rjohara.net

Search:  

Darwin-L Message Log 25: 1–50 — September 1995

Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences

Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.

This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during September 1995. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.

The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”


-----------------------------------------------
DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 25: 1-50 -- SEPTEMBER 1995
-----------------------------------------------

DARWIN-L
A Network Discussion Group on the
History and Theory of the Historical Sciences

Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu is an international network discussion group on
the history and theory of the historical sciences.  Darwin-L was established
in September 1993 to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of
which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present,
and to encourage communication among academic professionals in these fields.
Darwin-L is not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles
Darwin but instead addresses the entire range of historical sciences from an
interdisciplinary perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical
linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology,
systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical
anthropology, historical geography, and related "palaetiological" fields.

This log contains the public messages posted to Darwin-L during September 1995.
It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease
of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been
reformatted, and some administrative messages and personal messages posted to
the group as a whole have been deleted.  No genuine editorial changes have been
made to the content of any of the posts.  This log is provided for personal
reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein
should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained in the archives of Darwin-L by
listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu, and is also available on the Darwin-L Web Server
at http://rjohara.uncg.edu.  For instructions on how to retrieve copies of this
and other log files, and for additional information about Darwin-L, send the
e-mail message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu, or connect to
the Darwin-L Web Server.

Darwin-L is administered by Robert J. O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu), Center for
Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and Department of Biology, University of
North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A., and it
is supported by the Center for Critical Inquiry, University of North Carolina
at Greensboro, and the Department of History and the Academic Computing Center,
University of Kansas.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:1>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri Sep  1 00:13:47 1995

Date: Fri, 01 Sep 1995 01:13:31 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: List owner's monthly greeting
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

Greetings to all Darwin-L subscribers.  On the first of every month I send
out a short note on the status of our group, along with a reminder of basic
commands.  For additional information about the group please visit the
Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu).

Darwin-L is an international discussion group for professionals in the
historical sciences.  The group is not devoted to any particular discipline,
such as evolutionary biology, but rather seeks to promote interdisciplinary
comparisons across the entire range of palaetiology.  This week Darwin-L
will celebrate its second anniversary, and we now have more than 600 members
from over 30 countries.  I am very grateful to all of you for the continuing
success of Darwin-L and the high level of discussion for which the group has
become known.  Over the last two years we have generated thousands of
messages and have brought together a great many palaetiologists who would
not otherwise have encountered one another in the normal course of academic
life (and who might not even have known that they were all laboring in
different corners of the same field).  I am confident that, with your help,
the coming years of Darwin-L will be as rewarding as the first two we have
just completed.

Because Darwin-L has a large membership and is sometimes a high-volume
discussion group it is important for all participants to try to keep their
postings as substantive as possible so that we can maintain a favorable
"signal-to-noise" ratio.  Personal messages should be sent by private e-mail
rather than to the group as a whole.  Subscribers who feel burdened from
time to time by the volume of their Darwin-L mail may wish to take advantage
of the digest option described below.

Because different mail systems work differently, not all subscribers see
the e-mail address of the original sender of each message in the message
header (some people only see "Darwin-L" as the source).  It is therefore
very important to include your name and e-mail address at the end of every
message you post so that everyone can identify you and reply privately if
appropriate.  Remember also that in most cases when you type "reply" in
response to a message from Darwin-L your reply is sent to the group as a
whole, rather than to the original sender.

The following are the most frequently used listserv commands that Darwin-L
members may wish to know.  All of these commands should be sent as regular
e-mail messages to the listserv address (listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu),
not to the address of the group as a whole (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu).
In each case leave the subject line of the message blank and include no
extraneous text, as the command will be read and processed by the listserv
program rather than by a person.  To join the group send the message:

     SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L Your Name

     For example: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L John Smith

To cancel your subscription send the message:

     UNSUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L

If you feel burdened by the volume of mail you receive from Darwin-L you
may instruct the listserv program to deliver mail to you in digest format
(one message per day consisting of the whole day's posts bundled together).
To receive your mail in digest format send the message:

     SET DARWIN-L MAIL DIGEST

To change your subscription from digest format back to one-at-a-time
delivery send the message:

     SET DARWIN-L MAIL ACK

To temporarily suspend mail delivery (when you go on vacation, for example)
send the message:

     SET DARWIN-L MAIL POSTPONE

To resume regular delivery send either the DIGEST or ACK messages above.

For a comprehensive introduction to Darwin-L with notes on our scope and
on network etiquette, and a summary of all available commands, send the
message:

     INFO DARWIN-L

To post a public message to the group as a whole simply send it as regular
e-mail to the group's address (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu).

I thank you all for your continuing interest in Darwin-L and in the
interdisciplinary study of the historical sciences.

Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner

Robert J. O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu)
Center for Critical Inquiry and Department of Biology
100 Foust Building, University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:2>From ronald@hawaii.edu Fri Sep  1 04:13:09 1995

Date: 	Thu, 31 Aug 1995 23:12:06 -1000
From: Ron Amundson <ronald@hawaii.edu>
To: Darwin-L List <darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>
Subject: Emerson and essentialism (fwd)

Martin Doudna, a colleague and Emerson scholar, sent me the following
comment on Bob O'Hara's post of Emerson's apparent essentialism, which I
am quoting without permission (don't tell him):

---------

Ron--
Thanks for the Emerson quotations.  I don't think the first verse O'Hara
quotes, with its reference to "The perfect Adam lives," proves anything.
Nineteenth century American literature contains a lot of references to
Adam, usually referring to the fresh potential awaiting each new
generation--an idea more central to Transcendentalism, incidentally, than
Neo-Platonism.  (Emerson was NOT a philosopher, as I have to keep
reminding students, but a thinker, who can be quoted on most sides of
nearly every question.)
A counterpart to the "Adam" quotation--much more to the point than the
verse quoted from "Illusions" is the motto Emerson added in 1849 to his
book NATURE (first published in 1836):

A subtle chain of endless rings
The next unto the farthest brings;
The eye reads omens where it goes
And speaks all languages the rose;
And, striving to  be man, the worm
Mounts through all the spires of form.

The last two lines, esp., are often quoted in studies of Emerson's thought.

Martin

----------------------------

<Ron back again>

Sounds like Ralph Waldo might have read the Vestiges, eh?  Or some
Naturphilosophen?

Cheers,

Ron

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:3>From rog@cns.brown.edu Fri Sep  1 06:43:58 1995

From: rog@cns.brown.edu (Roger B. Blumberg)
Subject: MendelWeb 95.1
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Fri, 1 Sep 1995 07:31:31 -0400 (EDT)

Some of the readers of darwin-l may be interested in this:

The first edition of MendelWeb (http://www.netspace.org/MendelWeb/) is
now available. MendelWeb is a teaching and learning "sourcebook" built
upon Gregor Mendel's famous pea plant paper of 1865, and designed to
show how primary texts can be used to construct educational resources
that take advantage of hypertext, the connectivity of the World Wide
Web, and the collaborative possibilites of the Internet.

MendelWeb contains the texts of Mendel's original paper and an
English translation, texts that can be viewed as plain or annotated
html, and downloaded in a variety of formats. Also included are
notes, discussion and homework questions, and various secondary
materials linked to a variety of content-based sites on the Web. In
an effort to foster collaborative learning and teaching, MendelWeb
includes the Mendelroom (a Moo environment) and collaborative
hypertexts of both the German and English versions of Mendel's paper.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:4>From peter@usenix.org Fri Sep  1 07:18:54 1995

Date: Fri, 1 Sep 95 05:19:36 PDT
From: peter@usenix.org (Peter H. Salus)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re:  Emerson and essentialism (fwd)

In response to Ron's question as to whether Emerson
had read some of the Naturphilosophen, I don't think there's
really much of a question here:  he certainly did.

Peter

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:5>From hineline@helix.ucsd.edu Fri Sep  1 08:00:51 1995

From: Mark Hineline <hineline@helix.ucsd.edu>
Subject: Re:  Emerson and essentialism (fwd)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Fri, 1 Sep 95 6:00:49 PDT

Thought I would add a little confusion to the question of Emerson and
essentialism. Note the date of Bob's final quotation from Emerson -- 1860.
Now note the following, from Walter Harding's biography of Thoreau.

	   On January 1, 1860, when Charles Brace came to Concord
	to speak about his Children's Aid movement in New York City,
	he brought with him a copy of Charles Darwin's *Origin of
	Species*, which had been first published only five weeks
	before and which he had picked up just that day from Asa
	Gray, the botanist, in Cambridge. [Bronson] Alcott, Brace,
	and Thoreau dined at [F.B.] Sanborn's and their talk centered
	primarily on Darwin's new book and his theories of evolution.
	Thoreau was so impressed that he quickly got hold of a copy,
	took six pages of notes on it in one of his commonplace books,
	and told Sanborn that he liked the book very much. When Emerson
	told Thoreau that Agassiz had scoffed at the new theories,
	Thoreau replied: "If Agassiz sees two thrushes so alike that
	they bother the ornithologist to discriminate them, he insists
	that they are two species; but if he sees Humboldt and Fred
	Cogswell [a dim-witted inmate of the Concord Almshouse], he
	insists that they come from one ancestor." But despite the fact
	that Thoreau was impressed with Darwin's theories, they had
	appeared too late to have any significant influence on his own
	thinking [Thoreau died in 1862].

So there it is -- make of it what you will. If nothing else, this anecdote
should make us humble about the "information superhighway."

Mark Hineline
Department of History
UCSD
La Jolla, CA
hineline@helix.ucsd.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:6>From hineline@helix.ucsd.edu Fri Sep  1 15:19:51 1995

From: Mark Hineline <hineline@helix.ucsd.edu>
Subject: Re:  Emerson and essentialism (fwd)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Fri, 1 Sep 95 12:59:23 PDT

C. Loring Brace writes:

And the reason Brace went to Concord via Asa Gray in Cambridge was that
Gray's wife, Jane, was his first cousin.  If Thoreau died too soon for
Darwin to have an effect on his natural history writings, Brace was
heavily influenced by Darwin in his own future work.  Thanks to Gray, he
even visited Darwin at Down in 1872.  Unfortunately, one of the things he
picked up with particular enthusiasm was pangenesis, and he used that as
partial support for his own piously optimistic social programs.  No harm
done, but it makes him look just a bit woolly-headed in retrospect --
although no more so than his other social-reformer contemporaries.
                                C. L. Brace
                                Museum of Anthropology
                                University of Michigan
                                Ann Arbor, Mi.

Talk about a world-wide web! C. Loring Brace is the great-grandson of
Charles Brace.

Mark Hineline

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:7>From KIMLER@social.chass.ncsu.edu Fri Sep  1 17:12:16 1995

From: "Dr. William C. Kimler, History" <KIMLER@social.chass.ncsu.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Fri, 1 Sep 1995 15:47:46 EDT
Subject: Agassiz's thrushes

Mark Hineline related an anecdote about Thoreau, on Agassiz:

>When Emerson told Thoreau that Agassiz had scoffed at the new
>theories, Thoreau replied: "If Agassiz sees two thrushes so alike
>that they bother the ornithologist to discriminate them, he insists
>that they are two species; but if he sees Humboldt and Fred
>Cogswell [a dim-witted inmate of the Concord Almshouse], he insists
>that they come from one ancestor."

 What's the reference?  I'm interested in the reputation of Agassiz's
 species work, and this seems to be a snide remark about "splitters"
 as well as essentialism.

Thanks,
William

Dr. William Kimler
Department of History - Box 8108
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-8108
(919) 515-2483
kimler@ncsu.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:8>From KIMLER@social.chass.ncsu.edu Fri Sep  1 17:13:18 1995

From: "Dr. William C. Kimler, History" <KIMLER@social.chass.ncsu.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Fri, 1 Sep 1995 16:03:21 EDT
Subject: genealogical trees

On  28 Aug 95, Kent E. Holsinger wrote

> ...  the history of three alleles
>chosen at random from an ancestral species population.  Label these
>alleles 1, 2, and 3, and suppose that 1 and 2 share a more recent
>common ancestor than either does with 3, i.e., the genealogical tree
>for the alleles looks like
>
>               /\
>              /  \
>             /\   \
>            /  \   \
>            1  2   3
>
>(For some reason population geneticists have the convention of drawing
>geneaological relationships in the opposite way from systematists.)

Here's a tongue-in-cheek response, or is it serious?  As we all
know, Darwin drew a diagram like the one above for The Origin, which
literally shows descent/descendants.  It was a part of his argument
for the new idea of descent with modification (selection operating
on heredity).  So geneticists are more purely following the imagery
of a genetic process, keeping cause at the forefront..  Haeckel and
others switched to the "tree" with modern spp. -- and us -- at the
top.  Is this perhaps more in keeping with an idealist-morphological
tradition?  All form ascending to perfection, or at least its latest
attempt at such?  Are taxonomic trees more reflective of pure form
than cause and process?  Ah, I see "essentialism" creeping in once
more....

Just a thought to stir things up, but imagery is revealing.

William
Dr. William Kimler
Department of History - Box 8108
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-8108
(919) 515-2483
kimler@ncsu.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:9>From hineline@helix.ucsd.edu Fri Sep  1 18:19:53 1995

From: Mark Hineline <hineline@helix.ucsd.edu>
Subject: Re: Agassiz's thrushes
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Fri, 1 Sep 95 15:32:50 PDT

The anecdote is from Walter Harding, 1982, *The Days of Henry Thoreau*
(Princeton, N.J.) Princeton University Press, 429.

Thoreau's words were recorded in Emerson's journal: (Boston, 1910), v.
IX, p. 270.

Which I should have noted in the first place.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:10>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sun Sep  3 00:05:35 1995

Date: Sun, 03 Sep 1995 01:05:28 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: September 3 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

SEPTEMBER 3 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1603: JOHN JONSTON is born at Sambter, Poland.  Jonston will travel widely as
a scholar and physician, and will study at universities in England, Scotland,
Germany and the Netherlands.  He will publish extensively on many subjects,
but will be best remembered for his encyclopedic works on natural history.

1704: JOSEPH DE JUSSIEU is born at Lyon, France.  Member of a distinguished
family of botanists, Jussieu will travel to South America as a physician with
the French navy in 1735.  Although he will attempt to return to France at the
conclusion of the voyage, financial difficulties and medical emergencies will
keep him in South America, and he will spend the next 36 years exploring the
continent.  He will investigate the botanical sources of quinine and cinnamon,
examine the Huancavelica mercury mines and the Potosi silver mines, and
collect birds at Lake Titicaca.  Returning at last to France in 1771, he
will spend the final years of his life in sickness and depression.

1801: CHRISTIAN ERICH HERMANN VON MEYER is born at Frankfurt, Germany.  The
son of a Frankfurt lawyer, Meyer will work for the greater part of his life
in the disparate fields of finance and paleontology.  Study at Berlin, Munich,
and Heidelberg will bring him into contact with many of the leading scientists
of his day, and he will quickly become known as a skillful paleontologist.
Starting in 1837, however, he will make his living in the government financial
service, turning down a professorship at Gottingen in order to maintain his
academic independence.  In 1846 with Wilhelm Duncker he will found the journal
_Palaeontographica_, and in subsequent years that journal will publish many of
his researches on fossil vertebrates.

1993: DARWIN-L, an interdisciplinary discussion group for professionals in the
historical sciences, is opened to the public.  Administered by Robert O'Hara
from the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Darwin-L will generate
thousands of messages over the next two years and will come to have more than
600 members from 30 countries.  O'Hara will be very grateful to all of the
group's members for their many contributions and for their continuing interest
in the comparative study of the historical sciences.

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:11>From J.Carr@uts.edu.au Mon Sep  4 02:31:04 1995

Date: Mon, 4 Sep 1995 17:30:25 +1000
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: J.Carr@uts.edu.au (John Carr)
Subject: Re: iiwi adaptation?

Jeremy Ahouse provided a very intriguing account of the change which
occurred in the length of the beak [3% shorter] of the iiwi as it switched
from its previous but now extinct food-source to one which does not need a
long beak.

For this result to really "have made Darwin proud" we would need to know if
other causative factors other than adaptation may have been involved.

For example, could it have been that not only the beaks but the entire body
mass of the iiwi birds may have reduced in that time period, given the loss
of their major food source?

I [and perhaps Charles too] would be pleased to hear of whether the original
findings reported whether the beak change was independent of an overall body
change.

John Carr
Communication Studies
Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences,
University of Technology, Sydney
Sydney Australia
j.carr@uts.edu.au

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:12>From mayerg@cs.uwp.edu Mon Sep  4 11:26:13 1995

Date: Mon, 4 Sep 1995 11:26:10 -0500 (CDT)
From: Gregory Mayer <mayerg@cs.uwp.edu>
Subject: Re: genealogical trees
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

	Sorry to slay a beautiful theory with an ugly fact, but Darwin's
diagram of descent in the _Origin_ used (started?) the systematists'
convention of having time proceed from bottom-to-top, not the top-to-
bottom form used in Kent Holsinger's illustration.  Darwin used the
bottom-to-top form in a notebook sketch much earlier, as well (sorry, I
don't have the exact reference to hand).  The choice of the bottom-to-top
form follows naturally from the long established geologists' convention
of depicting geological strata in that way, which in turn follows from
the nature of the strata as seen in section (as in a roadcut).  Darwin is
explicit about comparing the time intervals of his diagram to geological
strata (p. 124), and it thus would have made little sense to adopt a
convention contrary to the geologists'.

	The top-to-bottom convention is not universal in genetics; John Avise
(1994. Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution. Chapman Hall,
New York), for example, uses top-to-bottom, bottom-to-top, and
left-to-right, with perhaps a preference for the last of these.
Dobzhansky (1937. Genetics and the Origin of Species. Columbia, New York)
used a diagram best described as radial, but perhaps also really a
network (i.e. not showing which condition is the most primitive) rather
than a tree.  In his last rewrite of this book (1970, retitled Genetics
of the Evolutionary Process), he uses the radial and left-to-right (and
perhaps others: I didn't check every illustration).  Who did originate
the top-to-bottom form?

Gregory C. Mayer
mayerg@cs.uwp.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:13>From HAAVN@Corelli.Augustana.AB.CA Mon Sep  4 13:06:59 1995

From: "Bruce Janz" <JANZB@Corelli.Augustana.AB.CA>
Organization:  Augustana University College
To: CIRLA-L@AUGUSTANA.AB.CA
Date: Mon, 4 Sep 1995 11:43:42 MDT
Subject: Update on CIRLA Conference

Well, conference preparation is off and running. A local
planning committee has been established. They are:

Conference Organizer: Bruce Janz, Philosophy
                        (janzb@corelli.augustana.ab.ca)
Conference Administrator: Chris Jensen McCloy
                        (cirla@corelli.augustana.ab.ca)
Planning Committee: Ross Emmett, Economics
                        (emmer@corelli.augustana.ab.ca)
                    Bill Hackborn, Mathematics
                        (hackw@corelli.augustana.ab.ca)
                    Skye Hughes, Sociology
                        (hughs@corelli.augustana.ab.ca)
                    Paula Marentette, Psychology
                        (marep@augustana.ab.ca)

We are already starting to receive submissions, for papers, panels,
and sessions. We are looking for more -- if you have an idea, contact
one of us. The announced deadline is November 30, so you have some
time yet.

If this is the first you have heard of this conference, please
contact me, and I will send you the e-mail call for papers posted in
May. We will have a poster and registration info out in a couple of
weeks as well, and those will be mailed to whomever we have a regular
mail address for. I will also post the registration info on this
list, and others.

As well, we want to publicize this conference as broadly as possible.
It will be of interest to both academics, who are concerned about the
state of liberal arts education, as well as administrators, who are
concerned about the implementation of liberal arts and
interdisciplinary programs. We plan on having a panel on teaching in
an interdisciplinary setting, a dean's panel, a panel on funding of
liberal arts research, and others. Several excellent ideas have been
floated already, which we are working on.

I will update this list as the conference develops.

+--------------------------------------------------------------------+
|Bruce B. Janz                                                       |
|Assistant Professor of Philosophy                                   |
|Director, CIRLA (Centre for Interdisciplinary                       |
|   Research in the Liberal Arts)                                    |
|Augustana University College                           (403)679-1524|
|4901-46 Avenue                                        1-800-661-8714|
|Camrose, Alberta                                  Fax: (403)679-1129|
|CANADA T4V 2R3                 e-mail: JANZB@CORELLI.AUGUSTANA.AB.CA|
+--------------------------------------------------------------------+

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:14>From kent@darwin.eeb.uconn.edu Tue Sep  5 06:20:53 1995

Date: Tue, 5 Sep 95 07:22:47 EDT
From: kent@darwin.eeb.uconn.edu (Kent E. Holsinger)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: September 3 -- Today in the Historical Sciences

>>>>> "Bob" == DARWIN  <DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu> writes:

    Bob> 1993: DARWIN-L, an interdisciplinary discussion group for
    Bob> professionals in the historical sciences, is opened to the
    Bob> public.  Administered by Robert O'Hara from the University of
    Bob> North Carolina at Greensboro, Darwin-L will generate
    Bob> thousands of messages over the next two years and will come
    Bob> to have more than 600 members from 30 countries.  O'Hara will
    Bob> be very grateful to all of the group's members for their many
    Bob> contributions and for their continuing interest in the
    Bob> comparative study of the historical sciences.

More importantly, all of us are indebted to Bob for making this
possible.

-- Kent

-------------------------------

Kent E. Holsinger
Department of Ecology &
   Evolutionary Biology
University of Connecticut, U-43
Storrs, CT   06269-3043
Kent@Darwin.EEB.UConn.Edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:15>From kent@darwin.eeb.uconn.edu Tue Sep  5 06:36:58 1995

Date: Tue, 5 Sep 95 07:38:52 EDT
From: kent@darwin.eeb.uconn.edu (Kent E. Holsinger)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: genealogical trees

Gregory Mayer points out that Avise uses a variety of different tree
shapes, as does Dobzhansky. I should have been a little more precise
when I said in an earlier message that geneticists tend to draw trees
top down like

       /\
      /  \
     /\   \
    1  2   3

What I should have said is that we tend to draw them that way *when
talking about the coalescent process*.  I just checked Kingman's
original papers, and there are no coalescent diagrams in them (as you
might expect, given that they were published in probability journals).
I'm not sure who originated the convention, but I suspect it has
something to do with emphasizing that the coalescent approach to
understanding genetic drift looks at time backwards from the classical
approach.

In the classical approach population geneticists make predictions
about the probability of certain events in the future or about the
stationary probability distribution alleles in populations in the
present. In the coalescent approach, the emphasis is on the historical
structure implicit in a particular sample of alleles. In other words,
classical approaches are prospective. The coalescent approach is
retrospective.

-- Kent

-------------------------------

Kent E. Holsinger
Department of Ecology &
   Evolutionary Biology
University of Connecticut, U-43
Storrs, CT   06269-3043
Kent@Darwin.EEB.UConn.Edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:16>From joe@genetics.washington.edu Tue Sep  5 14:16:02 1995

From: Joe Felsenstein <joe@genetics.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: genealogical trees
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Tue, 5 Sep 1995 12:19:07 -0700 (PDT)

There were a spate of top-down trees in the 1960's.  I think you will find
that the trees in the early-1960's papers of Zuckerkandl and Pauling
were top-down rather than bottom-up.  In Thomas Jukes's 1965 book "Molecules
and Evolution" there is one left-to-right tree (p. 155, attributed to
Ingram, 1963) and one top-to-bottom tree (p. 176).  Fitch and Margoliash, in
their 1967 paper (in Science) that introduced distance matrix methods for
phylogenies, had top-down trees.  Walter Fitch told me that he couldn't figure
out which way to make them go, and then he remembered that evolutionists were
always talking about the "descent" of species!

In general, this way of drawing trees came from people who were not trained
as systematists but who were making phylogenies.  Computer scientists, for
example, always make them top-down, though they are meant to be data structure
diagrams and not phylogenies.

There must have been earlier examples, given that there are only so many
directions available, but these are the earliest examples I know of.
Left-to-right trees have become popular since their use as clustering
diagrams in the phenetics literature of the 1950's and 1960's: they have
the great advantage of fitting the names in better, and thus have been
almost universally used in computer programs.

-----
Joe Felsenstein         joe@genetics.washington.edu     (IP No. 128.95.12.41)
 Dept. of Genetics, Univ. of Washington, Box 357360, Seattle, WA 98195-7360

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:17>From smithkel@Trenton.EDU Tue Sep  5 16:26:05 1995

Date: Tue, 5 Sep 1995 17:33:10 -0400 (EDT)
From: Kelly C Smith <smithkel@Trenton.EDU>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Sociobiology Text

Folks,

   Can anyone reccommend a good, comprehensive anthology in sociobiology?
Thanks in advance.
Kelly

Kelly C. Smith                  "Teaching is not a lost art, but the regard
Philosophy Department           for it is a lost tradition" - Barzun
Trenton State College
Hillwood Lakes  CN 4700         "For every complex problem there is a simple,
Trenton, NJ  08650-4700         easy to understand, incorrect answer."
(609) 771-2524 Office                                       - Svent Gorgi
(215) 702-7008 Home
(609) 771-3439 Fax              "One should always keep an open mind, but not
Smithkel@trenton.edu            so open that one's brains fall out."
                                                            - Russell

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:18>From peter@usenix.org Tue Sep  5 18:29:06 1995

Date: Tue, 5 Sep 95 16:29:39 PDT
From: peter@usenix.org (Peter H. Salus)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re:  Sociobiology Text

A.L. Caplan, ed., THE SOCIOBIOLOGY DEBATE
	NY: Harper & Row, 1978.  ISBN 0-06-010633-6.

Peter

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:19>From gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu Tue Sep  5 23:12:11 1995

From: "Gessler, Nicholas (G)   ANTHRO" <gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu>
To: DARWIN - postings <DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>
Subject: Refs?  Evolution of Social Deception
Date: Tue, 05 Sep 95 21:10:00 PDT

I am looking for some literature on the evolution of deviousness, deception,
and downright deceit in primate and human and other societies.  What I'd like
to find are some theoretical attempts to understand the dynamics of
disinformation practiced by the individual upon him/her self, and by
individuals upon others within a population.  In particular, I'd like to see
if there are some references to fitness and selection on guile in societal
systems.

I'm looking for some theories to test using distributed agent simulations on
computer, and would appreciate any pointers readers may have towards relevant
literature.  I have not found much to date.

Please reply to my e-mail address, and I will post the results back to the
list after a few days.

Many thanks,

Nick Gessler
UCLA - Anthropology
gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:20>From p_stevens@nocmsmgw.harvard.edu Wed Sep  6 07:43:59 1995

Date: 6 Sep 1995 08:38:32 -0400
From: "p stevens" <p_stevens@nocmsmgw.harvard.edu>
Subject: trees, and Agassiz's species
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Top-down trees are like human genealogies, which I suppose you can say are
retrospective - after all, it mattered who one's ancestors were.
Representations of the scala naturae, which influenced many early drawings of
trees, is drawn so that man/god ended up on top, and I think Lamarck's series
went in this direction; Bonnet's certainly did.  I seem to remember that
Ramean (logical) trees ended up with the species infima at the bottom, i.e.,
were more like genealogical trees, but I can't lay my hands on a
representation of such a tree.

Interestingly, perhaps, when the sequence of linear arrangements was
committed to paper, this might well start of with the basal member first - at
least it does in Lamarck's work, both botanical and zoological, and also
A.-L. de Jussieu's.  However, it seemed better to some people when teaching
to start off with what was well known, which would be something like mammals
or flowering plants.  I don't know if there is any relationship between
linear sequences and graphical representations; perhaps not.

A comment was made a little while back about Agassiz's species concepts.  I
wonder if the quotation referred less to Agassiz's own work, but was more a
negative assessment of species work in general.  I remain impressed (or
depressed) about the negative connotations carried by
systematics-as-classifying through the 19thC, and species work (meaningless
splitting, arguments about names) epitomised the systematist.  There was an
offhand remark in the last Times Literary Supplement about "plan[t] taxonomy"
being on the borderlines of science.

Peter Stevens.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:21>From VISLYONS@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu Wed Sep  6 10:43:12 1995

Date: Wed, 06 Sep 1995 11:41:54 -0400 (EDT)
From: VISLYONS@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu
Subject: Re: Sociobiology Text
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University at Buffalo

Regarding a text, the Sociobiology Debates edited by Arthur Kaplan is
not bad, but it is old and I think that many of the excerpts are a bit
too short, but it does have many historical selections.  I too would be
interested in a more recent anthology.
Sherrie Lyons
vislyons@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:22>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu Sep  7 00:07:30 1995

Date: Thu, 07 Sep 1995 01:07:17 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: September 7 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

SEPTEMBER 7 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1707: GEORGES-LOUIS LECLERC, later COMTE DE BUFFON, is born at Montbard,
France.  He will become one of the most important scientific figures of 18th
century France, doing work in optics, chemistry, mathematics, botany, and
geology, and publishing the encyclopedic _Histoire Naturelle_ in 36 volumes
beginning in 1749.  Convinced that the earth began in a molten state, Buffon
will conduct experiments on the cooling of spheres of various sizes in an
attempt to estimate its age.  In _Epoques de la Nature_ (1779) he will propose
75,000 years as the age of the earth, but in his private manuscripts he will
revise this to a more daring 3,000,000 years.

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:23>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Sep 11 16:03:15 1995

Date: Mon, 11 Sep 1995 11:49:08 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: September 11 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

SEPTEMBER 11 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1522: ULISSE ALDROVANDI born at Bologna, Italy, to noble parents.  After
studying medicine and mathematics at Padua, he will take a teaching position
in Bologna and establish a natural history collection and a botanical garden
there.  A paradigmatic "Renaissance man", Aldrovandi will be best remembered
for his encyclopedic works in Latin on birds, fishes, insects, and metals.

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:24>From KOLB@ucla.edu Tue Sep 12 01:02:00 1995

Date: Mon, 11 Sep 1995 23:01:52 -0700
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: Jack Kolb <KOLB@ucla.edu>
Subject: (COPY) stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home

Apologies if this has appeared before on the DARWIN list: I don't remember
seeing it.

>-------------------------TEXT-OF-FORWARDED-MAIL----------------------------

>Sender: owner-skeptic@LISTPROC.HCF.JHU.EDU
>From:	Martin Adamson <MARTIN@SRV0.EMS.ED.AC.UK>
>Subject: stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home
>
>I thought some of you might be interested to see this reprinted article.
>
>The Electronic Telegraph  Friday 8 September 1995  Home News
>
>stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home
>
>By Roger Highfield, Science Editor
>
>BRITAIN should be ashamed that the home of Charles Darwin has been
>allowed to crumble and decay, Sir David Attenborough said yesterday.
>
>Sir David, who is backing an appeal led by the Natural History Museum to
>raise stlg3.2 million to restore the house, said overseas visitors "must be
>astounded that England is so careless".
>
>Darwin, one of the most revolutionary thinkers in history, ranked
>alongside Shakespeare in his contribution to Britain's heritage, said Sir
>David. He hoped the appeal would provide better facilities for visitors
>and space for visiting scientists.
>
>Downe House, near Bromley, Kent, is owned by the Royal College of
>Surgeons and has been a museum since 1929. Its roof leaks, the greenhouse
>is derelict and the laboratory ruined. Damp and woodworm threaten the
>study where Darwin conceived the principle of natural selection and wrote
>On the Origin of Species.
>
>"The extraordinary and scandalous thing, is that it should be in such a
>state of disrepair," said Sir David.
>
>A curious English kind of bumbling.
>
>He described Downe as one of the most important places in scientific
>history which had nevertheless been allowed by "a curious English kind of
>bumbling" to decay.
>
>Since January, almost stlg500,000 has been pledged. An application has been
>made to the National Heritage Lottery Fund for a grant of stlg2.4 million.
>Another stlg300,000 must be raised by the end of November to complete the
>target.
>
>Prof Stephen Jay Gould, a Harvard University palaeontologist, said Darwin
>was "still a creationist" when he docked in London in 1836 after his
>five-year voyage in HMS Beagle.
>
>"Darwin created evolution by immersing himself in the scientific and
>cultural life of London. He did it here inspired by what he saw on the
>Beagle and he did it at Downe," he said.
>
>As the location of Darwin's work and home life from 1842 to his death in
>1882, it held a unique place in the country's heritage. "Downe is not
>just an old man's pretty country home. It is the site of some of the most
>revolutionary thinking in the history of our species."
>
>The Government's Chief Scientific Adviser, Prof Robert May, said: "There
>are innumerable blue plaques around London to politicians and artists
>you've never heard of. "To my mind, no one stands higher than Darwin. No
>one did more to change the way we think about ourselves."

Jack Kolb
kolb@ucla.edu
(old address: IKW4GWI@MVS.OAC.UCLA.EDU)

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:25>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Sep 12 11:46:45 1995

Date: Tue, 12 Sep 1995 12:46:35 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: September 12 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

SEPTEMBER 12 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1605: WILLIAM DUGDALE is born at Shustoke, England, "at which time there was
a swarm of bees in his father's garden, then esteemed by some a happy presage
on the behalf of the babe."  In his youth Dugdale will join a circle of men
interested in British antiquities, including William Burton, Symon Archer,
and Roger Dodsworth, and his studies will win for him in 1639 the position
of Rouge Croix Pursuivant in the College of Heralds.  He will rise through
the ranks of the College to become Garter King-of-Arms in 1677.  Dugdale's
extensive surveys of the history of British monasteries, legal traditions,
monuments, and arms will set a new standard for British historigraphy, and
his _Antiquities of Warwickshire, Illustrated; From Records, Leiger Books,
Manuscripts, Charters, Evidences, Tombs, and Armes: Beautified with Maps,
Prospects, and Portraictures_ (1656) will become a standard work by which
all subsquent county histories will be judged.

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:26>From ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu Wed Sep 13 13:18:11 1995

Date: Wed, 13 Sep 1995 14:18:24 -0400
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu (Jeremy C. Ahouse)
Subject: Commentary in Discover

        Part of Discover magazine is available to the web
(http://www.enews.com:80/magazines/discover/).

The commentary in the last 2 issues may be of interest to Darwin
list members.

Issue: 10/95
Title: Commentary / Dr. Darwin
Author: Lori Oliwenstein
        A brief review of "Darwinian medicine".  Essentially taking note
        of Ewalds book (quite good) and Williams and Nesse's book (far
        too many just so stories).

Issue: 09/95
Title: Commentary / Darwin's Rib
Author: Robert S. Root-Bernstein
        Describes the author's creative struggle with creationist
        tinted students.

        - Jeremy

__________________________________________________________
Jeremy Creighton Ahouse
Biology Dept.
Brandeis University
Waltham, MA 02254-9110

        (617)736-4954 Lab
             736-2405 FAX
        ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu
            _        _
           /\\     ,'/|         "The purpose of art is not
         _|  |\-'-'_/_/         the release of a momentary
    __--'/`           \         ejection of adrenaline
        /              \        but is, rather, the gradual,
       /        "o.  |o"|       lifelong construction of a
       |              \/        state of wonder serenity."
        \_          ___\                - Glenn Gould
          `--._`.   \;//
               ;-.___,'
              /
            ,'
         _-'

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:27>From gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu Wed Sep 13 22:08:55 1995

From: "Gessler, Nicholas (G)   ANTHRO" <gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu>
To: DARWIN - postings <DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>,
        ANTHRO-L - submissions <ANTHRO-L@UBVM.cc.buffalo.edu>
Subject: Social Deception References, revisited
Date: Wed, 13 Sep 95 20:04:00 PDT

Hello All,

Many thanks for the many replies (16) to the inquiry on theories of the
evolution of various forms of deception.  I'll expand upon some of the
references and post them to Anthro-L and Darwin-L next week.  (I have to
leave for the Simulating Societies conference tomorrow.)  For those who were
going to look up one or two more citations, I would appreciate it if you
would do so, and I will include these.

It seems to me that there might be some literature in three other professions
that practice deception, and I'm wondering if anyone can add any particularly
relevant references from these:

1)  Stage Magicians and Illusionists.  There was an old book called
Illustrated Magic which went briefly into theory.  Most books explain tricks
but very few seem to go into the perceptual psychology of creating illusions.

2)  Military Tacticians.  I have one reference, and I'm sure there are many
having to do with feints, camoflage, and disinformation.  But are there any
that address forms of deception that might be relevant to pre-industrial
society in non-warfare situations?

3)  Advertising "persuasion."   Cons and stings.  The use of language to
manipulate, disinform, or selectively communicate.

Again, I would hope for concise theoretical assessments of these forms of
deception in populations, hopefully with discussions of their fitness in a
co-adaptational sense.

Best regards,
Nick Gessler

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:28>From Catalinus@aol.com Thu Sep 14 01:28:03 1995

Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 02:28:01 -0400
From: Catalinus@aol.com
To: DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Evolutionary Synthesis

Forgive the reposts: mea culpa, mea maxima culpae

     Synthesis of Evolutionary Theory of Culture

     Much has been posted lately pertaining to a similar concept,
     focussing on the nature of science, objectivity, bias, and
     "what anthropology should be".  I believe anthropology and
     archaeology should try to develop an evolutionary framework
     because, to me at least, the universe appears to run that
     way.  Humans are life forms that exist within the same
     sphere as all other life forms, and are therefore effected
     by evolutionary effects, such as natural selection, as much
     as any other animal.
     Natural selection is a force, perhaps a random and
     mathematically defined force, but a force none the less.  I
     believe culture is humans primary adaptive mechanism.  All
     of the products of culture are created within a universe
     permeated by selective forces, and must at some level be
     affected by them.  That does not mean all cultural
     attributes originate as the result of selective pressure, or
     are even strongly influenced by selection whatsoever.  But
     all culture is subtly influenced by selection.
     I have obviously gone on a rant, but why stop now.  I
     realize this is theory that will need quite alot of
     development, but I offer a summary of my position for
     comment.

     Adaptation
     An important aspect of evolutionary theory is the role of
     adaptation. Adaptive responses are those "..features of
     organisms that have come about by natural selection because
     they serve certain functions and thus increase the
     reproductive success of their carriers" (Dobzhansky).

     Kirch suggests that adaptation is the key to an analysis of
     cultural change, defining cultural adaptation as "a process
     of alteration of a cultural system in response to change in
     its coupled environmental and/or somatic systems". Culture
     is a special kind of adaption that is transmitted via
     learned, nongenetic behavioral patterns.

     Variation is the basis for all possible change.
     Archaeological research involves the relation of observed
     variation to the probable selective pressures of the
     environment. The amount of variation in a population can be
     used as a measure of its potential adaptedness. Although
     behavioral variants originate with the individual, variation
     must be spread for it to have an adaptive effect on the
     population.

     Selection is primarily manifest as natural selection, with
     some sexual selection influencing character transmission.
     Selection is the factor that decides how much influence a
     particular trait expression will have on the overall
     adaptive strategy. Selection acts on the group rather than
     the individual in cultural evolution. Criteria for selective
     value include, efficiency of energy capture, survival and
     reproductive success, and even perceived satisfaction of
     needs and wants. The most important aspect of selection is
     its benefit to the survivability of a culture group.

     Three modes of selection;
     1)Stabilizing tends to promote maintenance of the status
     quo, and functions as long as the environmental and cultural
     systems remain in equilibrium.
     2)Directional selection acts to guide adaptionary changes to
     fit an environmental constraint.  It is through this type of
     selection that most evolutionary events occur.
     3)Diversifying selection acts to favor extremes of trait
     expression. It would tend to favor alternate forms of an
     expression, and tend to not favor a median form.

     Source of selective pressure;
     1)the environment is the primary source of selective
     pressure, and is the ultimate test by which adaptions are
     measured for their selective value.
     2)demographic conditions, such as population size,
     geographical distribution, and life table dispersions are
     also a source of adaptionary influence. Population
     parameters and interactions with the environment are the
     principal influencing factors towards adaptive success.

     Well, thanks for listening, and let me know what you think

     John A. Giacobbe
     catalinus@aol.com

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:29>From abrown@lazy.demon.co.uk Thu Sep 14 07:31:51 1995

Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 07:31:40 -0500
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: Andrew Brown <abrown@lazy.demon.co.uk>
Subject: Re: (COPY) stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home

>>Prof Stephen Jay Gould, a Harvard University palaeontologist, said Darwin
>>was "still a creationist" when he docked in London in 1836 after his
>>five-year voyage in HMS Beagle.
>>
>>"Darwin created evolution by immersing himself in the scientific and
>>cultural life of London. He did it here inspired by what he saw on the
>>Beagle and he did it at Downe," he said.

It is also worth noting that Gould said this is the course of a brilliant
and very amusing lecture ("The first time I have ever spoken looking up the
back end of a brontosaurus"), almost all of which was not about Darwin's house.
Andrew Brown
Religious Affairs Correspondent
The Independent, London
Tel: +44-171-293-2682

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:30>From mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca Thu Sep 14 10:09:11 1995

From: Mary P Winsor <mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca>
Subject: Darwin in London
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 11:08:56 -0400 (EDT)

Gould's statement that Darwin converted to evolution not on the Beagle
voyage but in London is of course based on the brilliant article by
Frank Sulloway, which anyone who has not read it, you are missing a
treat, namely:  "Darwin and his finches, the evolution of a legend"
Journal of the History of BIology, vol 15 (1982) pp. 1-53.

Polly Winsor   mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:31>From thom9213@uidaho.edu Thu Sep 14 10:52:37 1995

Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 08:58:06 -0700 (PDT)
From: Jim Thompson <thom9213@uidaho.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: Social Deception References, revisited

On Wed, 13 Sep 1995, Gessler, Nicholas (G) ANTHRO wrote:

> It seems to me that there might be some literature in three other professions
> that practice deception, and I'm wondering if anyone can add any particularly
> relevant references from these:
>
> 1)  Stage Magicians and Illusionists.  There was an old book called
> Illustrated Magic which went briefly into theory.  Most books explain tricks
> but very few seem to go into the perceptual psychology of creating illusions.
>
> 2)  Military Tacticians.  I have one reference, and I'm sure there are many
> having to do with feints, camoflage, and disinformation.  But are there any
> that address forms of deception that might be relevant to pre-industrial
> society in non-warfare situations?
>
> Again, I would hope for concise theoretical assessments of these forms of
> deception in populations, hopefully with discussions of their fitness in a
> co-adaptational sense.

I wonder if the various deceptions practiced by shamans might be relevant
for your work? The Pacific Northwest societies often used elaborate
masks, voice-throwing, etc. in ceremony.

For military tactics, have you sent a request to the military history
discussion group? MILHST-L@ukanvm.cc.ukans.edu

Jim Thompson
thom9213@uidaho.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:32>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu Sep 14 11:24:25 1995

Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 12:24:10 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: September 14 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

SEPTEMBER 14 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1769: FRIEDRICH WILHELM HEINRICH ALEXANDER VON HUMBOLDT is born at Berlin,
Germany.  He will become one of the most wide-ranging and celebrated
scientists of his day, best known for his work in geography, particularly
_Kosmos_ (1845-1862).  His older brother Wilhelm will become a linguist and
a founder of the University of Berlin.

1791: FRANZ BOPP is born at Mainz.  He will become one of the founders of
comparative linguistics, and will publish beginning in 1833 _Vergleichende
Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Littauischen,
Gothischen und Deutschen_, the first comprehensive comparative grammar of
the Indo-European languages.

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:33>From sturkel@acl.nyit.edu Thu Sep 14 12:30:44 1995

Date: Thu, 14 Sep 1995 13:28:49 -0400
From: sturkel@acl.nyit.edu
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: (COPY) stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home

When I visited England 2 years ago, no one among the British travel
agencies, hotel managers, taxi drivers, etc. that I asked even knew
the town that Darwin had lived in. When I told them it was Down, they
had no idea where it was.

spencer turkel
sturkel@acl.nyit.edu.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:34>From ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU Sat Sep 16 12:02:35 1995

Date: Sat, 16 Sep 1995 12:02:30 CST
From: ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: sources for 'artificial life'?

Greets Folks!
I'm looking for sources (ftp'able, hopefully) for some of the 'artificial
life' ("evolution in an e-bottle"??) simulations I've heard about. Any
info you can help with would be appreciated.

If you care to reply off-list, I'm on leave at   ggale@wkuvx1.wku.edu

Thanks!
George

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:35>From ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU Sat Sep 16 13:19:40 1995

Date: Sat, 16 Sep 1995 13:19:32 CST
From: ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU
To: ggale@kasey.umkc.edu, sci-tech-studies@kasey.umkc.edu,
        hopos-l@ukcc.uky.edu, darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Call for articles in an encylopedia

Date: Fri, 15 Sep 1995 18:30:04 -0400
From: Joseph Register <YWUNHBB@GROVE.IUP.EDU>
Subject: Literature and Environment Encyclopedia
To: Multiple recipients of list MEDSCI-L <MEDSCI-L@BROWNVM.BROWN.EDU>

From: GROVE::YWUNHBB      25-JUN-1995 19:57:20.54
To: YWUNHBB
Subj:   ENVIRONMENT AND LITERATURE

LITERATURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT.  Garland Publishing of New York is preparing
Literature and Environment, An Encyclopedia, to be published in 1997 under the
editorship of Patrick D. Murphy. The encyclopedia will be international and
interdisciplinary in scope.  It will include entries on specific authors and
works, as well as on relevant topics from theory, philosophy, science and other
areas.  It will include bibliographic listings and an index.  Send inquiries,
suggestions for topics, and names of potential contributors to Patrick D.
Murphy, Department of English, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA
15705-1094.  (412) 357-2263.  Fax (412) 357-3056.  E-mail
pdmurphy@grove.iup.edu

Please publish or post this announcement.  Please forward this message to
listservs, bulletin boards or interested people.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:36>From abrown@lazy.demon.co.uk Sun Sep 17 08:56:15 1995

Date: Sun, 17 Sep 1995 08:55:34 -0500
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: Andrew Brown <abrown@lazy.demon.co.uk>
Subject: Re: (COPY) stlg3.2m cash plea to save Darwin home

>When I visited England 2 years ago, no one among the British travel
>agencies, hotel managers, taxi drivers, etc. that I asked even knew
>the town that Darwin had lived in. When I told them it was Down, they
>had no idea where it was.

Well, I live in London and am interested in these things, and have no idea
where Downe is. Neither, for that matter, could our science editor remember.
It is a very small place.
(I think)

Andrew Brown
Religious Affairs Correspondent
The Independent, London
Tel: +44-171-293-2682

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:37>From wmontgom@nasc.mass.edu Mon Sep 18 10:34:42 1995

Date: Mon, 18 Sep 1995 11:40:07 -0400 (EDT)
From: William Montgomery <wmontgom@nasc.mass.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: Darwin in London

The article "Darwin and his finches" does bear in an important way on
Darwin's conversion, but Sulloway's principle discussion of that issue
appeared in "Darwin's Conversion: The Beagle Voyage and its Aftermath,"
Journal of the history of Biology, 1982, 15:325-396.  Taken together
these articles are the best account we have of how Darwin became an
evolutionist--and a lot of other things as well!
                              Bill Montgomery, WMontgom@nasc.mass.edu

On Thu, 14 Sep 1995, Mary P Winsor wrote:

> Gould's statement that Darwin converted to evolution not on the Beagle
> voyage but in London is of course based on the brilliant article by
> Frank Sulloway, which anyone who has not read it, you are missing a
> treat, namely:  "Darwin and his finches, the evolution of a legend"
> Journal of the History of BIology, vol 15 (1982) pp. 1-53.
>
> Polly Winsor   mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:38>From ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu Mon Sep 18 12:50:14 1995

Date: Mon, 18 Sep 1995 13:50:27 -0400
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu (Jeremy C. Ahouse)
Subject: "mosaic evolution"

Darwin-listers,

        What can you tell me about the history and use of the term
"mosaic evolution"?

        - Jeremy

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:39>From eliana@attach.edu.ar Mon Sep 18 13:04:57 1995

From: eliana@attach.edu.ar
Organization:  Attachment Research Center
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Sun, 17 Sep 1995 23:01:01 +0000
Subject: (Fwd) From BOWLBY list: Preface

I thought this could be of interest to Darwin-L members.

----------Forwarded Message Follows--------------------
Date sent:     Thu, 14 Sep 1995 22:06:00 +0000
From: "Juan C. Garelli" <GARELLI@ATTACH.EDU.AR>
Organization:  University of Buenos Aires
Subject: Preface
To: Multiple recipients of list BOWLBY <BOWLBY@SJUVM.stjohns.edu>

By way of a preface I thought it worthwhile sending in a Brief
Outline of the Theory of Attachment.

Bowlby's Attachment Theory advances a multidisciplinary stance in
which psychoanalysis is integrated with ethology and sociobiology,
psychobiology, the cybernetic theory of control systems and modern
structural approach to cognitive development. In spite of the fact
that the integration of these disciplines was first undertaken in
order to understand the origin, function and development of the
child's early socio-emotional relations, Bowlby's Theory of
Attachment is in actual fact deeply embedded in a general theory of
behaviour which is an outgrowth of these manifold origins.

The concept of attachment as conceived by Bowlby differs deeply from
other theoretical approaches in a number of important respects. For
instance, attachment behaviour is seen as belonging to a behavioural
system (Bowlby (1969-1982): A & L, vol. 1: Attachment) and not in
terms of a particular discrete behaviour. The expression "behavioural
system" has been borrowed by Bowlby from the ethologists who use it
instead of the term 'instinct', insofar as this term is viewed as
nonexplanatory and furthermore leading to simplistic theorization.

The term "behavioural system" stands for the underlying
organizational structure mediating a variety of observable discrete
behaviours. Even though this underlying structure is thought to be
neuroendocrine in nature, no claim is forwarded as to extant
isomorphic mechanisms within the CNS with the proposed behavioural
systems. The hypothesis Bowlby advances is akin to a software
programme whereby computerized application performs certain tasks
withouth tight references to the kind of circuitry the computer is
equipped with.

Behavioural systems are assisted by feedback mechanisms allowing the
individual to correct the ongoing behaviour which may show certain
degrees of discrepancy with the behaviour which is necessary to
attain the desired goal.

The attachment behavioural system in human infants is mediated by
discrete observable behaviours: smiling, crying, following,
approaching, clinging, etc. Each and every behaviour has the
predictable outcome of increasing proximity with the caregiver.

Pride of place is given in Bowlby's Theory of Attachment to the
biological function of behaviour (Bowlby, A & L, vols 1-3). According
to contemporary evolutionary thinking, structures and behavioural
systems are now present in the population because they contributed to
the reproductive success of the bearers in the environment of
evolutionary adaptedness (which is the environment in which the
species emerged). What is then the biological function of attachment,
that which gives survival advantage to the individuals genetically
biased to seek and keep proximity between infant and caregiver?:
protection of the infant from harm.

Under certain ecological conditions, Natural Selection favours
individuals who invest heavily on childcare and upbringing. These
parents protect (they actually protect their own genes) their
offspring from predatory and parasitic animals. During evolutionary
time, strong selection pressures have led individuals to discriminate
between their own and other young (Bateson, PPG, 1979, "How do
sensitive periods arise and what are they for?", Animal Behaviour,
27, 470-86). Filial imprinting is a phenomenon whereby the young
quickly learn to recognize their parents thereby following them
everywhere, keeping proximity to them and avoiding contact with any
other but close kin. The young need to discriminate between the
parent that cares for them and other member of their species because
parents discriminate between their own offspring and other young of
the same species and may actually attack young which are not their
own.

Both selective pressures, protection from predation and filial
imprinting contribute in important ways to the formation and
strengthening of attachment bonds, serving the purpose of obtaining
nad maintaining an optimal proximity between young and parents.

In a paper entitled "The Nature of the Child's Tie to his Mother"
(1958, International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 39, 350-73) Bowlby
proposes that the infant's bond with his mother is mediated by just
such species-characteristic behaviour patterns and not by the
mother's role in feeding or otherwise satisfying the infant's
biological needs. Thus attachment behaviour is held to be a kind of
social behaviour tantamount to that of mating or parental behaviour
and is deemed to have a function specific to itself.

A human infant's attachment behavioural system becomes apparent
through discrete observable such as smiling and crying, which are
deemed to possess a signalling function that serves to activate
maternal behaviour and bring the adult into proximity to the child.
Rooting, grasping, sucking, following, approaching, clinging are
behaviours whereby the infant plays an active role in seeking
proximity and contact. As from birth these behaviours become
coordinated and focused on the mother (or attachment figure) to form
the basis of attachment. In any case, the infant becomes attached to
the caregiver with whom he has had more interaction, generally his
mother. As the infant develops, he becomes increasingly effective in
seeking and maintaining proximity to his preferred figure.

When the child achieves locomotion a new behavioural system becomes
activated, that of exploratory behaviour. Exploration of the
environment is antithetical to attachment. It is of the utmost
importance to focus the relationship of the infant to his mother as
keeping a balance in the interplay between both systems.

One of the most important functions of the attachment behavioural
system is to intervene in the baby's excursions into the environment,
in responso to a variety of potentially dangerous events, thereby
deactivating the exploratory system and activating the attachment
system thus seeking proximity to his mother.

Several studies show that children approach their caregivers not only
in response to dangerous external stimuli but also they do so to
check the availability and attentiveness of the caregiver, in a sort
of permanent monitoring activity. After such checking the child
wanders off to play again; after a while he returns again, and so on.
This kind of of behavioural pattern is referred to in the literature
as the baby using his mother as a Secure Base (Ainsworth, 1978,
Patterns of Attachment).

Affectional bonds are formed as a result of interactions with the
attachment figure, that is to say, between child and parent.
Emotional life is seen as dependent on the formation, maintenance,
disruption or renewal of attachment relationships. Consequently, the
psychology and psychopathology of emotion is deemed to be largely the
psychology and psychopathology of affectional bonds.

Psychopathology is regarded as due to a person having suffered or
still be suffering the consequences of disturbed patterns of
attachment, leading the person to have followed a deviant pathway of
development. Infancy, chilhood and adolescence are seen as sensitive
periods during which attachment behaviour develops -normally or
deviously- according to the experience the individual has with his
attachment figures.

Finally, loss or threat of loss of the attachment figure is seen as
the principal pathogenic agent in the development of psychopathology.

========================================================

Scattered among the lines of the preceding paragraphs there appear a
number of terms which call for explanation. Terms such as
"evolutionary thinking", ethology", "sociobiology". "control
systems", "biological function", "behavioural systems", "selection
pressures", "imprinting", "natural selection", are some of the
expressions characteristic of modern Theory of Evolution. This is
why I would find it advisable briefly to outline the general
principles of modern developmental biology. Would you like to hear
more about it?

Juan C. Garelli
********************************************************
JC Garelli, MD, PhD
Department of Early Development
University of Buenos Aires
Juncal 1966, 1116 BA, Argentina
Tel: 54-1 812 5521
Fax: 54-1 812 5432

############################################
ELiana Montuori, MD
Attachment Research Center
eliana@attach.edu.ar

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:40>From mdj@gac.edu Mon Sep 18 14:26:43 1995

Date: Mon, 18 Sep 1995 14:26:38 -0500
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: mdj@gac.edu (Mark D. Johnson)
Subject: Burgess Symphony

Dear list:

I read in the October issue of Earth that Rand Steiger had his 8-part
composition THE BURGESS SHALE performed by the LA Philharmonic. The piece
is in 8 parts; 7 are about individual critters, and the 8th about the
mudslide that buried them all. It is based on SJG's Wonderful Life.

Does anybody know any more about this? or see it? or know if it is
available on CD?

Mark D. Johnson
Department of Geology, Gustavus Adolphus College
800 W. College, St. Peter, MN 56082
mdj@gac.edu  (507) 933-7442

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:41>From princeh@husc.harvard.edu Mon Sep 18 16:37:49 1995

Date: Mon, 18 Sep 1995 17:21:21 -0400 (EDT)
From: Patricia Princehouse <princeh@husc.harvard.edu>
Subject: Re: "mosaic evolution"
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

On Mon, 18 Sep 1995, Jeremy C. Ahouse wrote:

>         What can you tell me about the history and use of the term
> "mosaic evolution"?

As far as I know it goes back to Wm King Gregory who used it to indicate
that different features can evolve independently of one another. Among
other things, this view allowed him to recognize _Australopithecus
africanus_ as a hominid when most workers in the 20s & 30s felt it
couldn't be (in part due to Piltdown, in part due to thinking you couldn't
have such pronounced upright bipedalism accompanied by such an ape-like
head).

-Patricia Princehouse
princeh@fas.harvard.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:42>From Catalinus@aol.com Tue Sep 19 01:29:39 1995

Date: Tue, 19 Sep 1995 02:29:38 -0400
From: Catalinus@aol.com
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Biocultural Evolution

                   Cultural Evolution

     Much has been posted concerning the usefulness and
appropriateness of an evolutionary view of culture.  Being a
hopeful protagonist of an evolutionary theorem encompassing
all life forms, I would like to respond to a few of the
posting.  Lian, Corduan and Loker have noted the problematic
nature of measuring the fitness of a cultural trait, or for
that matter, an entire culture, and Davidson has noted the
perplexity of the time scale used to chart cultural
evolution.  I would counter that the word fitness has grown
beyond its britches.  The level of fitness is only a measure
of the adaptive efficiency of a behavior for a given
setting.  That could involve an environmental setting, in
which one method of food acquisition is more efficient than
another, or it could involve a cultural setting, where the
manufacture of a culturally emblematic tool is a requirement
of cultural acceptance.
     This acquired fitness does not imply any type of
superiority.  Fitness is only a temporary quality, and with
a change in the ecological setting (both environmental and
cultural ecologies), a behavior that was fit once, may no
longer be so.  Neither increased complexity nor any
sequential stages of development are implied.  Evolution
occurs, and is influenced, through adaptionary responses
only, and is caused by changes in the frequency or the
expression of a characteristic, but this new expression need
not be either of increased complexity nor a `higher form',
but simply a form that is best adapted to the particular
environment it occupies.
     For a very loose example, an agricultural society
(Society Alpha) may be very successful with this behavioral
trait for a limited time, and for that time this trait may
be a more fit expression than that of a another society
(Society Beta) using a hunter-gatherer behavioral trait.
Society Alpha may, for a time, out reproduce Society Beta,
acquire control over more resources than Beta, acquire
control over Beta territory, and a host of other possible
measures of fitness.  After some time, the environment may
change, the soil may degrade, disease and malnutrition may
arise, and other events may contribute to reduce the
efficiency of the agricultural behavior.  Meanwhile, the
hunter-gatherers may find their mode of resource acquisition
is now a more efficient, and hence more fit, mode of
behavior.
     Evolution does occur in cultural systems.  Any denying
that is foolhardy, for evolution simply means a change in
the frequency of a cultural expression.  The simple fact
that you are reading this text from a computer, and not from
a piece of parchment, points out a change in the frequency
of cultural behaviors.  From an archaeological context, we
can observe changes in frequency of a behavioral trait over
time expressed in artifact counts, and attribute data.  The
key to applying evolutionary theory to an anthropological
perspective lies in understanding and identifying the forces
of selection.
     Grieger and Tomaso took issue with selective forces,
preferring selective processes, considering that selection
is not directional.  I would counter that by stating that
while selective pressure may not always be directional, it
certainly can be.
There are three modes of selection;
1) Stabilizing selection tends to promote maintenance of the
status quo, and functions as long as the environmental and
cultural systems remain in equilibrium.
2)Directional selection acts to guide adaptionary changes to
fit an environmental constraint.  It is through this type of
selection that most evolutionary events occur.
3)Diversifying selection acts to favor extremes of trait
expression. It would tend to favor alternate forms of an
expression, and tend to not favor a median form.
Further, I would consider the source of selective pressure;
1)the environment is the primary source of selective
pressure, and is the ultimate test by which adaptions are
measured for their selective value.
2)demographic conditions, such as population size,
geographical distribution, and life table dispersions are
also a source of adaptionary influence. Population
parameters and interactions with the environment are the
principal influencing factors towards adaptive success.

While the bugs aren't all worked out by any means, nor will
they for years to come, I believe evolutionary theory offers
the possibility of a true bio-socio-cultural paradigm.

Sorry I got on a rant

John A. Giacobbe
catalinus@aol.com

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:43>From phifer@ALPHA.NSULA.EDU Tue Sep 19 13:31:56 1995

Date: Tue, 19 Sep 1995 13:34:32 -0600 (CST)
From: phifer@ALPHA.NSULA.EDU
Subject: Non-western evolution
To: Darwin-L Group <darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>

I am just starting a project on non-western European theories of
evolution/natural selection and would appreciate receiving information
on useful sources (references) from the readers of Darwin-L.  I am
particularly interested in mid-eastern, far-eastern, and native
American ideas but would also like to learn more about theories from
other regions.  Please respond to me directly via my e-mail address given
below.  If other readers indicate an interest, I will be pleased to make
this a general topic for exchange on Darwin-L.

Curt Phifer
Louisiana Scholars' College
Northwestern State Univ.
Natchitoches, LA 71497

phifer@alpha.nsula.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:44>From tom@cs.uob.ac.bh Wed Sep 20 03:00:42 1995

Date: Wed, 20 Sep 1995 03:00:33 -0500 (CDT)
From: tom@cs.uob.ac.bh (Mr. Tom Ross)
Subject: Re: Non-western evolution
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

I would like to see this topic discussed here  As darwin-l is not limited to
Darwin it should not be limited to European ideas.

Please send me a summary of what you get from the nets.

                Tom Ross

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:45>From rmontero@chasque.apc.org Fri Sep 22 04:11:19 1995

Date: Fri, 22 Sep 1995 00:11:21 -0300
From: Maria Florencia Montero <rmontero@chasque.apc.org>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re:  Non-western evolution

I will be more than plesed if you can make this a general topic.
Best Regards,     Prof.  Raul Montero

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:46>From gliboff@jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu Fri Sep 22 07:42:44 1995

Date: Fri, 22 Sep 1995 08:42:19 -0400
From: Sander J Gliboff <gliboff@jhunix.hcf.jhu.edu>
Subject: Re: Non-western evolution
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Curt Phifer's question is of interest to me, too, since I am working on
pre-Darwinian evoltionary thinking in Europe and would like to hear about
other non-Darwinian theories.  I hope to see some of the discussion on
this list, so don't send all your responses directly to Curt, please.
Perhaps Curt could say more about it, too.
--Sandy Gliboff

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:47>From niepokuj@mace.cc.purdue.edu Fri Sep 22 11:51:53 1995

Date: Fri, 22 Sep 1995 11:51:44 -0500
From: Mary Niepokuj <niepokuj@mace.cc.purdue.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Dear Darwin folks,

  Those of you interested in historical linguistics may want to know about
the following workshop.

-Mary Niepokuj
niepokuj@mace.cc.purdue.edu
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
Colleagues,

The Department of Classics, UMASS, Amherst announces the 4TH WORKSHOP
ON COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS.  The WORKSHOP will take place on the campus
of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA on the weekend of November
10-12, 1995.  This year's topic is TYPOLOGY AND DIACHRONY (program
provided below).  For more information please contact Rex Wallace at
rwallace@titan.oit.umass.edu or Department of Classics, 520 Herter
Hall, UMASS, Amherst, MA 01003.

______________________________________
4TH WORKSHOP ON COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS
UMASS, Amherst, Nov. 10-12, 1995

TYPOLOGY AND DIACHRONY

Preliminary Schedule, 9/22/95

Friday evening, Nov. 10.

7:00 - 9:30, Informal Reception [site to be announced]

Saturday, Nov. 11.

9:00 - 9:30, Coffee

9:30 - 12:00, Session 1, ISSUES IN SAMPLING PROCEDURE

Bill Pagliuca, Univ. of Illinois
Revere Perkins, Independent Consultant

Discussant: Gerda Kamberova, UPenn

12:00-2:00, Lunch break

2:00-5:00, Session 2, TYPOLOGY AND PHONOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION

Alice Faber, Haskins Labs
Ives Goddard, Smithsonian Institution
Fred Schwink, Universitat Eichstatt

Discussant: Jay Jasanoff, Cornell Univ.

6:00-7:30, Reception at Lord Jeffery Inn, Amherst Center

Sunday, Nov. 12

9:00-9:30, Coffee

9:30-12:00, Session 3, TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY OF CHANGE

Mary Niepokuj, Purdue Univ.
Eve Sweetser, UC Berkeley
Ellen Woolford, UMASS, Amherst

Discussant: Brian Joseph, The Ohio State University

				******************************
					Rex Wallace
					Department of Classics
					520 Herter Hall
					UMASS, Amherst
					Amherst, MA 01003
					(413)-545-5779
					rwallace@titan.oit.umass.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:48>From gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu Mon Sep 25 13:16:56 1995

From: "Gessler, Nicholas (G)   ANTHRO" <gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu>
To: DARWIN - postings <DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>,
        ANTHRO-L - submissions <ANTHRO-L@UBVM.cc.buffalo.edu>
Subject: Bibliography on Deception - 2 pages
Date: Mon, 25 Sep 95 11:02:00 PDT

Evolution of Deception - Bibliography

Many thanks to the following people who helped immeasurably in compiling this
list (please accept my apologies for any omissions):

Jean Aitchison, Edwin Francis Allison Iii, Jerry Barkow, Iain Davidson, Rosema
ry Gianno, DGROSSM, Ray Hames, Robert Kruszynski, Tom Love, Gary Mann, Gregory
C. Mayer, Richard Meyer, Mark A. Nadler, Andrew J. Petto, Ron Roizen, Chris St
ephens, Jim Thompson, and Felicia Weiner.

Alcock, J. 1981.  Parapsychology: Science or Magic.  Pergamon Press.

Anon 1940.  The Big Con.  (Adapted to the movie The Sting.)

Barkow, Cosmides, etc.  "The Evolution of Pychodynamic Mechanisms."  In The Ev
olutionary and Psychological Foundations of the Social Sciences.

Barkow, Jerome H. 1989.  Darwin, Sex, and Status: Biological Approaches to Min
d and Culture. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Brower, Lincoln P., editor 1988.  Mimicry And The Evolutionary Process : A Sym
posium.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Byrne, R. and A. Whiten 1987.  "The Thinking Primate's Guide to Deception."  I
n New Scientist, Dec 3,pp 54-57.

Byrne, Richard, and Andrew Whiten, Eds. 1988.  Machiavellian Intelligence: Soc
ial Expertise and the Evolution of Intellect in Monkeys, Apes, and Humans. Oxf
ord University Press, Oxford.

Byrne, Richard and Andrew Whiten 1991.  "Computation and Mindreading in Primat
e Tactical Decepotion."  In Natural Theories of Mind, edited by A. Whiten.  Bl
ackwell.

Byrne, Richard W., and Andrew Whiten 1992.  "Cognitive Evolution In Primates:
Evidence From Tactical Deception."  Man, 27, 609-628.

Cheney, Dorothy and Robert Seyfarth 1990.  How Monkeys See the World - Inside
the Mind of Another Species.  University of Chicago Press, Chicago..

Dawkins, R. and J. Krebs 1978.  "Animal Signals: Information Or Manipulation."
In Behavioural Ecology, ed. J. Krebs and N. Davies.  Pp. 228-309.  Oxford, Bla
ckwell.

de Waal, Frans B. M. 1992.  "Intentional Deception In Primates."  In Evolution
ary Primates, 1-3, 86-92.

Dugatkin, L.A. 1992.  "The Evolution Of The Con Artist."  Ethology and Sociobi
ology, 13, 3-18.

Ekman, Paul 1985.  Telling Lies:  Clues to Deceit in the Market, Politics, and
Marraige.  Norton, New York.

Ekman, P., and M. O'Sullivan 1991.  "Who Can Catch A Liar."  American Psycholo
gist, 46, 913-920.

Frisch, Otto von 1973.  Animal camouflage.  Collins, London.

Hines, Terence 1988.  Pseudoscience and the Paranormal.  Prometheus Books, Buf
falo.

Krebs, D., D. Dennis, K. Denton, and N.C. Higgins 1988.  "On The Evolution Of
Self-Knowledge And Self-Deception."  In MacDonald, K., Ed, Sociobiological Per
spectives on Human Development, pp. 103-139.  Springer-Verlag, New York.

LaFreniere, Peter J. 1988.  "Evolution Et La Fonction De Le Trompiere."  In An
thropologie Et Societies, 12-3, 63-75.

Lockard, Joan S., and D.S. Paulhus, Eds. 1988.  Self-Deception: An Adaptive Me
chanism. Prentice-Hall, Englewood-Cliffs.

Mitchell, Robert W. and Nicholas S. Thompson, editors 1986.  Deception, Perspe
ctives on Human and Non-Human Deceit.  State University of New York, New York.

Olson, Mancur 1971.  The Logic of Collective Action, Public Goods and the Theo
ry of Groups.  Harvard University Press, Cambridge..

Owen, Denis F. 1982.  Camouflage and mimicry.  University of Chicago Press, Ch
icago.

Randi, James 1982.  Flim-Flam! Psychics, ESP, Unicorns and Other Delusions.  P
rometheus Books, Buffalo.

Rappaport, Roy A. 1979.  "Sanctity and Lies in Evolution."  In Ecology, Meanin
g, and Religion. North Atlantic Books, Richmond.

Rue, Loyal D. 1994.  By the grace of guile: the role of deception in natural h
istory and human affairs.  Oxford University Press, New York.

Sackheim, Maxwell 1970.  My First 60 Years in Advertising.  Prentice Hall, Eng
lewood Cliffs.

Shreve, James 1991.  "Machiavellian Monkeys : The Sneaky Skills Of Our Primate
Cousins Suggest That We May Owe Our Great Intelligence To An Inherited Need To
Deceive."  In Discover, 12-6, 68ff.

Smith, Euclid O. 1987.  "Deception And Evolutionary Biology."  In Cultural Ant
hropology, 2-1, 50-64.

Sober, Elliott.  "The Primacy of Truth Telling and the Evolution of Lying."  I
n From a Biological Point of View.

Tooke, William, et al 1991.  "Patterns Of Deception In Intersexual And Intrase
xual Mating Strategies."  In Ethology And Sociobiology, 12-5, 345-364.

Trivers, Robert 1985.  Social Evolution.  Benjamin Cummins, Menlo Park.

U.S. Army 1978.  Tactical Deception.  Field Manual FM-90-2.  Government Printi
ng Office.

Wilson, Peter J. 1988.  The Domestication of the Human Species.  Yale U. Press
, New Haven.

Nick Gessler
UCLA - Anthropology
gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:49>From Catalinus@aol.com Thu Sep 28 19:03:05 1995

Date: Thu, 28 Sep 1995 20:02:52 -0400
From: Catalinus@aol.com
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re:Biocultural Evolution

To Mr. Ascione and the list folks,
       Hello. I apologize for the delay in responding, but I have been out in
the field for several days.  Mr. Ascione recently mentioned several excellent
questions about the place of altruistic and homosexual behaviors in a cultural
evolutionary theory.  First, I would have to start by saying the two would have
to be dealt with separately.  The role of altruistic behaviors has been
considered extensively by the animal bevahioralists, and my take on their work
is that these apparently selfish behaviors, that seem to lack any value in
fitness, can be ascribed some level of fitness through their benefit to the
local gene pool, in which one would be likely to have ones own genes in.  That
is, if I was a member of a group of early humans, while my tribemates may not
be my direct descendants, they will very likely have a good portion of their
genes in common with mine.  So if I help them out, and they prosper and
reproduce, then some part of my selfish genes will succeed.  This is a bigtime
paraphrase, but the idea should be clear.
       While I am not overly excited about this position, it does make
intuitive sense, and I find it easily extended to the human cultural
situation.  In humans, the adaptive strategy appears to focus around the group,
and fitness may be largely measured as the success of the group, in that if the
group is successful, the individual will generally be successful enough to pass
on their genes.  Altruistic behaviors, like other human communal behaviors such
as large-scale agriculture and water control systems, function to increase the
fitness of a group.  If the group succeeds, then the majority of that groups
genes will continue to persist in the gene pool, even as an individuals may not
entirely do so.
     I think we must consider that culture has moved the unit of selection from
the individual to the group.  While this does not appear to apply to modern
cultural systems, in that their extreme population mobility and the overall
size of the practically accessible gene pool may act to obviate typical
selection processes.
     With regard to homosexual behavior, that is a tricky one.  To ascribe any
fitness benefit to this is purely speculation, but we may look to one of our
cousins, the Bonobos (Pan paniscus), to see that they appear to use all sexual
behaviors, including homosexual ones, to act as a form of societal glue.  That
is, sexual expression of any kind is a positive influence on a community,
certainly as opposed to violent or aggressive behaviors, and that this may also
be a form of behavioral amelioration of the tension developing from sexual
competition.  Homosexual behavior may act to release sexual tension (and other
societal tensions) without interfering with the pecking order of reproductive
access.  This may be totally off the wall, but again it has some intuitive
appeal to me, anyway.
     Mr Ascione also mentioned the place of tolerance to variation as a
possible successful adaptive strategy.  I think this is an excellent point to
consider, and one that I had not previously.  One of the attributes of a
successful evolutionary progression is a lineage that is genetically flexible.
That is, if a lineage tolerates variation, when the time comes for the need for
alternate forms, that lineage may have access to them.  An overspecialized
lineage which tolerates little variation will not be able to access the needed
variation when the environment changes, as it always does if you wait long
enough.  I realize this argument is a might anthropomorphic, and I am not
suggesting that lineages access variation on a conscious basis, but, post
facto, this is the way it appears to occur.  I would invite more comment on
this issue!

Thanks for your time,

John A. Giacobbe
Western Archaeological Services, Inc.
catalinus@aol.com

_______________________________________________________________________________

<25:50>From mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca Fri Sep 29 06:48:33 1995

From: Mary P Winsor <mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca>
Subject: notes on Catalinus's
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Fri, 29 Sep 1995 07:48:31 -0400 (EDT)

Two little points on John Giacobbe's  posting:

" The  role of altruistic behaviors has been considered extensively by the
animal bevahioralists, and my take on their work is that these apparently
selfish [surely a slip, he must mean "selfLESS"] behaviors,  that seem to
lack any value in fitness, can be ascribed some level of fitness

Secondly (I've lost the exact text, sorry) he mentions as human
"behavior" things like "agriculture."  Can the word be expanded that
far without being stretched beyond meaning?

Polly Winsor  mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca

_______________________________________________________________________________
Darwin-L Message Log 25: 1-50 -- September 1995                             End

© RJO 1995–2016