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Darwin-L Message Log 30: 1–30 — February 1996

Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences

Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.

This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during February 1996. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.

The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”


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DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 30: 1-30 -- FEBRUARY 1996
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DARWIN-L
A Network Discussion Group on the
History and Theory of the Historical Sciences

Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu is an international network discussion group on
the history and theory of the historical sciences.  Darwin-L was established
in September 1993 to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of
which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present,
and to encourage communication among academic professionals in these fields.
Darwin-L is not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles
Darwin but instead addresses the entire range of historical sciences from an
interdisciplinary perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical
linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology,
systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical
anthropology, historical geography, and related "palaetiological" fields.

This log contains the public messages posted to Darwin-L during February 1996.
It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease
of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been
reformatted, and some administrative messages and personal messages posted to
the group as a whole have been deleted.  No genuine editorial changes have been
made to the content of any of the posts.  This log is provided for personal
reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein
should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained in the archives of Darwin-L by
listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu, and is also available on the Darwin-L Web Server
at http://rjohara.uncg.edu.  For instructions on how to retrieve copies of this
and other log files, and for additional information about Darwin-L, send the
e-mail message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu, or connect to
the Darwin-L Web Server.

Darwin-L is administered by Robert J. O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu), Center for
Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and Department of Biology, University of
North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A., and it
is supported by the Center for Critical Inquiry, University of North Carolina
at Greensboro, and the Department of History and the Academic Computing Center,
University of Kansas.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:1>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu Feb  1 00:16:21 1996

Date: Thu, 01 Feb 1996 01:16:05 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: List owner's monthly greeting
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

Greetings to all Darwin-L subscribers.  On the first of every month I send
out a short note on the status of our group, along with a reminder of basic
commands.  For additional information about the group please visit the
Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu).

Darwin-L is an international discussion group for professionals in the
historical sciences.  The group is not devoted exclusively to the work of
Charles Darwin nor to evolutionary biology, but rather seeks to promote
interdisciplinary comparisons across the entire range of "palaetiology".
Darwin-L currently has more than 700 members from over 30 countries.

Because Darwin-L does have a large membership and is sometimes a high-volume
discussion group it is important for all participants to try to keep their
postings as substantive as possible so that we can maintain a favorable
"signal-to-noise" ratio and keep "chat" to a minimum.  Personal messages
should be sent by private e-mail rather than to the group as a whole.
Subscribers who feel burdened from time to time by the volume of their
mail may wish to take advantage of the digest option described below.

Because many of us do get more email each day than we can reliably read,
I have recently decided to try operating Darwin-L as a "moderated" list
in order to filter out the occasional error message or private query that
gets posted to the list as a whole by mistake.  Most subscribers will not
even be aware of this change to moderated format, except in so far as it
keeps their mailboxes a bit tidier.  The change is not meant to limit
discussion, and I don't anticipate rejecting any serious posts at all.
If an obviously private message comes through I might snatch it, however,
and send it back to the author with the request that it be sent privately.

Because different mail systems work differently, not all subscribers see
the e-mail address of the original sender of each message in the message
header (some people only see "Darwin-L" as the source).  It is therefore
very important to include your name and e-mail address at the end of every
message you post so that everyone can identify you and reply privately if
appropriate.  Remember also that in most cases when you type "reply" in
response to a message from Darwin-L your reply is sent to the group as a
whole, rather than to the original sender.

The following are the most frequently used listserv commands that Darwin-L
members may wish to know.  All of these commands should be sent as regular
e-mail messages to the listserv address (listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu),
not to the address of the group as a whole (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu).
In each case leave the subject line of the message blank and include no
extraneous text, as the command will be read and processed by the listserv
program rather than by a person.  To join the group send the message:

     SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L Your Name

     For example: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L John Smith

To cancel your subscription send the message:

     UNSUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L

If you feel burdened by the volume of mail you receive from Darwin-L you
may instruct the listserv program to deliver mail to you in digest format
(one message per day consisting of the whole day's posts bundled together).
To receive your mail in digest format send the message:

     SET DARWIN-L MAIL DIGEST

To change your subscription from digest format back to one-at-a-time
delivery send the message:

     SET DARWIN-L MAIL ACK

To temporarily suspend mail delivery (when you go on vacation, for example)
send the message:

     SET DARWIN-L MAIL POSTPONE

To resume regular delivery send either the DIGEST or ACK messages above.

For a comprehensive introduction to Darwin-L with notes on our scope and
on network etiquette, and a summary of all available commands, send the
message:

     INFO DARWIN-L

To post a public message to the group as a whole simply send it as regular
e-mail to the group's address (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu).

I thank you all for your continuing interest in Darwin-L and in the
interdisciplinary study of the historical sciences.

Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner

Robert J. O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu)
Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:2>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu Feb  1 23:23:41 1996

Date: Fri, 02 Feb 1996 00:23:34 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: Philology and geology
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

Regarding connections between philology and natural history, one of the
best volumes to appear in a long time on this topic is:

  Naumann, B., et al. eds.  1992.  Language and Earth: Elective Affinities
  Between the Emerging Sciences of Linguistics and Geology.  Amsterdam:
  John Benjamins.

An interesting character who developed the idea extensively in the early
nineteenth century was the philologist William Winning.  Here's an extract
from the Palaetiology page (http://rjohara.uncg.edu/ palaetiology) on
the Darwin-L Web Server, taken from:

  Winning, W.B.  1838.  A Manual of Comparative Philology, in which the
  Affinity of the Indo-European Languages is Illustrated, and Applied to
  the Primeval History of Europe, Italy, and Rome.  London: J.G. & F.
  Rivington. (Pp. 12-15.)

It includes a long internal quotation from William Whewell's _History of
the Inductive Sciences_.

  I have called this work "A Manual of Comparative Philology, in which (1)
  the affinity of the Indo-European languages is illustrated; and (2)
  applied to the early history of Europe, Italy, and Rome." To denote the
  object pointed out in the first division of my title-page, the term
  Comparative Philology, which is now getting into common use, is a suitable
  and happy expression: it is not so, however, with respect to the second
  division. In entering upon the early history of Italy, it becomes quite
  necessary, besides the affinity of languages, to take into consideration
  monuments of art, customs, government, religion, and the general style of
  civilization. The name, therefore, of Comparative Philology, is not
  sufficiently comprehensive for the science treated of in this work; the
  subject, in its whole extent, belongs rather to the class of sciences
  which have lately been called Palaetiological; and of which Geology is,
  at present, the best representative.

  "By the class of sciences here referred to," says Mr. Whewell, who
  introduced the term Palaetiological, "I mean to point out those researches
  in which the object is, to ascend from the present state of things to a
  more ancient condition, from which the present is derived by intelligible
  causes. The sciences which treat of causes have sometimes been termed
  aetiological, from [Gr. aitia], a cause: but this term would not
  sufficiently describe the speculations of which we now speak; since it
  might include sciences which treat of permanent causality, like mechanics,
  as well as inquiries concerning progressive causation. The investigations
  which we now wish to group together, deal, not only with the possible, but
  with the actual past; and a portion of Geology has properly been termed
  palaeontology ([Gr. palai, onta]), since it treats of beings which
  formerly existed. Hence, combining these two notions ([Gr. palai, aitia]),
  the term palaetiology appears to be not inappropriate, to describe those
  speculations which thus refer to actual past events, but attempt to
  explain them by laws of causation. Such speculations are not confined to
  the world of inert matter: we have examples of them in inquiries
  concerning the monuments of the art and labour of distant ages; in
  examinations into the origin and early progress of states and cities,
  customs and languages; as well as in researches concerning the causes and
  formations of mountains and rocks, the imbedding of fossils in strata, and
  their elevation from the bottom of the ocean. All these speculations are
  connected by this bond, that they endeavour to ascend to a past state of
  things, by the aid of the evidence of the present.--Again, we may notice
  another common circumstance in the studies which we are grouping together
  as palaetiological, diverse as they are in their subjects. In all of them
  we have the same kind of manifestations of a number of successive changes,
  each springing out of a preceeding state; and in all, the phenomena at
  each step become more and more complicated, by involving the results of
  all that has preceeded, modified by supervening agencies. The general
  aspect of all these trains of change is similar, and offers the same
  features for description. The relics and ruins of the earlier states are
  preserved, mutilated and dead, in the products of later times. The
  analogical figures by which we are tempted to express this relation, are
  philosophically just. It is more than a mere fanciful description, to say,
  that in languages, customs, forms of society, political institutions, we
  see a number of formations superimposed upon one another, each of which
  is, for the most part, an assemblage of fragments and results of the
  preceeding condition. Though our comparison might be bold, it would be
  just if we were to say, that the English language is a conglomerate of
  Latin words, bound together in Saxon cement; the fragments of the Latin
  being partly portions introduced directly from the parent quarry, with all
  their sharp edges; and partly pebbles of the same material, obscured and
  shaped by long rolling in a Norman or other channel. Thus the study of
  palaetiology in the materials of the earth, is only a type of similar
  studies with respect to all the elements, which, in the history of the
  earth's inhabitants, have been constantly undergoing a series of connected
  changes [footnote 8: Whewell's History of the Inductive Sciences, vol.
  iii. p. 481]."

  Perhaps Philology, and the connected archaeological subjects, are not yet
  sufficiently advanced to constitute collectively, under an appropriate
  name, a complete and uniform member of the Palaetiological class of
  sciences; and I have therefore retained the more common and intelligible
  phrase, Comparative Philology, though in a more extended sense than
  exactly belongs to it. From want of some general title, Fr. Schlegel has
  named his treatise, which is one of the earliest works in this department
  of Palaetiology, 'An Essay on the Language and Philosophy of the Hindoos;'
  which he has divided into three books, on Language, Religion, and Polity.
  My object in the present Work is to perform for Italy and the West, the
  same kind of task which he has executed for India and the East; and to
  induce others to enter upon the same path. May Palaetiology, on the higher
  theme of Man, obtain as numerous and scientific inquirers as she already
  possesses on the subject of the earth!

Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner

Robert J. O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu)
Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building
The University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:3>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri Feb  2 00:31:53 1996

Date: Fri, 02 Feb 1996 01:31:05 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: February 2 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

FEBRUARY 2 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1786: SIR WILLIAM JONES, English jurist and student of Oriental languages,
delivers his Third Anniversary Discourse as president of the Asiatick Society
of Bengal.  It will come to be regarded by future generations of scholars as
one of the founding documents of historical linguistics: "The Sanscrit
language, whatever be its antiquity, is a wonderful structure; more perfect
than the Greek, more copious than the Latin, and more exquisitely refined than
either; yet bearing to both of them a stronger affinity, both in the roots of
verbs, and in the forms of grammar, than could possibly have been produced by
accident; so strong, indeed, that no philologer could examine them all three
without believing them to have sprung from some common source, which, perhaps,
no longer exists.  There is a similar reason for supposing that both the
Gothick and the Celtick, though blended with a very different idiom, had the
same origin with the Sanscrit; and the old Persian might be added to the same
family, if this were the place for discussing any question concerning the
antiquities of Persia."

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:4>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Feb  5 00:32:50 1996

Date: Mon, 05 Feb 1996 01:32:42 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: February 5 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

FEBRUARY 5 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1783: A great earthquake strikes Calabria in southern Italy.  The first major
upheaval of its kind to be directly investigated by European geologists, this
earthquake will serve as one of Charles Lyell's principal illustrations of the
sufficiency of "causes now in operation" to explain geological change in the
first volume of his _Principles of Geology_ (1830): "If the city of Oppido,
in Calabria, be taken as a centre, and round that centre a circle be described
with a radius of twenty-two miles, this space will comprehend the surface of
the country which suffered the greatest alteration, and where all the towns
and villages were destroyed.  But if we describe the circle with a radius of
seventy-two miles, this will then comprehend the whole country that had any
permanent marks of having been affected by the earthquake.  The first shock,
of February 5th, 1783, threw down, in two minutes, the greater part of the
houses in all the cities, towns, and villages, from the western flanks of the
Apennines in Calabria Ultra, to Messina in Sicily, and convulsed the whole
surface of the country.  Another occurred on the 28th of March, with almost
equal violence.  The granitic chain which passes through Calabria from north
to south, and attains the height of many thousand feet, was shaken but
slightly; but it is said that a great part of the shocks which were propagated
with a wave-like motion through the recent strata from west to east, became
very violent when they reached the point of junction with the granite, as if
a reaction was produced where the undulatory movement of the soft strata was
suddenly arrested by the more solid rocks.  The surface of the country often
heaved like the billows of a swelling sea, which produced a swimming in the
head like sea-sickness."

1799: JOHN LINDLEY is born at Catton, near Norwich, England.  The son of
a nurseryman, Lindley will go on to become one of the most active botanical
researchers, editors, artists, and administrators of the nineteenth century.
He will specialize in the systematics of orchids, and in 1830 will publish
an _Introduction to the Natural System of Botany_.  The characters of plants,
he will write, are "the living Hieroglyphics of the Almighty which the skill
of man is permitted to interpret.  The key to their meaning lies enveloped
in the folds of the Natural System."

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:5>From ptort@planete.net Mon Feb  5 05:49:41 1996

Date: Mon, 5 Feb 1996 12:48:35 +0100
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: ptort@planete.net (Patrick Tort)
Subject: Darwin in evolution

AFP news item dated January 18th 1996 - REF : FRAQ12S4GA 0382FRA/AFP-LH15
" PARIS, January 18th (AFP) - A great "Dictionary of Darwinism and of
  Evolution"...
  ... This titanesque result, with no antecedent in the matter, has taken
  ten years work to 150 international specialists in the biological
  sciences and human studies, under the direction of Patrick Tort.
  While striving to restore in its entirety the logics of evolution,
  its original concepts and modern versions, this encyclopaedic
  dictionary initiates a historical investigation of all national
  Darwinisms."

This historical and critical synthesis of Darwinism and evolutionary
theory has been conducted in order to combat the endless distortions of
Darwin's ideas.
Henceforth, the demonstration has been made that:
  - Darwin is not the father of modern anti-equalitarian theories,
  - Darwin is the founder neither of negative eugenics nor of dogmas of
    elimination,
  - Darwin is not the justifier of Victorian Imperialism,
  - Darwin is not responsible for "Social Darwinism"

More information can be obtained on the Web, in six languages, at:

http://www.planete.net/~ptort/darwin/index.html       (French)
http://www.planete.net/~ptort/darwin/evolengl.html    (English)

: Patrick TORT                Professeur d'universite    :
: 23, rue de la Republique   93230 - ROMAINVILLE         :
:                            FRANCE                      :
: ptort@planete.net     Tel. +33 1 48437608              :
: La selection naturelle selectionne la civilisation,    :
: qui s'oppose a la selection naturelle                  :

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:6>From ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU Wed Feb  7 04:15:50 1996

Date: Tue, 06 Feb 1996 19:05:58 CST
From: ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU
To: CADUCEUS@BEACH.UTMB.EDU, darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu,
    HOPOS-l@ukcc.uky.edu, @vm42.cso.uiuc.edu:HPSST-L@QUCDN.bitnet,
    STS@CCTR.UMKC.EDU, HASTRO-L@WVNVM.WVNET.EDU, htech-l@sivm.edu,
    galileo@unimelb.edu.au, @vm42.cso.uiuc.edu:MEDSCI-L@BROWNVM.bitnet
Subject: SCIENCE STUDIES MATERIAL ON-LINE @ Univ. of Missouri-Kansas City

INTERNET WORLDWIDE GUIDE TO SCIENCE STUDIES PROGRAMMES

The University of Missouri-Kansas City sponsors an Internet archive
covering worldwide Science Studies programme prospectuses, curricular
announcements and related material. Where possible, direct links are
provided to programme-sponsored Web pages. Bundled with the
programme material is a database containing much information of
interest to Science Studies participants. Archived material covers a wide
range of disciplines, including history, philosophy, and sociology of both
science and technology, science education, and other related areas. Topics
include job offerings, meeting announcements, calls, e-lists, archived
resources, and pedagogical information.

The Worldwide Guide may be accessed via URL:

                   http://www.umkc.edu/ac/sci-stud

***PLEASE NOTE: The URL for the Worldwide Guide may change within
the next few months. In the event that advance notice cannot be given for
this change, the correct URL will always be available via the homepage of
UMKC's Department of Philosophy, at:

                   http://www.umkc.edu/cctr/dept/philosophy/homepage.html

--George Gale, Proprietor
--Elam O'Renick, Associate Proprietor

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:7>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu Feb  8 00:15:26 1996

Date: Thu, 08 Feb 1996 01:15:15 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: February 8 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

FEBRUARY 8 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1727: JEAN ANDRE DELUC born at Geneva, Switzerland.  Deluc will begin
his career as a businessman and will travel widely throughout Europe, but a
commercial failure in 1773 will induce him to emigrate to England and devote
himself to science, his long-time avocation.  He will soon become one of the
leading scriptural geologists of his day, declaring that in geological strata
"it is as easy to read the history of the Sea, as it is to read the history of
Man in the archives of any nation," and he will attempt to demonstrate through
his many publications "the conformity of geological monuments with the sublime
account of that series of the operations which took place during the Six days,
or periods of time, recorded by the inspired penman."

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:8>From ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu Thu Feb  8 12:57:20 1996

Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 13:57:47 -0500
To: Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu (Darwin List)
From: ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu (Jeremy C. Ahouse)
Subject: 2 links

I have come across a pair of links that some of you may find interesting.

This one has course notes and syllabi in physical anthroplogy and human
evolution:

        http://grizzly.umt.edu/anthro/

                - take the link at Class Notes and Syllabi

This one is a very full cladistics bibliography:

        http://www.utexas.edu/ftp/depts/systbiol/info/cladliterature.html

        cheers,

                - Jeremy

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:9>From kimler@social.chass.ncsu.edu Thu Feb  8 14:53:36 1996

From: "Dr. William C. Kimler, History" <kimler@social.chass.ncsu.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Thu, 8 Feb 1996 15:52:53 EST
Subject: Darwin biography

My graduate class is examining a wide range of biographies of Darwin
as a historiographic exercise.  We've been making a stab at a
"complete" bibliography, and would appreciate a bit of help. Most
difficult is tracing the early biographies in the 19th century,
especially in languages other than English.   If you have something on
file already, or know a really detailed published bibliography of
biographies, let me know.

Dr. William Kimler
Department of History - Box 8108
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-8108
(919) 515-2483
kimler@ncsu.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:10>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sun Feb 11 21:02:28 1996

Date: Sun, 11 Feb 1996 22:03:00 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: UK Systematics Forum on the Web (fwd from TAXACOM)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

--begin forwarded message--------------

Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 14:23:28 GMT
From: Emma Watson <E.Watson@NHM.AC.UK>
Subject: UK Systematics Forum Home Pages

The UK Systematics Forum

The UK Systematics Forum is pleased to announce the arrival of its Home
Pages on the Internet. These pages provide information on the Forum's aims
and objectives, activities and members of the committee as well as links to
other relevant organisations and initiatives on the Web. In the near future
the Pages will provide the base for the directory of UK Systematics
Expertise and Current Research.

The Forum's URL is: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/uksf

Pages will be added and updated at regular intervals but meanwhile please
direct any comments/suggestions to: ew@nhm.ac.uk.

Emma Watson
UK Systematics Forum, c/o The Natural History Museum
Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD
Tel: 0171 938 9522 Fax: 0171 938 9531
E-mail: ew@nhm.ac.uk (Internet)
Museum Home Page URL: HTTP://www.nhm.ac.uk/index.html

--end forwarded message----------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:11>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Feb 12 00:45:30 1996

Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 01:45:24 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: February 12 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

FEBRUARY 12 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1804: IMMANUEL KANT dies at Konigsberg, Germany.  Before he turned to
philosophy, for which he will be best remembered, Kant had been a student
of cosmology, and he had published in 1755 _Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und
Theorie des Himmels, oder Versuch von der Verfassung und dem mechanischen
Ursprunge des ganzen Weltgebaudes nach Newtonischen Grundsatzen abgehandelt_
(_Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens: An Essay on the
Constitution and Mechanical Origin of the Whole Universe Treated According
to Newtonian Principles_).  In this work, which was little known even in its
own day, Kant stretched the traditional cosmic chronology of the early modern
period into a temporal expanse of enormous proportion: "There has mayhap flown
past a series of millions of years and centuries, before the sphere of the
formed nature in which we find ourselves, attained to the perfection which is
now embodied in it; and perhaps as long a period will pass before Nature will
take another step as far in chaos.  But the sphere of developed nature is
incessantly engaged in extending itself.  Creation is not the work of a
moment.  When it has once made a beginning with the production of an infinity
of substances and matter, it continues in operation through the whole
succession of eternity with ever increasing degrees of fruitfulness.  Millions
and whole myriads of millions of centuries will flow on, during which always
new worlds and systems of worlds will be formed after each other in the
distant regions away from the center of nature, and will attain to
perfection."

1809: CHARLES DARWIN is born in Shrewsbury.  Educated in medicine and divinity
at the Universities of Edinburgh and Cambridge, Darwin will become one of the
greatest theorists in the history of the historical sciences.  In the _Origin
of Species_ (London, 1859) he will describe the consequences that will result
when his evolutionary view of nature becomes widely adopted: "The terms used
by naturalists of affinity, relationship, community of type, paternity,
morphology, adaptive characters, rudimentary and aborted organs, &c., will
cease to be metaphorical, and will have plain signification.  When we no
longer look at an organic being as a savage looks at a ship, as at something
wholly beyond his comprehension; when we regard every production of nature as
one which has had a history; when we contemplate every complex structure and
instinct as the summing up of many contrivances, each useful to the possessor,
nearly in the same way as when we look at any great mechanical invention as
the summing up of the labour, the experience, the reason, and even the
blunders of numerous workmen; when we thus view each organic being, how far
more interesting, I speak from experience, will the study of natural history
become!"

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:12>From mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca Tue Feb 13 11:29:47 1996

From: Mary P Winsor <mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca>
Subject: Happy Darwin's Birthday
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu (bulletin board)
Date: Mon, 12 Feb 1996 17:21:27 -0500 (EST)

Here in Toronto the biology departments in the Royal Ontario Museum
have a tradition, around 20 yrs old now, of cake and song and informal
lecture to celebrate Darwin's birth on Feb 12, 1809.  I was honoured
to give the little talk this year, and so near Valentine's Day I chose
to celebrate his prescience in thinking up and defending sexual
selection long before almost anyone else was able to see it as
plausible.  (A nice article by Mary Bartley in the J. History of
Biology spring 1995 pp. 91-108 (volume 28, no.1) shows that Julian
Huxley only allowed the principle very limited application.)  I
casually speculated that besides all the other smarts Darwin had going
for him (to explain why he was head and shoulders ahead of his
contemporaries), he approached animals, including his fellow humans,
male and female, with an attitude of humility and respect.
Most observors shared A.R.Wallace's inability to imagine that
female birds and mammals could exercise choice, but Darwin had no
trouble thinking so.  His reaction when Emma Wedgewood accepted his
proposal of marriage was to be heartily grateful that she was
willing to have him. He was devoted to her all their lives (unlike
Julian Huxley, who announced one day to his wife that henceforth he
would consider them both free to engage in whatever sexual
opportunity came their way).

I do not intend to publish this speculation about historical cause
and effect!  Polly Winsor  mwinsor@epas.utoronto.ca

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:13>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Feb 13 14:50:25 1996

Date: Tue, 13 Feb 1996 15:49:49 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: Summer Systematics Institute at CAS (fwd from TAXACOM)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

--begin forwarded message--------------

Date: Sun, 11 Feb 1996 10:57:33 -0800
From: Anne Marie Malley <amalley@CAS.CALACADEMY.ORG>
Subject: Summer Systematics Institute - California Academy of Sciences

                       CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

                        SUMMER SYSTEMATICS INSTITUTE
                                  1996

The California Academy of Sciences announces an internship program in
Systematic Biology for summer 1996.  The Summer Systematics Institute
matches 9 undergraduate students with Academy scientists to conduct
research, as well as participate in tours, seminars and lectures related to
biodiversity, evolutionary biology and global change.  A $3000 stipend will
be awarded to each intern.  In addition, financial help may be available to
defray travel costs to San Francisco and housing costs.

General Information

The 1996 Summer Systematics Institute will last 10 weeks: 10 June 1996 - 16
August 1996

All application materials must be received by 15 March, 1996.  No late
applications can be considered.

Notification of status will be mailed to all applicants by 1 April, 1996.

Application materials can be obtained from:

Summer Systematics Institute
Research Division
California Academy of Sciences
Golden Gate Park
San Francisco, CA  94118

Telephone:  415-750-7277
Fax:  415-750-7346
email: ayingling@cas.calacademy.org

--end forwarded message----------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:14>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Feb 13 23:01:31 1996

Date: Wed, 14 Feb 1996 00:01:15 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: Library of Congress subject headings
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

The following query was recently posted to HUMANIST, and I append my
reply here for the possible interest of Darwin-l members.  We have talked
about the Library of Congress subject heading in the historical sciences
here once or twice before.

Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner

--being forwarded message--------------

>From: Willard McCarty <mccarty@phoenix.princeton.edu>
>Subject: usefulness of LC categories?
>
>A question that arose out of a discussion with a colleague here: how useful
>are the U.S. Library of Congress subject categories to working scholars? Who
>actually uses these in research, and how useful are they? Mention of actual
>cases would be most helpful.
>
>Thanks.
>
>WM

This is an interesting question, Willard.  I have not used them in research
per se, but have used them in teaching, and sometimes give students a list
of the subject headings that pertain to a particular course they are taking
so they will be better able to find relevant material (and to encourage
browsing).

One of my areas of interest, however, is the comparative study of the
historical sciences -- the fields that William Whewell called "palaetiology"
(historical geology, historical linguistics, evolutionary biology, textual
transmission, etc.).  As an exercise I once put together a fairly
comprehensive listing of the various LC headings that pertain to the
historical sciences as a way of showing the practical obstacles (one might
say) that stand in the way of studying these fields as a unified group.  In
other words, if you are interested in "historical reconstruction" as a general
notion you will find material scattered through the entire LC classification,
from natural history (QH) to historical chronology (D11) to textual criticism
(P47) to historical geography (G141).  This is not particularly surprising,
but what it illustrates nicely is how the LC classification reflects certain
assumptions about what fields go together and how they go together.  One can
imagine that these assumptions might conceivably stand in the way of someone
trying to make a non-obvious interdisciplinary connection.

The list of LC subject headings relating to the historical sciences
is available for browsing on the Files page of the Darwin-L Web Server
(http://rjohara.uncg.edu).

Robert J. O'Hara (rjohara@iris.uncg.edu)
Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A.

--end forwarded message----------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:15>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu Feb 15 21:57:22 1996

Date: Thu, 15 Feb 1996 22:57:14 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: Books from Italy on the historical sciences (fwd)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

--begin forwarded message--------------

From: F.Saldicco@agora.stm.it
Subject: A NEW WWW PAGE.
Date: Wed, 14 Feb 96 11:22:46 GMT

Franco A. Volta announces the setting up of a new WWW page by the C.I.R.T.

- International Center for Retrieval of New, Ancient and Rare Books.

This page gives an up-to date list of new italian books on:

1. Archaeology, Antiquities and Classical Philology.
2. Architecture.
3. Art.
4. Cinema.
5. Herakles Project
6. History.
7. Incunabula (microfilms)
8. Manuscripts (microfilms)
9. Music.
10. XVI-XVII-XVIII Centuries (microfilms)

The web pages are still in construction.

More links to come:

-Geography, Geology.
-Economics, Sociology.
-Library Science.
-Literature, Linguistics.
-Mathematics, Computer Science.
-Philosophy.
-Technology, Engineering, Physics, Astronomy.

The address is:

http://italia.hum.utah.edu/gruppo/volta/cirt.html

*****************************
All contacts and requests of information must be addressed to:

Franco A. Volta
C.I.R.T. : International Center for Retrieval
           of New, Ancient and Rare Books.
P.O. Box 7254 - 00100 Roma/Italy.
P.O. Box 2591 - New York, NY 10185
Fax: 0039 6 4826073

E-mail: f.volta@agora.stm.it
*****************************

--end forwarded message----------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:16>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sat Feb 17 21:09:40 1996

Date: Sat, 17 Feb 1996 22:09:33 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: History of Science Society Web Server
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

The History of Science Society has recently established a web server
that may be of interest to some Darwin-L members.  The address is:

     http://weber.u.washington.edu/~hssexec/index.html

Bob O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu)

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:17>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Feb 19 13:50:24 1996

Date: Mon, 19 Feb 1996 14:50:08 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: February 19 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

FEBRUARY 19 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1792: RODERICK IMPEY MURCHISON is born at Tarradale, Scotland.  Following
a period of military service as a young man, Murchison will lead a life of
leisure until 1824 when he will become interested in geology.  His inherited
wealth will allow him to devote himself entirely to science during subsequent
years, and he will pioneer the use of fossils in the correlation of strata.
Travelling extensively through much of Europe, and serving several times as
president of the Geological Society of London, Murchison will concentrate
his investigations on some of the oldest strata then known, in the hope of
geologically locating the origin of life.  His great monograph _The Silurian
System_ (London, 1839) will set a standard for geological research, but it
will eventually lead him into a bitter dispute with Adam Sedgwick over the
location of the boundary between the Silurian and Sedgwick's older Cambrian
System.  Increasingly inflexible in his views, Murchison will aggressively
reject both Agassiz's glacial theory and Darwin's theory of descent, and late
in life will become a patron of geography, participating in the founding of
the Royal Geographical Society and contributing financially to Livingstone's
African expeditions.  He will be made a baronet in 1866, and will die in
London in 1871.

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:18>From 5SH6FREEBURG@vms.csd.mu.edu Mon Feb 19 18:31:07 1996

Date: Mon, 19 Feb 1996 18:30:50 -0600 (CST)
From: 5SH6FREEBURG@vms.csd.mu.edu
Subject: hello
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Hello,
	I'm a new subscriber to Darwin-l.  My name is Nathan Freeburg with my
field being intellectual and religious history.  I also have interests in
cosmology and the history of philosophy and psychology.
Sincerely,
5sh6freeburg@vms.csd.mu.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:19>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Feb 20 05:17:42 1996

Date: Tue, 20 Feb 1996 01:26:20 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: February 20 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

FEBRUARY 20 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1835: "This day has been remarkable in the annals of Valdivia for the most
severe earthquake which the oldest inhabitants remember. -- Some who were at
Valparaiso during the dreadful one of 1822, say this was as powerful. -- I can
hardly credit this, & must think that in Earthquakes as in gales of wind, the
last is always the worst.  I was on shore & lying down in the wood to rest
myself.  It came on suddenly & lasted two minutes (but appeared much longer).
The rocking was most sensible; the undulation appeared both to me & my servant
to travel from due East.  There was no difficulty in standing upright; but the
motion made me giddy. -- I can compare it to skating on very thin ice or to
the motion of a ship in a little cross ripple.
  "An earthquake like this at once destroys the oldest associations; the
world, the very emblem of all that is solid, moves beneath our feet like a
crust over a fluid; one second of time conveys to the mind a strange idea of
insecurity, which hours of reflection would never create.  In the forest, a
breeze moved the trees, I felt the earth tremble, but saw no consequence from
it. -- At the town where nearly all the officers were, the scene was more
awful; all the houses being built of wood, none actually fell & but few were
injured.  Every one expected to see the Church a heap of ruins.  The houses
were shaken violently & creaked much, the nails being partially drawn. -- I
feel sure it is these accompaniments & the horror pictured in the faces of
all the inhabitants, which communicates the dread that every one feels who
has _thus seen_ as well as felt an earthquake.  In the forest it was a highly
interesting but by no means awe-exciting phenomenon. -- The effect on the
tides was very curious; the great shock took place at the time of low-water;
an old woman who was on the beach told me that the water flowed quickly but
not in big waves to the high-water mark, & as quickly returned to its proper
level; this was also evident by the wet sand.  She said it flowed like an
ordinary tide, only a good deal quicker.  This very kind of irregularity in
the tide happened two or three years since during an Earthquake at Chiloe &
caused a great deal of groundless alarm. -- In the course of the evening there
were other weaker shocks; all of which seemed to produce the most complicated
currents, & some of great strength in the Bay.  The generally active Volcano
of Villa-Rica, which is the only part of the Cordilleras in sight, appeared
quite tranquil. -- I am afraid we shall hear of damage done at Concepcion.
I forgot to mention that on board the motion was very perceptible; some below
cried out that the ship must have tailed on the shore & was touching the
bottom."  (Charles Darwin's Beagle Diary, 20 February 1835.)

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:20>From ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU Tue Feb 20 11:49:09 1996

Date: Tue, 20 Feb 1996 11:47:08 CST
From: ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU
To: CADUCEUS@BEACH.UTMB.EDU, darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu,
    @vm42.cso.uiuc.edu:HPSST-L@QUCDN.bitnet, STS@CCTR.UMKC.EDU,
    HASTRO-L@WVNVM.WVNET.EDU, htech-l@sivm.edu, galileo@unimelb.edu.au,
    @vm42.cso.uiuc.edu:MEDSCI-L@BROWNVM.bitnet
Subject: Hist.of Phil. of Science (HOPOS) Conf. Registration & Program

***************
       FIRST HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE CONFERENCE
                        Hotel Roanoke, Roanoke, Virginia
                                        April 19-21 1996

	The History of Philosophy of Science Working Group will
hold its first conference in cooperation with Virginia Polytechnic
Institute and State University on April 19-21 1996.  Registration
information and a near-final draft of the program are below.
****************
REGISTRATION:

 FIRST HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE CONFERENCE
 Hotel Roanoke, Roanoke, Virginia
 April 19-21 1996

Conference Fee (mandatory for participants and conference visitors):

	( ) $65  HOPOS members (including new members)
and	( )  $15 HOPOS membership fee for 1996, if not already collected

OR:
	( ) $75 non-members

Includes AM and PM coffee breaks and Conference Reception at Hotel
Roanoke (Friday 8:00 PM).

	( ) Optional $20 banquet fee
(Conference barbeque banquet and transportation to banquet Saturday
evening, hosted by Joseph C. and Donna Pitt at Gavagai Hollow (4:00
PM forward))

Total enclosed:
Please pay by check or U.S. dollar money order to HOPOS.

Name:

Address:

Telephone:

Email:

Name and institutional affiliation as they should appear on your nametag:

Send registration materials to:
	Cassandra Pinnick
	Department of Philosophy
	Western Kentucky University
	Bowling Green, KY 42101
	(pinnick2@wkuvx1.wku.edu !Please note the '2'!)

Lodging information:  Lodging is not included in the registration
fee.  A block of 30 rooms will be made available for registration
until April 5 at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute conference
center, the Hotel Roanoke, a historic structure in downtown Roanoke.
Room rates for the conference are $55 single occupancy and $75
double, tax included; $20 for each additional person.  Please
mention the conference and these rates when booking.  Tel.  (540)
985-5900;   FAX  (540)  345-2890. Rooms may be obtained through the
Doubletree Hotels reservation number, 1-800-222-8733.

Rooms are also available 3 blocks from the conference site at the
Radisson Patrick Henry Hotel, 617 Jefferson St., Roanoke, VA  24011
(540) 345-8811 Conference Rate: $69 Flat rate (single or double)
PLUS Tax; mention the HOPOS conference. Registration Deadline:
April 1, 1996.

Directions from Airport to Hotel Roanoke:
A courtesy bus runs to the hotel from the airport on the hour and
half hour, 24 hours/day.  Should one not appear, a telephone call to
the hotel should produce one.  Transit time is 10 minutes.

From the airport by car:  Take Interstate 581 South to Exit 5
downtown.  Proceed from the ramp along Williamson Rd., and at first
light, turn right onto Wells.  The Hotel Roanoke is immediately on
your left.

A discount conference rate from April 18-21 of $40 plus tax for a
room with two double beds is also available at the TravelLodge hotel
at 2444 South Lee Highway.  The TravelLodge is approximately 15
minutes travel by car from the conference site.  Reservations: (992)
540-6700.

Airline information: USAir and Northwest fly into Roanoke airport,
as do commuter flights on Delta and United.
***********************************
HOPOS program draft, 8 February 1996

	Friday, April 19

	8:30-10:00 Session 1

	ROOM A
	Christian Perring, University of Kentucky
	The Disunity Of Science:  Adolf Meyer's Psychiatry

	Gary Hatfield, University of Pennsylvania
	Psychology As A Natural Science

	ROOM B
	Zeno Swijtink, Max-Planck Institute
	The Romantic Conception Of Knowledge In Alexander Von Humboldt

	Eric Watkins, Virginia Tech
	Kant's Justification Of The Laws Of Mechanics

	Morning break, refreshments provided

	10:30-12:30 Session 2

	ROOM A
	Submitted Panel:  Scientific Philosophy, Neo-Kantianism And
	The Rise Of Philosophy Of Science
	Alan Richardson, Chair

	R. Lanier Anderson, Haverford College
	Rickert And Dilthey On The Human Sciences

	Alan Richardson, University of British Columbia
	Wissenschaftliche Philosophie:  A Neglected Theme In German
	Philosophy 1870-1936

	David Sullivan, Metropolitan State College of Denver
	Frege, Husserl And The Neo-Kantian Paradigm:  Questions Of
	Psychologism

	ROOM B
	Val Dusek, University of New Hampshire
	The Feyerabend/Lakatos Debate On Method As Recapitulation
	Of The Brecht/Lukacs Debate In Marxist Aesthetics

	Michalis Assimakopoulos, National Technical University of Greece
	Philosophy Of Science In The Soviet Union Since The 50's

	Gurol Irzik, University of Pittsburgh
	The Scope And Limits Of The Post-Positivist Turn

	12:30-1:30 Lunch

	1:30-4:00 Session 3

	ROOM A
	Submitted Panel:  Durkheimian Sociology In Philosophical Context
	Warren Schmaus, Chair

	Robert Alun Jones, University of Illinois, Urbana
	L'Ecole Des Choses:  Durkheim, Realism, And Rousseau

	John I. Brooks III, Tikyo Loretto Heights University
	Great Books And Not-So-Great Books:  Durkheim's Rules Of
	Sociological Method And High-School Philosophy In France

	Warren Schmaus, Illinois Institute of Technology
	The Positivist Roots Of The Sociology Of Knowledge

	Terry F. Godlove, Jr., Hofstra University
	Durkheim, Hamelin, And The Kantian Background

	ROOM B
	Submitted Panel:  Renaissance Theory Of Science: Quia And
	Propter Quid, Analysis And Synthesis
	Eric Palmer, Allegheny College, Chair

	Donald Morrison, Rice University
	Analysis As A Philosophical Method In Middle And Neoplatonism

	John H. Serembus, Widener University
	The Method Of Resolution And Composition Of Robert
	Grosseteste

	Peter Barker, University of Oklahoma
	Demonstration Quia And Propter Quid In The Lutheran Response To
	Copernicus

	Roger Ariew, Virginia Tech.
	Descartes And The Late Scholastics On The Order Of The Sciences

	Afternoon break

	4:30 Keynote address
	Michael Friedman, Indiana University

	8:00-10:00 Conference Reception

	Saturday, April 20

	8:30-10:30 Session 4
	ROOM A
	David Kaiser, Harvard University
	"A Mannheim For All Seasons:  Bloor, Merton, And The Roots
	Of SSK"

	Elihu M. Gerson, Tremont Research Institute
	Methodological Debate In 20th Century American Philosophy:
	An Institutional Perspective

	Cassandra L. Pinnick, Western Kentucky University
	What's Wrong With The Strong Programme's Case Study Of The
	"Hobbes-Boyle Dispute"?

	ROOM B
	Barry S. Gower, University of Durham
	Conventionalism, Probabilistic Reasoning And Scientific Method

	David Stump, University of San Francisco
	Reconstructing The Unity Of Mathematics circa 1900

	Madeline Muntersbjorn, University of Toledo
	On The Representation Neutrality Of Mathematical Reasoning:
	A Critical History Of A Philosophical Thesis

	Morning break

	11:00-1:00 Session 5

	ROOM A
	Anne Mylott, Indiana University
	Matthias Schleiden And Philosophy Of Biology In J.F. Fries

	Chuck Ward, Johns Hopkins University
	J.H. Woodger's `Theory Of The Organism'

	Gregory Nowak, Princeton University
	J.H. Woodger's Axiomatic Biology:  The Creation Of A
	Positivist Science

	ROOM B
	Maurice A. Finocchiaro, University of Nevada Las Vegas
	The 'Port-Royal Logic':  Informal Logic, Methodological
	Reflection, Etc.

	Saul Fisher, City University of New York
	Gassendi's 'Modern' Concept Of Probability And The Nature
	Of Nondeductive Inference

	Alan Gabbey, Barnard College
	Exercises In Near-Impossibility:  Reflections On
	Translating Scientific And Philosophical Texts Of The Past

	1:00-2:00 Lunch

	2:00

	Keynote address: Ron Giere, University of Minnesota

	Afternoon break

	4:00 Transportation to conference banquet Saturday evening,
	hosted by Joseph C. and Donna Pitt at Gavagai Hollow.  A $20
	banquet fee above registration fee is required for this event.

	Sunday, April 21

	8:30-10:30 Session 6

	ROOM A
	Chair:  George Gale
	Andrew Reynolds, University of Western Ontario
	Peirce on Physical Laws and Evolution

	Don Howard, University of Kentucky
	"And I Shall Not Mingle Conjectures With Certainties":  On
	The Intellectual Background To Einstein's Distinction Between
	Principle Theories And Constructive Theories

	Arto Siitonen, University of Helsinki
	Hans Reichenbach's Position In 20th Century Philosophy

	ROOM B
	Submitted Panel:  Interactions Between Mechanistic Physics
	And Jesuit Aristotelian Philosophy In The Seventeenth And Eighteenth
	Centuries
	Helen Hattab, Chair

	Helen Hattab, University of Pennsylvania
	One Cause Or Many?: What Jesuit Philosophy Can Tell Us
	About Descartes

	Marcus Hellyer, University of California, San Diego
	The Jesuit Reception Of Descartes In Seventeenth And
	Eighteenth Century Germany

	Cees Leijenhorst, University of Utrecht
	Jesuit Scholasticism And Hobbes's Natural Philosophy:
	Three Case Studies

	Morning break

	11:00-1:00 Session 7

	ROOM A
	George Reisch, Northwestern University
	Epistemologist, Sociologist...And Censor?--On Otto
	Neurath's Index Verborum Prohibitorum

	Gary L. Hardcastle, Virginia Tech.
	The Science Of Science Discussion Group At Harvard, 1940-41

	Chris McClellan, Notre Dame
	A Modern History Of Empirical Rationalism:  From The
	Encyclopedia Of 1751 To The Encyclopedia Of Unified Science

	ROOM B
	Lisa Downing, University of Pennsylvania
	Locke On Corpuscularianism:  Its Status, Uniqueness,
	Limitations, And Implications

	David K. Nartonis, Unaffiliated
	Voluntarism And Empiricism

	S. Paul Tidman, University of Delaware
	Reid on Scientific Method

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:21>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed Feb 21 21:39:44 1996

Date: Wed, 21 Feb 1996 22:36:17 -0500 (EST)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: "skiamorph"
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

This entertaining popular essay from a Toronto newspaper was recently posted
on HUMANIST.  It describes a phenomenon that will be familiar to all
historical scientists I'm sure: the existence of features that once served
some purpose or were adaptive, but no longer are, and persist by virtue of
inheritance (cultural inheritance in the examples given in the essay).  Such
features are common in just about all objects with complex histories:
organisms, languages, cultural artifacts, etc.  The term the author of the
essay uses for them is "skiamorph".

Can we (pedantic scholars that we are) develop this concept in a rigorous
way?  Or perhaps someone already has?  Are there special terms that
correspond to "skiamorph" in particular disciplines within the historical
sciences?

Bob O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu)

--begin forwarded message--------------

Date: Sat, 17 Feb 1996 17:30:58 -0500 (EST)
From: Humanist <mccarty@phoenix.Princeton.EDU>
Subject: 9.553 techno-skiamorphology
To: Humanist Discussion Group <humanist@lists.Princeton.EDU>

               Humanist Discussion Group, Vol. 9, No. 553.
    Center for Electronic Texts in the Humanities (Princeton/Rutgers)
        Information at http://www.princeton.edu/~mccarty/humanist/

  [1]   From: Willard McCarty <mccarty@phoenix.princeton.edu>        (45)
        Subject: techno-skiamorphology

[The following from a Toronto paper, Science and Technology page. I was
particularly delighted to find this piece, since I have been writing and
thinking about the phenomenon for some time and did not know there was a
word for it. Atkinson's editor pointed out to me that "anachronism"
does not cover the same territory. A letter in today's Globe further
pointed out that Atkinson has it wrong about the return key on the
computer keyboard, since it describes the motion of the cursor on screen.
Nevertheless, we are still haunted by skiamorphs. --WM]

One person's Rolodex is another person's electronic skiamorph

Bill Atkinson

Mind and Matter, The Globe and Mail, D8, Saturday, 10 February
1996. Reproduced by permission of the author & with the knowledge of the
publisher.
------------------------------------------------------------------

I'VE never met a fact I couldn't use. A datum will lurk in my
cranium until another fact, more recently acquired, ferries it
back to consciousness.

Case in point. Last month I was talking to an editor at The Globe
and Mail when my eye fell on her Rolodex. Two things about this
name-filing device struck me. First, it was no longer based on
file cards but on microchip electronics. Second, the new version
needlessly featured the hand-turned cylinder that characterized
the old form. "You have a skiamorph," I said.

Skiamorph: There's a winning combination for a Scrabble game. I
got the word, and the concept behind it, from a book on materials
science that I long ago mislaid. "Skiamorph" comes from the Greek
for "shadow" (skia) and "form" (morphe). My long-lost book coined
it for the unnecessary holdovers that show up when new
technologies displace existing ones.

The book cited two examples. First: Two thousand years ago, when
the material of choice for Grecian temples shifted from wood to
stone, masons continued to reproduce -- in stone -- architectural
details that made sense only in wood-framed structures. Today's
tourist may spot the square heads of what look like wooden pegs
and wedges, protruding from the tops of solid marble columns.

Second: the countless highway bridges with mock guardhouses at
both ends. This stems from the times when streams were territorial
borders, and bridges over them housed soldiers and customs
officials. Sometimes guardhouses on modern viaducts are only
bumps, mere suggestions of structure. At other times, the
architect gives us something out of 11th-century Burgundy, down to
the arrow slits and crenelations.

Since rediscovering the skiamorph, I have cast about for other
examples. To deserve its name, a skiamorph must not be an operable
way of doing things. Using a fountain pen instead of more up-to-
date writing tools, for instance, is not a skiamorph. By
definition, the true skiamorph is exuberantly useless.

Take the item that triggered my memory. The cylindrical silhouette
of the original Rolodex was famous: Countless yuppies linked its
knurled knobs with wealth and power. When new technology created
more convenient and capacious systems, Rolodex designers responded
with a skiamorph.

The electronic model they invented still uses a cylinder to scroll
through names. Yet that is not an engineering requirement: it is a
marketing decision. Ergonomically, a rocker switch would be
better, but that As the Romans used to say, Cui bono? Who benefits
from these silly things? I suppose I do. Subconsciously, I
probably respond to both skiamorphs because they pitch to deeply
buried myths of the ace reporter. Tackatackading! Rrrrrrrrrip! Get
me Rewrite, honey!

Skiamorphs are born of human insecurity -- a truth that Marketing
remembers even when Engineering is enraged by it. Whenever a new
technology emerges, even when its operation is safe and useful,
its nature and long-term effects remain mysterious to all but a
handful of inventor-acolytes. And since we usually fear the
unknown, the vast majority of users are reassured if the new ways
of doing things share some of the trappings of the old.

Snobbery may also foster skiamorphs after all fashion is full of
them. Long after an initial solution loses its function, it
survives as ornament. The holes on brogue shoes once drained
water. The wings of wing chairs once deflected drafts long
banished from today's firesides and bedrooms. Excellent new
materials such as aluminum, prefinished steel and self-adhesive
vinyl are too self-conscious to appear in their own guise, and
come tarted up with fake wood grain. Shades of the Greeks.

In fact, anything laden with emotion is an excellent medium for
growing skiamorphs. Take housing. In Elizabethan England, the
windows of the rich were labour-intensive and costly to build. To
make them, pieces of handblown glass were painstakingly knit
together with lead strips. These leaded panes, early examples of
conspicuous consumption, became identified with the gentry, and
were thus preserved even when new technology permitted large
pieces of distortion-free window glass to be cast on beds of
mercury. Float glass gave us picture windows, but it could not
speak to people's emotion-laden images of upscale housing. Hence
the skiamorph of modern leaded glass-a web of expanded metal glued
to a seamless pane of float glass.

Or consider the S-shaped Landau mark, visible in chrome on the
roofs of some American autos. A century ago it was a hinge that
let the fabric tops of horse-drawn carriages fold back on
themselves easily. Yesterday's hinge is today's skiamorph, thanks
Skiamorphs form a fascinating back door to the history of
technology. Like architecture, they are essays penned in material,
able to edify the humanist as much as the scientist. Spotting
them, especially in their subtler forms, sharpens the eye and
delights the mind. I look forward to readers' further skiamorphic
examples.

Bill Atkinson reports on science, technology, and the economic and
social effects of both. He lives in North Vancouver. He can be
reached at bill_atkinson@mindlink.bc.ca

--end forwarded message----------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:22>From Eliana@attach.edu.ar Wed Feb 21 18:28:57 1996

From: Eliana@attach.edu.ar
Organization:  Attachment Research Center
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Wed, 21 Feb 1996 21:10:56 -0300
Subject: Popper conference

                      ANNUAL POPPER CONFERENCE

                          9th March, 1996

                           Room A42
         London School of Economics and Political Science
         Houghton Street, WC2A 2AE (Just off the Aldwych)

                Organiser: Dr. Ray Scott Percival
                Chairman:  Dr. Jan Clifford Lester

      Sponsors: L.S.E, Lancaster University, Mr. & Mrs. Mew,
                Open Society Institute (Chairman: Mr. Soros),
                Securicor.

-------------------------------------------------------------

10.30 am: Registration & Coffee (A42, just down the corridor
            to the right of the Old Theatre)

11.00 am: Dr. Michel Ghins (Wolfson College, Oxford)
          _Popper on Time_

Noon:     Dr. Barry McMullin (Dublin City University)
          _Adaptation Considered Harmful:
           Darwin's Problem Revisited_

1.00 pm:  Lunch

2.30 pm:  Dr. Christoph Von Mettenheim
            (Barrister, German Federal Supreme Court)
          _Einstein, Popper and the Theory of Relativity_

3.30 pm:  Sandra Pralong (Democracy Works, New York)
          _The Role of the Media in the Open Society_

4.30 pm:  Break (A86; next to A42)

5.00 pm:  (To be decided.)

6.00 pm:  Close.

-------------------------------------------------------------

The Conference is open to all interested people.  There is a
registration fee of STG 10 for the unemployed (STG 5 for
Students and Unemployed).  Participants will need to make
their own arrangements for lunch.  Many restaurants can be
found along the Strand and at Covent Garden, only 5 minutes
away.  If you wish to reserve a seat, please send cheque
plus stamped addressed envelope to the Organiser:

  Dr. Ray Scott Percival,
  70 Hillview Court,
  Astley Bridge,
  Bolton BL1 8NU
  United Kingdom.

  Phone:  +44-1204-593114
  E-mail: 100525.373@compuserve.com

Otherwise, you may pay at the door.

-------------------------------------------------------------
********************************************************
* Eliana Montuori, MD            *  Juncal 1966        *
* Attachment Research Center     *  1116, Buenos Aires *
* Tel: +54-1 812 5521   Fax: +54-1 812 5432            *
********************************************************

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:23>From burghd@utkvx.utk.edu Thu Feb 22 10:05:40 1996

Date: Thu, 22 Feb 1996 11:00:02 -0500
From: burghd@utkvx.utk.edu (Gordon Burghardt)
Subject: Re: skiamorph
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Bob O'Hara wrote:

>This entertaining popular essay from a Toronto newspaper was recently posted
>on HUMANIST.  It describes a phenomenon that will be familiar to all
>historical scientists I'm sure: the existence of features that once served
>some purpose or were adaptive, but no longer are, and persist by virtue of
>inheritance (cultural inheritance in the examples given in the essay).  Such
>features are common in just about all objects with complex histories:
>organisms, languages, cultural artifacts, etc.  The term the author of the
>essay uses for them is "skiamorph".
>
>Can we (pedantic scholars that we are) develop this concept in a rigorous
>way?  Or perhaps someone already has?  Are there special terms that
>correspond to "skiamorph" in particular disciplines within the historical
>sciences?

Ah - the short historical life of important findings and those from other
countries.  There is a major effort looking at the cutural evolution of all
kinds of human creations pioneered in Austria by Otto Koenig.  Koenig
founded a major center for ethological research in Vienna that is now part
of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (and renamed after Konrad Lorenz).
Koenig look at clothes, uniforms, streetcars, etc and found nonfunctonal
remnants of all kind that could be traced to earlier cultural adaptations.
His work figured prominently in Lorenz's 1973 Nobel Prize speech published
in SCIENCE; he also popularized it in other writings.  Koenig wrote several
books, an important one is Kultur and Verhaltensforschung. Einfuerung in die
Kulturethologie, Munich, 1970.  Eibl-Eibesfeldt cited Koenig's work in his
textbooks on Ethology and also his opus Human Etholgy (de Gruyter, New York,
1989).  His work has been taken up by many others in Europe.  A posthumous
volume, edited by Max Liedtke, dedicated to Koenig and with many fascinating
subjects appeared in 1994 (Kulturethologie, Realis Verlag, Munich).  Many of
the reported studies are quantitative and theoretical.  I particularly liked
the reports on liturical costumes, which can be traced back for centuries.
I highly recommend these works to Darwin-L.
Gordon M. Burghardt
Department of Psychology
University of Tennessee
Knoxville, TN  37996-0900

phone:     423-974-3300
fax:    423-974-3330
e-mail: burghd@utk.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:24>From CRAVENS@macc.wisc.edu Thu Feb 22 20:59:35 1996

Date: Thu, 22 Feb 96 20:59 CDT
From: CRAVENS@macc.wisc.edu
Subject: Re: "skiamorph"
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Bob, memory's vague here, but I believe that J.C. Smith (Dept of
Linguistics, University of Manchester) presented a paper last summer
at the 12th International Conference on Historical Linguistics in
which he introduced (to Linguistics) and developed the notion of
skiamorph, in connection with exaptation. Not a new finding, but
skiamorph is a more descriptive (and more pleasant) label than, say,
junk.

Tom Cravens

-------------------------------------------------------------
Dept of French and Italian		cravens@macc.wisc.edu
618 Van Hise Hall			phone: 608-262-6522
University of Wisconsin-Madison	fax: 608-265-3892
Madison, WI 53706

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:25>From dasher@netcom.com Thu Feb 22 23:22:36 1996

Date: Thu, 22 Feb 1996 21:21:18 -0800
From: dasher@netcom.com (Anton Sherwood)
To: bill_atkinson@mindlink.bc.ca, darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu,
        mccarty@phoenix.Princeton.EDU
Subject: skiamorphs

A typographic skiamorph: the thread linking the tops of `ct' and `st'
in some fonts.  I suppose it represents a handwritten feature, but
ask myself why the pen would be there...

Anton Sherwood   *\\*   +1 415 267 0685   *\\*   DASher@netcom.com

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:26>From maisel@SDSC.EDU Fri Feb 23 04:58:58 1996

Date: Fri, 23 Feb 1996 00:46:04 -0800 (PST)
From: Merry Maisel <maisel@SDSC.EDU>
Subject: Re: skiamorphs
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Cc: bill_atkinson@mindlink.bc.ca, darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu,
        mccarty@phoenix.Princeton.EDU

Anton Sherwood asks why st and ct are linked by a "thread"
in older typography.  The "thread" and other swashes (fancy
capital letters with flourishes) derive from the Chancery
Italic hand, invented by the head scribe in the Pope's
Chancery in the sixteenth century, one Ludovico degli Arrighi,
I b'lieve--a method of formal writing that was much swifter
than the Gothic script.  The attempt made throughout the
history of type to reproduce swashes and flourishes no
doubt reflects upon the once-powerful and awe-inspiring
character of anything in writing, especially Papal proclamations.
My Macintosh harbors such a font, and the fancier typesetting
computer programs permit a wide range of what were once
hand operations in the foundry: kerning, for example, which
is being able to write two characters, e.g., "AW," even with
very wedge-shaped letters, and yet put them close together,
so the W is in the space that would be occupied by the
supporting block of the A.  In the type foundry, a person has
to chisel out the two blocks so the two letters can be put
closer together.  In the computer, the unoccupied pixels can
be assorted ad lib.  Modern graphic practice includes the
swashy stuff in the eclectic bin, and clever designers will
use such fonts to give words an authority they might not
otherwise have.

Merry Maisel
maisel@sdsc.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:27>From mccarty@epas.utoronto.ca Fri Feb 23 08:59:52 1996

Date: Fri, 23 Feb 1996 09:59:44 -0500
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: Willard McCarty <mccarty@epas.utoronto.ca>
Subject: Re: skiamorphs

The ligature from c to t, s to t, and several others -- why? Normally, one
would begin those letters at or near the top: in the case of minuscule c or
s, depending on the style and type of writing, sometimes with a reverse
stroke beginning at the top right, proceeding counter-clockwise, sometimes
clockwise, beginning at the left with the top stroke. For a majuscule, most
often one would begin for C or S as in the latter procedure for producing
the minuscule. (This is so easy to demonstrate, so difficult to describe!)
So, again the question, what would the pen be doing up there after the
minuscule had already been produced? For the joy of it, in order to flourish
the letter, produce a most beautiful digraph (if it can be called that),
etc. Writing by hand was a trade, of course, but it was also the occasion
for the craftsman's joy in life, sensuous pleasure in the production of
something beautiful. Evidence for this bacchic view of handwriting? Modern
experience, my own and that of many others (see Edward Johnston's bppk, the
title of which escapes me). Then there's the occamic razor: how else to
explain what one finds more simply?

Are these typographic skiamorphs? When do we say that something no longer
has a function? Do we include as function the producing of pleasure, a
certain impression of, say, a bygone era?

WM

Willard McCarty / Centre for Computing in the Humanities
Faculty of Arts & Science, University of Toronto
mccarty@epas.utoronto.ca / (416) 978-3974

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:28>From ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu Mon Feb 26 13:31:36 1996

Date: Mon, 26 Feb 1996 14:32:31 -0500
To: Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu (Darwin List)
From: ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu (Jeremy C. Ahouse)
Subject: Harvard evolution home page

Hi DarwinL,

        and now for some shameless self-promotion.  You may enjoy visiting
the course home pages for the Harvard evolution course.

        http://icg.harvard.edu/~bio17/

        cheers,

        - Jeremy

p.s. I am interested in feedback on the readings, and in any thoughts on
using centralized and changing(!) pages as a way of disseminating
information to members of a class.  Have any of you had particular luck or
problems with this approach?  The Berkeley course has done a nice job
putting their discussions with authors of evolution papers on their pages.
The biggest problem I see is that unless the page authors take real care to
mark new links there is no real way to know what has changed.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:29>From mew1@siu.edu Mon Feb 26 15:25:11 1996

Date: Mon, 26 Feb 1996 15:16:58 -0600
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: "Margaret E. Winters" <mew1@siu.edu>
Subject: Re: "skiamorph"

J.C. Smith did indeed give a paper at the Historical Linguistics conference
in Manchester last summer developing the notion of skiamorph (what is the
etymology???).  Nigel Vincent (also at Manchester) has been looking at
exaptation, or the rededication of morphological "stuff" which has lost
meaning over time, for a while in various publications (a paper he gave at
the 1992 Morphologietagung in Krems, Austria, for example), all of it in
response to Roger Lass's paper (in the Journal of Linguistics) on linguistic
"junk" - or linguistic form that has no function.  Naturally I do not have
the references with me, but can find some of them if anyone is interested.

Best,
Margaret Winters

-----------------------
Dr. Margaret E. Winters
Associate Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs (Budget and Personnel)
Southern Illinois University at Carbondale
Carbondale, IL  62901

tel: (618) 536-5535
fax: (618) 453-3340
e-mail:	mew1@siu.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<30:30>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu Feb 29 15:45:38 1996

Date: Thu, 29 Feb 1996 16:45:17 -0500 (EST)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: February 29 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

FEBRUARY 29 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1808: HUGH FALCONER is born at Forres, Scotland.  Following medical study
at Edinburgh, Falconer will take the position of director of the botanical
gardens at Saharanpur, India, near the Siwalik Hills.  For ten years he will
make extensive botanical and paleontological investigations of the Siwalik
region, and his fossil discoveries will win for him the Wollaston Medal of the
Geological Society of London.  In 1842 he will return to England to arrange
the Indian fossil collections in the British Museum, but he will again remove
to India in 1848 to become professor of botany at the Calcutta Medical
College.  Falconer's final years will be spent in London, and he will rise to
the position of vice-president of the Royal Society shortly before his death
in 1865.

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu or connect
to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________
Darwin-L Message Log 30: 1-30 -- February 1996                              End

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