AC.UK> >Subject: stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home > >I thought some of you might be interested to see this reprinted article. > >The Electronic Telegraph Friday 8 September 1995 Home News > >stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home > >By Roger Highfield, Science Editor > >BRITAIN should be ashamed that the home of Charles Darwin has been >allowed to crumble and decay, Sir David Attenborough said yesterday. > >Sir David, who is backing an appeal led by the Natural History Museum to >raise stlg3.2 million to restore the house, said overseas visitors "must be >astounded that England is so careless". > >Darwin, one of the most revolutionary thinkers in history, ranked >alongside Shakespeare in his contribution to Britain's heritage, said Sir >David. He hoped the appeal would provide better facilities for visitors >and space for visiting scientists. > >Downe House, near Bromley, Kent, is owned by the Royal College of >Surgeons and has been a museum since 1929. Its roof leaks, the greenhouse >is derelict and the laboratory ruined. Damp and woodworm threaten the >study where Darwin conceived the principle of natural selection and wrote >On the Origin of Species. > >"The extraordinary and scandalous thing, is that it should be in such a >state of disrepair," said Sir David. > >A curious English kind of bumbling. > >He described Downe as one of the most important places in scientific >history which had nevertheless been allowed by "a curious English kind of >bumbling" to decay. > >Since January, almost stlg500,000 has been pledged. An application has been >made to the National Heritage Lottery Fund for a grant of stlg2.4 million. >Another stlg300,000 must be raised by the end of November to complete the >target. > >Prof Stephen Jay Gould, a Harvard University palaeontologist, said Darwin >was "still a creationist" when he docked in London in 1836 after his >five-year voyage in HMS Beagle. > >"Darwin created evolution by immersing himself in the scientific and >cultural life of London. He did it here inspired by what he saw on the >Beagle and he did it at Downe," he said. > >As the location of Darwin's work and home life from 1842 to his death in >1882, it held a unique place in the country's heritage. "Downe is not >just an old man's pretty country home. It is the site of some of the most >revolutionary thinking in the history of our species." > >The Government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Prof Robert May, said: "There >are innumerable blue plaques around London to politicians and artists >you've never heard of. "To my mind, no one stands higher than Darwin. No >one did more to change the way we think about ourselves." Jack Kolb email@example.com (old address: IKW4GWI@MVS.OAC.UCLA.EDU) _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:25>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Sep 12 11:46:45 1995 Date: Tue, 12 Sep 1995 12:46:35 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: September 12 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro SEPTEMBER 12 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1605: WILLIAM DUGDALE is born at Shustoke, England, "at which time there was a swarm of bees in his father's garden, then esteemed by some a happy presage on the behalf of the babe." In his youth Dugdale will join a circle of men interested in British antiquities, including William Burton, Symon Archer, and Roger Dodsworth, and his studies will win for him in 1639 the position of Rouge Croix Pursuivant in the College of Heralds. He will rise through the ranks of the College to become Garter King-of-Arms in 1677. Dugdale's extensive surveys of the history of British monasteries, legal traditions, monuments, and arms will set a new standard for British historigraphy, and his _Antiquities of Warwickshire, Illustrated; From Records, Leiger Books, Manuscripts, Charters, Evidences, Tombs, and Armes: Beautified with Maps, Prospects, and Portraictures_ (1656) will become a standard work by which all subsquent county histories will be judged. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:26>From firstname.lastname@example.org Wed Sep 13 13:18:11 1995 Date: Wed, 13 Sep 1995 14:18:24 -0400 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Jeremy C. Ahouse) Subject: Commentary in Discover Part of Discover magazine is available to the web (http://www.enews.com:80/magazines/discover/). The commentary in the last 2 issues may be of interest to Darwin list members. Issue: 10/95 Title: Commentary / Dr. Darwin Author: Lori Oliwenstein A brief review of "Darwinian medicine". Essentially taking note of Ewalds book (quite good) and Williams and Nesse's book (far too many just so stories). Issue: 09/95 Title: Commentary / Darwin's Rib Author: Robert S. Root-Bernstein Describes the author's creative struggle with creationist tinted students. - Jeremy __________________________________________________________ Jeremy Creighton Ahouse Biology Dept. Brandeis University Waltham, MA 02254-9110 (617)736-4954 Lab 736-2405 FAX email@example.com _ _ /\\ ,'/| "The purpose of art is not _| |\-'-'_/_/ the release of a momentary __--'/` \ ejection of adrenaline / \ but is, rather, the gradual, / "o. |o"| lifelong construction of a | \/ state of wonder serenity." \_ ___\ - Glenn Gould `--._`. \;// ;-.___,' / ,' _-' _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:27>From firstname.lastname@example.org Wed Sep 13 22:08:55 1995 From: "Gessler, Nicholas (G) ANTHRO" <email@example.com> To: DARWIN - postings <DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>, ANTHRO-L - submissions <ANTHRO-L@UBVM.cc.buffalo.edu> Subject: Social Deception References, revisited Date: Wed, 13 Sep 95 20:04:00 PDT Hello All, Many thanks for the many replies (16) to the inquiry on theories of the evolution of various forms of deception. I'll expand upon some of the references and post them to Anthro-L and Darwin-L next week. (I have to leave for the Simulating Societies conference tomorrow.) For those who were going to look up one or two more citations, I would appreciate it if you would do so, and I will include these. It seems to me that there might be some literature in three other professions that practice deception, and I'm wondering if anyone can add any particularly relevant references from these: 1) Stage Magicians and Illusionists. There was an old book called Illustrated Magic which went briefly into theory. Most books explain tricks but very few seem to go into the perceptual psychology of creating illusions. 2) Military Tacticians. I have one reference, and I'm sure there are many having to do with feints, camoflage, and disinformation. But are there any that address forms of deception that might be relevant to pre-industrial society in non-warfare situations? 3) Advertising "persuasion." Cons and stings. The use of language to manipulate, disinform, or selectively communicate. Again, I would hope for concise theoretical assessments of these forms of deception in populations, hopefully with discussions of their fitness in a co-adaptational sense. Best regards, Nick Gessler _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:28>From Catalinus@aol.com Thu Sep 14 01:28:03 1995 Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 02:28:01 -0400 From: Catalinus@aol.com To: DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu Subject: Evolutionary Synthesis Forgive the reposts: mea culpa, mea maxima culpae Synthesis of Evolutionary Theory of Culture Much has been posted lately pertaining to a similar concept, focussing on the nature of science, objectivity, bias, and "what anthropology should be". I believe anthropology and archaeology should try to develop an evolutionary framework because, to me at least, the universe appears to run that way. Humans are life forms that exist within the same sphere as all other life forms, and are therefore effected by evolutionary effects, such as natural selection, as much as any other animal. Natural selection is a force, perhaps a random and mathematically defined force, but a force none the less. I believe culture is humans primary adaptive mechanism. All of the products of culture are created within a universe permeated by selective forces, and must at some level be affected by them. That does not mean all cultural attributes originate as the result of selective pressure, or are even strongly influenced by selection whatsoever. But all culture is subtly influenced by selection. I have obviously gone on a rant, but why stop now. I realize this is theory that will need quite alot of development, but I offer a summary of my position for comment. Adaptation An important aspect of evolutionary theory is the role of adaptation. Adaptive responses are those "..features of organisms that have come about by natural selection because they serve certain functions and thus increase the reproductive success of their carriers" (Dobzhansky). Kirch suggests that adaptation is the key to an analysis of cultural change, defining cultural adaptation as "a process of alteration of a cultural system in response to change in its coupled environmental and/or somatic systems". Culture is a special kind of adaption that is transmitted via learned, nongenetic behavioral patterns. Variation is the basis for all possible change. Archaeological research involves the relation of observed variation to the probable selective pressures of the environment. The amount of variation in a population can be used as a measure of its potential adaptedness. Although behavioral variants originate with the individual, variation must be spread for it to have an adaptive effect on the population. Selection is primarily manifest as natural selection, with some sexual selection influencing character transmission. Selection is the factor that decides how much influence a particular trait expression will have on the overall adaptive strategy. Selection acts on the group rather than the individual in cultural evolution. Criteria for selective value include, efficiency of energy capture, survival and reproductive success, and even perceived satisfaction of needs and wants. The most important aspect of selection is its benefit to the survivability of a culture group. Three modes of selection; 1)Stabilizing tends to promote maintenance of the status quo, and functions as long as the environmental and cultural systems remain in equilibrium. 2)Directional selection acts to guide adaptionary changes to fit an environmental constraint. It is through this type of selection that most evolutionary events occur. 3)Diversifying selection acts to favor extremes of trait expression. It would tend to favor alternate forms of an expression, and tend to not favor a median form. Source of selective pressure; 1)the environment is the primary source of selective pressure, and is the ultimate test by which adaptions are measured for their selective value. 2)demographic conditions, such as population size, geographical distribution, and life table dispersions are also a source of adaptionary influence. Population parameters and interactions with the environment are the principal influencing factors towards adaptive success. Well, thanks for listening, and let me know what you think John A. Giacobbe firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:29>From email@example.com Thu Sep 14 07:31:51 1995 Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 07:31:40 -0500 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Andrew Brown <email@example.com> Subject: Re: (COPY) stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home >>Prof Stephen Jay Gould, a Harvard University palaeontologist, said Darwin >>was "still a creationist" when he docked in London in 1836 after his >>five-year voyage in HMS Beagle. >> >>"Darwin created evolution by immersing himself in the scientific and >>cultural life of London. He did it here inspired by what he saw on the >>Beagle and he did it at Downe," he said. It is also worth noting that Gould said this is the course of a brilliant and very amusing lecture ("The first time I have ever spoken looking up the back end of a brontosaurus"), almost all of which was not about Darwin's house. Andrew Brown Religious Affairs Correspondent The Independent, London Tel: +44-171-293-2682 _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:30>From firstname.lastname@example.org Thu Sep 14 10:09:11 1995 From: Mary P Winsor <email@example.com> Subject: Darwin in London To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 11:08:56 -0400 (EDT) Gould's statement that Darwin converted to evolution not on the Beagle voyage but in London is of course based on the brilliant article by Frank Sulloway, which anyone who has not read it, you are missing a treat, namely: "Darwin and his finches, the evolution of a legend" Journal of the History of BIology, vol 15 (1982) pp. 1-53. Polly Winsor email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:31>From firstname.lastname@example.org Thu Sep 14 10:52:37 1995 Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 08:58:06 -0700 (PDT) From: Jim Thompson <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: Social Deception References, revisited On Wed, 13 Sep 1995, Gessler, Nicholas (G) ANTHRO wrote: > It seems to me that there might be some literature in three other professions > that practice deception, and I'm wondering if anyone can add any particularly > relevant references from these: > > 1) Stage Magicians and Illusionists. There was an old book called > Illustrated Magic which went briefly into theory. Most books explain tricks > but very few seem to go into the perceptual psychology of creating illusions. > > 2) Military Tacticians. I have one reference, and I'm sure there are many > having to do with feints, camoflage, and disinformation. But are there any > that address forms of deception that might be relevant to pre-industrial > society in non-warfare situations? > > Again, I would hope for concise theoretical assessments of these forms of > deception in populations, hopefully with discussions of their fitness in a > co-adaptational sense. I wonder if the various deceptions practiced by shamans might be relevant for your work? The Pacific Northwest societies often used elaborate masks, voice-throwing, etc. in ceremony. For military tactics, have you sent a request to the military history discussion group? MILHST-L@ukanvm.cc.ukans.edu Jim Thompson email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:32>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu Sep 14 11:24:25 1995 Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 12:24:10 -0400 (EDT) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: September 14 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro SEPTEMBER 14 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1769: FRIEDRICH WILHELM HEINRICH ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT is born at Berlin, Germany. He will become one of the most wide-ranging and celebrated scientists of his day, best known for his work in geography, particularly _Kosmos_ (1845-1862). His older brother Wilhelm will become a linguist and a founder of the University of Berlin. 1791: FRANZ BOPP is born at Mainz. He will become one of the founders of comparative linguistics, and will publish beginning in 1833 _Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Littauischen, Gothischen und Deutschen_, the first comprehensive comparative grammar of the Indo-European languages. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:33>From firstname.lastname@example.org Thu Sep 14 12:30:44 1995 Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 13:28:49 -0400 From: email@example.com To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: (COPY) stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home When I visited England 2 years ago, no one among the British travel agencies, hotel managers, taxi drivers, etc. that I asked even knew the town that Darwin had lived in. When I told them it was Down, they had no idea where it was. spencer turkel email@example.com. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:34>From ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU Sat Sep 16 12:02:35 1995 Date: Sat, 16 Sep 1995 12:02:30 CST From: ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: sources for 'artificial life'? Greets Folks! I'm looking for sources (ftp'able, hopefully) for some of the 'artificial life' ("evolution in an e-bottle"??) simulations I've heard about. Any info you can help with would be appreciated. If you care to reply off-list, I'm on leave at email@example.com Thanks! George _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:35>From ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU Sat Sep 16 13:19:40 1995 Date: Sat, 16 Sep 1995 13:19:32 CST From: ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU To: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Subject: Call for articles in an encylopedia Date: Fri, 15 Sep 1995 18:30:04 -0400 From: Joseph Register <YWUNHBB@GROVE.IUP.EDU> Subject: Literature and Environment Encyclopedia To: Multiple recipients of list MEDSCI-L <MEDSCI-L@BROWNVM.BROWN.EDU> From: GROVE::YWUNHBB 25-JUN-1995 19:57:20.54 To: YWUNHBB Subj: ENVIRONMENT AND LITERATURE LITERATURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT. Garland Publishing of New York is preparing Literature and Environment, An Encyclopedia, to be published in 1997 under the editorship of Patrick D. Murphy. The encyclopedia will be international and interdisciplinary in scope. It will include entries on specific authors and works, as well as on relevant topics from theory, philosophy, science and other areas. It will include bibliographic listings and an index. Send inquiries, suggestions for topics, and names of potential contributors to Patrick D. Murphy, Department of English, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA 15705-1094. (412) 357-2263. Fax (412) 357-3056. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org Please publish or post this announcement. Please forward this message to listservs, bulletin boards or interested people. _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:36>From email@example.com Sun Sep 17 08:56:15 1995 Date: Sun, 17 Sep 1995 08:55:34 -0500 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Andrew Brown <email@example.com> Subject: Re: (COPY) stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home >When I visited England 2 years ago, no one among the British travel >agencies, hotel managers, taxi drivers, etc. that I asked even knew >the town that Darwin had lived in. When I told them it was Down, they >had no idea where it was. Well, I live in London and am interested in these things, and have no idea where Downe is. Neither, for that matter, could our science editor remember. It is a very small place. (I think) Andrew Brown Religious Affairs Correspondent The Independent, London Tel: +44-171-293-2682 _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:37>From firstname.lastname@example.org Mon Sep 18 10:34:42 1995 Date: Mon, 18 Sep 1995 11:40:07 -0400 (EDT) From: William Montgomery <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: Darwin in London The article "Darwin and his finches" does bear in an important way on Darwin's conversion, but Sulloway's principle discussion of that issue appeared in "Darwin's Conversion: The Beagle Voyage and its Aftermath," Journal of the history of Biology, 1982, 15:325-396. Taken together these articles are the best account we have of how Darwin became an evolutionist--and a lot of other things as well! Bill Montgomery, WMontgom@nasc.mass.edu On Thu, 14 Sep 1995, Mary P Winsor wrote: > Gould's statement that Darwin converted to evolution not on the Beagle > voyage but in London is of course based on the brilliant article by > Frank Sulloway, which anyone who has not read it, you are missing a > treat, namely: "Darwin and his finches, the evolution of a legend" > Journal of the History of BIology, vol 15 (1982) pp. 1-53. > > Polly Winsor email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:38>From firstname.lastname@example.org Mon Sep 18 12:50:14 1995 Date: Mon, 18 Sep 1995 13:50:27 -0400 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Jeremy C. Ahouse) Subject: "mosaic evolution" Darwin-listers, What can you tell me about the history and use of the term "mosaic evolution"? - Jeremy _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:39>From email@example.com Mon Sep 18 13:04:57 1995 From: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: Attachment Research Center To: email@example.com Date: Sun, 17 Sep 1995 23:01:01 +0000 Subject: (Fwd) From BOWLBY list: Preface I thought this could be of interest to Darwin-L members. ----------Forwarded Message Follows-------------------- Date sent: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 22:06:00 +0000 From: "Juan C. Garelli" <GARELLI@ATTACH.EDU.AR> Organization: University of Buenos Aires Subject: Preface To: Multiple recipients of list BOWLBY <BOWLBY@SJUVM.stjohns.edu> By way of a preface I thought it worthwhile sending in a Brief Outline of the Theory of Attachment. Bowlby's Attachment Theory advances a multidisciplinary stance in which psychoanalysis is integrated with ethology and sociobiology, psychobiology, the cybernetic theory of control systems and modern structural approach to cognitive development. In spite of the fact that the integration of these disciplines was first undertaken in order to understand the origin, function and development of the child's early socio-emotional relations, Bowlby's Theory of Attachment is in actual fact deeply embedded in a general theory of behaviour which is an outgrowth of these manifold origins. The concept of attachment as conceived by Bowlby differs deeply from other theoretical approaches in a number of important respects. For instance, attachment behaviour is seen as belonging to a behavioural system (Bowlby (1969-1982): A & L, vol. 1: Attachment) and not in terms of a particular discrete behaviour. The expression "behavioural system" has been borrowed by Bowlby from the ethologists who use it instead of the term 'instinct', insofar as this term is viewed as nonexplanatory and furthermore leading to simplistic theorization. The term "behavioural system" stands for the underlying organizational structure mediating a variety of observable discrete behaviours. Even though this underlying structure is thought to be neuroendocrine in nature, no claim is forwarded as to extant isomorphic mechanisms within the CNS with the proposed behavioural systems. The hypothesis Bowlby advances is akin to a software programme whereby computerized application performs certain tasks withouth tight references to the kind of circuitry the computer is equipped with. Behavioural systems are assisted by feedback mechanisms allowing the individual to correct the ongoing behaviour which may show certain degrees of discrepancy with the behaviour which is necessary to attain the desired goal. The attachment behavioural system in human infants is mediated by discrete observable behaviours: smiling, crying, following, approaching, clinging, etc. Each and every behaviour has the predictable outcome of increasing proximity with the caregiver. Pride of place is given in Bowlby's Theory of Attachment to the biological function of behaviour (Bowlby, A & L, vols 1-3). According to contemporary evolutionary thinking, structures and behavioural systems are now present in the population because they contributed to the reproductive success of the bearers in the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (which is the environment in which the species emerged). What is then the biological function of attachment, that which gives survival advantage to the individuals genetically biased to seek and keep proximity between infant and caregiver?: protection of the infant from harm. Under certain ecological conditions, Natural Selection favours individuals who invest heavily on childcare and upbringing. These parents protect (they actually protect their own genes) their offspring from predatory and parasitic animals. During evolutionary time, strong selection pressures have led individuals to discriminate between their own and other young (Bateson, PPG, 1979, "How do sensitive periods arise and what are they for?", Animal Behaviour, 27, 470-86). Filial imprinting is a phenomenon whereby the young quickly learn to recognize their parents thereby following them everywhere, keeping proximity to them and avoiding contact with any other but close kin. The young need to discriminate between the parent that cares for them and other member of their species because parents discriminate between their own offspring and other young of the same species and may actually attack young which are not their own. Both selective pressures, protection from predation and filial imprinting contribute in important ways to the formation and strengthening of attachment bonds, serving the purpose of obtaining nad maintaining an optimal proximity between young and parents. In a paper entitled "The Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother" (1958, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 39, 350-73) Bowlby proposes that the infant's bond with his mother is mediated by just such species-characteristic behaviour patterns and not by the mother's role in feeding or otherwise satisfying the infant's biological needs. Thus attachment behaviour is held to be a kind of social behaviour tantamount to that of mating or parental behaviour and is deemed to have a function specific to itself. A human infant's attachment behavioural system becomes apparent through discrete observable such as smiling and crying, which are deemed to possess a signalling function that serves to activate maternal behaviour and bring the adult into proximity to the child. Rooting, grasping, sucking, following, approaching, clinging are behaviours whereby the infant plays an active role in seeking proximity and contact. As from birth these behaviours become coordinated and focused on the mother (or attachment figure) to form the basis of attachment. In any case, the infant becomes attached to the caregiver with whom he has had more interaction, generally his mother. As the infant develops, he becomes increasingly effective in seeking and maintaining proximity to his preferred figure. When the child achieves locomotion a new behavioural system becomes activated, that of exploratory behaviour. Exploration of the environment is antithetical to attachment. It is of the utmost importance to focus the relationship of the infant to his mother as keeping a balance in the interplay between both systems. One of the most important functions of the attachment behavioural system is to intervene in the baby's excursions into the environment, in responso to a variety of potentially dangerous events, thereby deactivating the exploratory system and activating the attachment system thus seeking proximity to his mother. Several studies show that children approach their caregivers not only in response to dangerous external stimuli but also they do so to check the availability and attentiveness of the caregiver, in a sort of permanent monitoring activity. After such checking the child wanders off to play again; after a while he returns again, and so on. This kind of of behavioural pattern is referred to in the literature as the baby using his mother as a Secure Base (Ainsworth, 1978, Patterns of Attachment). Affectional bonds are formed as a result of interactions with the attachment figure, that is to say, between child and parent. Emotional life is seen as dependent on the formation, maintenance, disruption or renewal of attachment relationships. Consequently, the psychology and psychopathology of emotion is deemed to be largely the psychology and psychopathology of affectional bonds. Psychopathology is regarded as due to a person having suffered or still be suffering the consequences of disturbed patterns of attachment, leading the person to have followed a deviant pathway of development. Infancy, chilhood and adolescence are seen as sensitive periods during which attachment behaviour develops -normally or deviously- according to the experience the individual has with his attachment figures. Finally, loss or threat of loss of the attachment figure is seen as the principal pathogenic agent in the development of psychopathology. ======================================================== Scattered among the lines of the preceding paragraphs there appear a number of terms which call for explanation. Terms such as "evolutionary thinking", ethology", "sociobiology". "control systems", "biological function", "behavioural systems", "selection pressures", "imprinting", "natural selection", are some of the expressions characteristic of modern Theory of Evolution. This is why I would find it advisable briefly to outline the general principles of modern developmental biology. Would you like to hear more about it? Juan C. Garelli ******************************************************** JC Garelli, MD, PhD Department of Early Development University of Buenos Aires Juncal 1966, 1116 BA, Argentina Tel: 54-1 812 5521 Fax: 54-1 812 5432 ############################################ ELiana Montuori, MD Attachment Research Center firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:40>From email@example.com Mon Sep 18 14:26:43 1995 Date: Mon, 18 Sep 1995 14:26:38 -0500 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Mark D. Johnson) Subject: Burgess Symphony Dear list: I read in the October issue of Earth that Rand Steiger had his 8-part composition THE BURGESS SHALE performed by the LA Philharmonic. The piece is in 8 parts; 7 are about individual critters, and the 8th about the mudslide that buried them all. It is based on SJG's Wonderful Life. Does anybody know any more about this? or see it? or know if it is available on CD? Mark D. Johnson Department of Geology, Gustavus Adolphus College 800 W. College, St. Peter, MN 56082 firstname.lastname@example.org (507) 933-7442 _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:41>From email@example.com Mon Sep 18 16:37:49 1995 Date: Mon, 18 Sep 1995 17:21:21 -0400 (EDT) From: Patricia Princehouse <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Re: "mosaic evolution" To: email@example.com On Mon, 18 Sep 1995, Jeremy C. Ahouse wrote: > What can you tell me about the history and use of the term > "mosaic evolution"? As far as I know it goes back to Wm King Gregory who used it to indicate that different features can evolve independently of one another. Among other things, this view allowed him to recognize _Australopithecus africanus_ as a hominid when most workers in the 20s & 30s felt it couldn't be (in part due to Piltdown, in part due to thinking you couldn't have such pronounced upright bipedalism accompanied by such an ape-like head). -Patricia Princehouse firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:42>From Catalinus@aol.com Tue Sep 19 01:29:39 1995 Date: Tue, 19 Sep 1995 02:29:38 -0400 From: Catalinus@aol.com To: email@example.com Subject: Biocultural Evolution Cultural Evolution Much has been posted concerning the usefulness and appropriateness of an evolutionary view of culture. Being a hopeful protagonist of an evolutionary theorem encompassing all life forms, I would like to respond to a few of the posting. Lian, Corduan and Loker have noted the problematic nature of measuring the fitness of a cultural trait, or for that matter, an entire culture, and Davidson has noted the perplexity of the time scale used to chart cultural evolution. I would counter that the word fitness has grown beyond its britches. The level of fitness is only a measure of the adaptive efficiency of a behavior for a given setting. That could involve an environmental setting, in which one method of food acquisition is more efficient than another, or it could involve a cultural setting, where the manufacture of a culturally emblematic tool is a requirement of cultural acceptance. This acquired fitness does not imply any type of superiority. Fitness is only a temporary quality, and with a change in the ecological setting (both environmental and cultural ecologies), a behavior that was fit once, may no longer be so. Neither increased complexity nor any sequential stages of development are implied. Evolution occurs, and is influenced, through adaptionary responses only, and is caused by changes in the frequency or the expression of a characteristic, but this new expression need not be either of increased complexity nor a `higher form', but simply a form that is best adapted to the particular environment it occupies. For a very loose example, an agricultural society (Society Alpha) may be very successful with this behavioral trait for a limited time, and for that time this trait may be a more fit expression than that of a another society (Society Beta) using a hunter-gatherer behavioral trait. Society Alpha may, for a time, out reproduce Society Beta, acquire control over more resources than Beta, acquire control over Beta territory, and a host of other possible measures of fitness. After some time, the environment may change, the soil may degrade, disease and malnutrition may arise, and other events may contribute to reduce the efficiency of the agricultural behavior. Meanwhile, the hunter-gatherers may find their mode of resource acquisition is now a more efficient, and hence more fit, mode of behavior. Evolution does occur in cultural systems. Any denying that is foolhardy, for evolution simply means a change in the frequency of a cultural expression. The simple fact that you are reading this text from a computer, and not from a piece of parchment, points out a change in the frequency of cultural behaviors. From an archaeological context, we can observe changes in frequency of a behavioral trait over time expressed in artifact counts, and attribute data. The key to applying evolutionary theory to an anthropological perspective lies in understanding and identifying the forces of selection. Grieger and Tomaso took issue with selective forces, preferring selective processes, considering that selection is not directional. I would counter that by stating that while selective pressure may not always be directional, it certainly can be. There are three modes of selection; 1) Stabilizing selection tends to promote maintenance of the status quo, and functions as long as the environmental and cultural systems remain in equilibrium. 2)Directional selection acts to guide adaptionary changes to fit an environmental constraint. It is through this type of selection that most evolutionary events occur. 3)Diversifying selection acts to favor extremes of trait expression. It would tend to favor alternate forms of an expression, and tend to not favor a median form. Further, I would consider the source of selective pressure; 1)the environment is the primary source of selective pressure, and is the ultimate test by which adaptions are measured for their selective value. 2)demographic conditions, such as population size, geographical distribution, and life table dispersions are also a source of adaptionary influence. Population parameters and interactions with the environment are the principal influencing factors towards adaptive success. While the bugs aren't all worked out by any means, nor will they for years to come, I believe evolutionary theory offers the possibility of a true bio-socio-cultural paradigm. Sorry I got on a rant John A. Giacobbe firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:43>From phifer@ALPHA.NSULA.EDU Tue Sep 19 13:31:56 1995 Date: Tue, 19 Sep 1995 13:34:32 -0600 (CST) From: phifer@ALPHA.NSULA.EDU Subject: Non-western evolution To: Darwin-L Group <email@example.com> I am just starting a project on non-western European theories of evolution/natural selection and would appreciate receiving information on useful sources (references) from the readers of Darwin-L. I am particularly interested in mid-eastern, far-eastern, and native American ideas but would also like to learn more about theories from other regions. Please respond to me directly via my e-mail address given below. If other readers indicate an interest, I will be pleased to make this a general topic for exchange on Darwin-L. Curt Phifer Louisiana Scholars' College Northwestern State Univ. Natchitoches, LA 71497 firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:44>From email@example.com Wed Sep 20 03:00:42 1995 Date: Wed, 20 Sep 1995 03:00:33 -0500 (CDT) From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Mr. Tom Ross) Subject: Re: Non-western evolution To: email@example.com I would like to see this topic discussed here As darwin-l is not limited to Darwin it should not be limited to European ideas. Please send me a summary of what you get from the nets. Tom Ross _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:45>From firstname.lastname@example.org Fri Sep 22 04:11:19 1995 Date: Fri, 22 Sep 1995 00:11:21 -0300 From: Maria Florencia Montero <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: Non-western evolution I will be more than plesed if you can make this a general topic. Best Regards, Prof. Raul Montero _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:46>From email@example.com Fri Sep 22 07:42:44 1995 Date: Fri, 22 Sep 1995 08:42:19 -0400 From: Sander J Gliboff <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Re: Non-western evolution To: email@example.com Curt Phifer's question is of interest to me, too, since I am working on pre-Darwinian evoltionary thinking in Europe and would like to hear about other non-Darwinian theories. I hope to see some of the discussion on this list, so don't send all your responses directly to Curt, please. Perhaps Curt could say more about it, too. --Sandy Gliboff _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:47>From firstname.lastname@example.org Fri Sep 22 11:51:53 1995 Date: Fri, 22 Sep 1995 11:51:44 -0500 From: Mary Niepokuj <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Dear Darwin folks, Those of you interested in historical linguistics may want to know about the following workshop. -Mary Niepokuj email@example.com ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Colleagues, The Department of Classics, UMASS, Amherst announces the 4TH WORKSHOP ON COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS. The WORKSHOP will take place on the campus of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA on the weekend of November 10-12, 1995. This year's topic is TYPOLOGY AND DIACHRONY (program provided below). For more information please contact Rex Wallace at firstname.lastname@example.org or Department of Classics, 520 Herter Hall, UMASS, Amherst, MA 01003. ______________________________________ 4TH WORKSHOP ON COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS UMASS, Amherst, Nov. 10-12, 1995 TYPOLOGY AND DIACHRONY Preliminary Schedule, 9/22/95 Friday evening, Nov. 10. 7:00 - 9:30, Informal Reception [site to be announced] Saturday, Nov. 11. 9:00 - 9:30, Coffee 9:30 - 12:00, Session 1, ISSUES IN SAMPLING PROCEDURE Bill Pagliuca, Univ. of Illinois Revere Perkins, Independent Consultant Discussant: Gerda Kamberova, UPenn 12:00-2:00, Lunch break 2:00-5:00, Session 2, TYPOLOGY AND PHONOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION Alice Faber, Haskins Labs Ives Goddard, Smithsonian Institution Fred Schwink, Universitat Eichstatt Discussant: Jay Jasanoff, Cornell Univ. 6:00-7:30, Reception at Lord Jeffery Inn, Amherst Center Sunday, Nov. 12 9:00-9:30, Coffee 9:30-12:00, Session 3, TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY OF CHANGE Mary Niepokuj, Purdue Univ. Eve Sweetser, UC Berkeley Ellen Woolford, UMASS, Amherst Discussant: Brian Joseph, The Ohio State University ****************************** Rex Wallace Department of Classics 520 Herter Hall UMASS, Amherst Amherst, MA 01003 (413)-545-5779 email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:48>From firstname.lastname@example.org Mon Sep 25 13:16:56 1995 From: "Gessler, Nicholas (G) ANTHRO" <email@example.com> To: DARWIN - postings <DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>, ANTHRO-L - submissions <ANTHRO-L@UBVM.cc.buffalo.edu> Subject: Bibliography on Deception - 2 pages Date: Mon, 25 Sep 95 11:02:00 PDT Evolution of Deception - Bibliography Many thanks to the following people who helped immeasurably in compiling this list (please accept my apologies for any omissions): Jean Aitchison, Edwin Francis Allison Iii, Jerry Barkow, Iain Davidson, Rosema ry Gianno, DGROSSM, Ray Hames, Robert Kruszynski, Tom Love, Gary Mann, Gregory C. Mayer, Richard Meyer, Mark A. Nadler, Andrew J. Petto, Ron Roizen, Chris St ephens, Jim Thompson, and Felicia Weiner. Alcock, J. 1981. Parapsychology: Science or Magic. Pergamon Press. Anon 1940. The Big Con. (Adapted to the movie The Sting.) Barkow, Cosmides, etc. "The Evolution of Pychodynamic Mechanisms." In The Ev olutionary and Psychological Foundations of the Social Sciences. Barkow, Jerome H. 1989. Darwin, Sex, and Status: Biological Approaches to Min d and Culture. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Brower, Lincoln P., editor 1988. Mimicry And The Evolutionary Process : A Sym posium. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Byrne, R. and A. Whiten 1987. "The Thinking Primate's Guide to Deception." I n New Scientist, Dec 3,pp 54-57. Byrne, Richard, and Andrew Whiten, Eds. 1988. Machiavellian Intelligence: Soc ial Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans. Oxf ord University Press, Oxford. Byrne, Richard and Andrew Whiten 1991. "Computation and Mindreading in Primat e Tactical Decepotion." In Natural Theories of Mind, edited by A. Whiten. Bl ackwell. Byrne, Richard W., and Andrew Whiten 1992. "Cognitive Evolution In Primates: Evidence From Tactical Deception." Man, 27, 609-628. Cheney, Dorothy and Robert Seyfarth 1990. How Monkeys See the World - Inside the Mind of Another Species. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.. Dawkins, R. and J. Krebs 1978. "Animal Signals: Information Or Manipulation." In Behavioural Ecology, ed. J. Krebs and N. Davies. Pp. 228-309. Oxford, Bla ckwell. de Waal, Frans B. M. 1992. "Intentional Deception In Primates." In Evolution ary Primates, 1-3, 86-92. Dugatkin, L.A. 1992. "The Evolution Of The Con Artist." Ethology and Sociobi ology, 13, 3-18. Ekman, Paul 1985. Telling Lies: Clues to Deceit in the Market, Politics, and Marraige. Norton, New York. Ekman, P., and M. O'Sullivan 1991. "Who Can Catch A Liar." American Psycholo gist, 46, 913-920. Frisch, Otto von 1973. Animal camouflage. Collins, London. Hines, Terence 1988. Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books, Buf falo. Krebs, D., D. Dennis, K. Denton, and N.C. Higgins 1988. "On The Evolution Of Self-Knowledge And Self-Deception." In MacDonald, K., Ed, Sociobiological Per spectives on Human Development, pp. 103-139. Springer-Verlag, New York. LaFreniere, Peter J. 1988. "Evolution Et La Fonction De Le Trompiere." In An thropologie Et Societies, 12-3, 63-75. Lockard, Joan S., and D.S. Paulhus, Eds. 1988. Self-Deception: An Adaptive Me chanism. Prentice-Hall, Englewood-Cliffs. Mitchell, Robert W. and Nicholas S. Thompson, editors 1986. Deception, Perspe ctives on Human and Non-Human Deceit. State University of New York, New York. Olson, Mancur 1971. The Logic of Collective Action, Public Goods and the Theo ry of Groups. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.. Owen, Denis F. 1982. Camouflage and mimicry. University of Chicago Press, Ch icago. Randi, James 1982. Flim-Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns and Other Delusions. P rometheus Books, Buffalo. Rappaport, Roy A. 1979. "Sanctity and Lies in Evolution." In Ecology, Meanin g, and Religion. North Atlantic Books, Richmond. Rue, Loyal D. 1994. By the grace of guile: the role of deception in natural h istory and human affairs. Oxford University Press, New York. Sackheim, Maxwell 1970. My First 60 Years in Advertising. Prentice Hall, Eng lewood Cliffs. Shreve, James 1991. "Machiavellian Monkeys : The Sneaky Skills Of Our Primate Cousins Suggest That We May Owe Our Great Intelligence To An Inherited Need To Deceive." In Discover, 12-6, 68ff. Smith, Euclid O. 1987. "Deception And Evolutionary Biology." In Cultural Ant hropology, 2-1, 50-64. Sober, Elliott. "The Primacy of Truth Telling and the Evolution of Lying." I n From a Biological Point of View. Tooke, William, et al 1991. "Patterns Of Deception In Intersexual And Intrase xual Mating Strategies." In Ethology And Sociobiology, 12-5, 345-364. Trivers, Robert 1985. Social Evolution. Benjamin Cummins, Menlo Park. U.S. Army 1978. Tactical Deception. Field Manual FM-90-2. Government Printi ng Office. Wilson, Peter J. 1988. The Domestication of the Human Species. Yale U. Press , New Haven. Nick Gessler UCLA - Anthropology firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:49>From Catalinus@aol.com Thu Sep 28 19:03:05 1995 Date: Thu, 28 Sep 1995 20:02:52 -0400 From: Catalinus@aol.com To: email@example.com Subject: Re:Biocultural Evolution To Mr. Ascione and the list folks, Hello. I apologize for the delay in responding, but I have been out in the field for several days. Mr. Ascione recently mentioned several excellent questions about the place of altruistic and homosexual behaviors in a cultural evolutionary theory. First, I would have to start by saying the two would have to be dealt with separately. The role of altruistic behaviors has been considered extensively by the animal bevahioralists, and my take on their work is that these apparently selfish behaviors, that seem to lack any value in fitness, can be ascribed some level of fitness through their benefit to the local gene pool, in which one would be likely to have ones own genes in. That is, if I was a member of a group of early humans, while my tribemates may not be my direct descendants, they will very likely have a good portion of their genes in common with mine. So if I help them out, and they prosper and reproduce, then some part of my selfish genes will succeed. This is a bigtime paraphrase, but the idea should be clear. While I am not overly excited about this position, it does make intuitive sense, and I find it easily extended to the human cultural situation. In humans, the adaptive strategy appears to focus around the group, and fitness may be largely measured as the success of the group, in that if the group is successful, the individual will generally be successful enough to pass on their genes. Altruistic behaviors, like other human communal behaviors such as large-scale agriculture and water control systems, function to increase the fitness of a group. If the group succeeds, then the majority of that groups genes will continue to persist in the gene pool, even as an individuals may not entirely do so. I think we must consider that culture has moved the unit of selection from the individual to the group. While this does not appear to apply to modern cultural systems, in that their extreme population mobility and the overall size of the practically accessible gene pool may act to obviate typical selection processes. With regard to homosexual behavior, that is a tricky one. To ascribe any fitness benefit to this is purely speculation, but we may look to one of our cousins, the Bonobos (Pan paniscus), to see that they appear to use all sexual behaviors, including homosexual ones, to act as a form of societal glue. That is, sexual expression of any kind is a positive influence on a community, certainly as opposed to violent or aggressive behaviors, and that this may also be a form of behavioral amelioration of the tension developing from sexual competition. Homosexual behavior may act to release sexual tension (and other societal tensions) without interfering with the pecking order of reproductive access. This may be totally off the wall, but again it has some intuitive appeal to me, anyway. Mr Ascione also mentioned the place of tolerance to variation as a possible successful adaptive strategy. I think this is an excellent point to consider, and one that I had not previously. One of the attributes of a successful evolutionary progression is a lineage that is genetically flexible. That is, if a lineage tolerates variation, when the time comes for the need for alternate forms, that lineage may have access to them. An overspecialized lineage which tolerates little variation will not be able to access the needed variation when the environment changes, as it always does if you wait long enough. I realize this argument is a might anthropomorphic, and I am not suggesting that lineages access variation on a conscious basis, but, post facto, this is the way it appears to occur. I would invite more comment on this issue! Thanks for your time, John A. Giacobbe Western Archaeological Services, Inc. firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <25:50>From email@example.com Fri Sep 29 06:48:33 1995 From: Mary P Winsor <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: notes on Catalinus's To: email@example.com Date: Fri, 29 Sep 1995 07:48:31 -0400 (EDT) Two little points on John Giacobbe's posting: " The role of altruistic behaviors has been considered extensively by the animal bevahioralists, and my take on their work is that these apparently selfish [surely a slip, he must mean "selfLESS"] behaviors, that seem to lack any value in fitness, can be ascribed some level of fitness Secondly (I've lost the exact text, sorry) he mentions as human "behavior" things like "agriculture." Can the word be expanded that far without being stretched beyond meaning? Polly Winsor firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ Darwin-L Message Log 25: 1-50 -- September 1995 End
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