Darwin-L Message Log 31: 1–22 — March 1996
Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences
Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.
This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during March 1996. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”
------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 31: 1-22 -- MARCH 1996 ------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L A Network Discussion Group on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu is an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Darwin-L was established in September 1993 to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among academic professionals in these fields. Darwin-L is not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin but instead addresses the entire range of historical sciences from an interdisciplinary perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical anthropology, historical geography, and related "palaetiological" fields. This log contains the public messages posted to Darwin-L during March 1996. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and some administrative messages and personal messages posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster. The master copy of this log is maintained in the archives of Darwin-L by firstname.lastname@example.org, and is also available on the Darwin-L Web Server at http://rjohara.uncg.edu. For instructions on how to retrieve copies of this and other log files, and for additional information about Darwin-L, send the e-mail message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com, or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server. Darwin-L is administered by Robert J. O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org), Center for Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A., and it is supported by the Center for Critical Inquiry, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and the Department of History and the Academic Computing Center, University of Kansas. _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:1>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri Mar 1 00:30:47 1996 Date: Fri, 01 Mar 1996 01:30:25 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: List owner's monthly greeting To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Greetings to all Darwin-L subscribers. On the first of every month I send out a short note on the status of our group, along with a reminder of basic commands. For additional information about the group please visit the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu). Darwin-L is an international discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences. The group is not devoted to any particular discipline, such as evolutionary biology, but rather seeks to promote interdisciplinary comparisons across the entire range of "palaetiology", including evolution, historical linguistics, archeology, geology, cosmology, historical geography, textual transmission, and history proper. Darwin-L currently has more than 700 members from over 35 countries. Because Darwin-L does have a large membership and is sometimes a high-volume discussion group it is important for all participants to try to keep their postings as substantive as possible so that we can maintain a favorable "signal-to-noise" ratio. Personal messages should be sent by private e-mail rather than to the group as a whole. Subscribers who feel burdened from time to time by the volume of their Darwin-L mail may wish to take advantage of the "digest" option described below. Because different mail systems work differently, not all subscribers see the e-mail address of the original sender of each message in the message header (some people only see "Darwin-L" as the source). It is therefore very important to include your name and e-mail address at the end of every message you post so that everyone can identify you and reply privately if appropriate. Remember also that in most cases when you type "reply" in response to a message from Darwin-L your reply is sent to the group as a whole, rather than to the original sender. The following are the most frequently used listserv commands that Darwin-L members may wish to know. All of these commands should be sent as regular e-mail messages to the listserv address (firstname.lastname@example.org), not to the address of the group as a whole (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu). In each case leave the subject line of the message blank and include no extraneous text, as the command will be read and processed by the listserv program rather than by a person. To join the group send the message: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L Your Name For example: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L John Smith To cancel your subscription send the message: UNSUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L If you feel burdened by the volume of mail you receive from Darwin-L you may instruct the listserv program to deliver mail to you in digest format (one message per day consisting of the whole day's posts bundled together). To receive your mail in digest format send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL DIGEST To change your subscription from digest format back to one-at-a-time delivery send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL ACK To temporarily suspend mail delivery (when you go on vacation, for example) send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL POSTPONE To resume regular delivery send either the DIGEST or ACK messages above. For a comprehensive introduction to Darwin-L with notes on our scope and on network etiquette, and a summary of all available commands, send the message: INFO DARWIN-L To post a public message to the group as a whole simply send it as regular e-mail to the group's address (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu). I thank you all for your continuing interest in Darwin-L and in the interdisciplinary study of the historical sciences. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Dr. Robert J. O'Hara (email@example.com) Senior Tutor, Cornelia Strong College The University of North Carolina at Greensboro Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:2>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri Mar 1 10:03:11 1996 Date: Fri, 01 Mar 1996 11:02:35 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: New list on GIS in archeology (fwd from new-lists) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forward message---------------- Date: Thu, 22 Feb 1996 14:47:12 +0000 (GMT) From: Elaine Blair <E.H.Blair@newcastle.ac.uk> Subject: new list gisarch on Mailbase To: email@example.com (new-lists) +-----------------------------------------+ | | | A NEW LIST HAS BEEN STARTED ON MAILBASE | | | +-----------------------------------------+ It is called gisarch Its description reads: This list is intended to facilitate discussion between archaeologists making use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. To join this list, mail to: firstname.lastname@example.org a message containing only the following text (substituting appropriately): join gisarch firstname(s) lastname For further information relating to this new list, contact its owner at email@example.com Elaine Blair, Mailbase User Group Support Officer, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, NE1 7RU Tel: 0191 222 8080 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org URL: http://www.mailbase.ac.uk/ --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:3>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri Mar 1 10:06:47 1996 Date: Fri, 01 Mar 1996 11:06:33 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Summer course on origin of Mediterranean flora (fwd from plant-taxonomy) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Mon, 26 Feb 1996 18:05:54 +0100 (MET) From: Diogo Figueiredo <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: SUMMER COURSE- MEDITERRANEAN FLORA To: email@example.com SUMMER SCHOOLS - PORTUGAL - EVORA96 ORIGIN, EVOLUTION AND CONSERVATION OF MEDITERRANEAN FLORA Location: University of Evora - Portugal Starting date: 5 August to 16 August Lecturer: Dr. Chris Wilcock (University of Aberdeen) The Course: The aims and objectives of the course are threefold: a) To provide a biogeographical framework for understanting the origin and evolution of plant communities in the Mediterranean. b) To study the morphological and reproductive chracteristics of plants of the mediterranean region, using both field and laboratory work. c) To introduce the issue of biodiversity evalution in the context of the Mediterranean flora and provide a regional case-study for discussion and application of different methodologies. Further information: If you require more information about our courses we will be only too pelased to help. You can contact us in the following ways: C/o Miguel Araujo Centro de Ecologia Aplicada Universidade de Evora Largo dos Colegiais 7000 Evora PORTUGAL by tel: +351 66 740868 or by fax: +351 66 744968 or by email: firstname.lastname@example.org --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:4>From Eliana@attach.edu.ar Fri Mar 1 06:59:22 1996 From: Eliana@attach.edu.ar Organization: Attachment Research Center To: email@example.com Date: Fri, 1 Mar 1996 09:22:30 -0300 Subject: Aggression-Psychology on the Net Hello Darwin-Lers, Let me announce the launching of a new forum of discussions on Aggression issues: Aggression-Psychology on Listserv@sjuvm.stjohns.edu - Discussions on the Psychology of Aggression Aggression-Psychology is a moderated mailing list devoted to the study and discussion of the antecedents, development, manifestations, regulation and reduction of aggressive behavior. Consideration of prosocial behaviors of cooperation and conflict resolution in the context of constructive alternatives to aggression is appropriate. Aggression is viewed as a multidetermined behaviour influenced, in varying degrees, by biological, socialization, experiential, cultural and situational factors. Aggression is expressed at many different societal levels - the individual, familial, social group, institutional, national, international, and discussions of aggression at any of these levels are appropriate for the mailing list. Aggression may occur in varied forms and varied contexts. It may be physical; it may be verbal; it may or may not be acc ompanied by anger; it may be revengeful, instrumental to some other goal, or may seem purposeless. It may vary in the degree of injury inflicted. It may tak e place in the home, in school. on the street, at the workplace, or on the on the battlefield. The orientation of this mailing list is guided by a specific belief and value- namely, that, in general, lethal aggression in humans is a pernicious evil that in the great majority of instances needs to be eliminated and more constructive alternatives found. Hence, scholars and students of human and non-human aggression from every body of knowledge are welcome to join in. To subscribe to AGGRESSION-PSYCHOLOGY, send the following command to Listserv@sjuvm.stjohns.edu in the BODY of e-mail: SUBSCRIBE AGGRESSION-PSYCHOLOGY yourfirstname yourlastname For example: SUBSCRIBE AGGRESSION-PSYCHOLOGY Max Doe Owners: Seymour Feshbach <firstname.lastname@example.org> Juan C. Garelli <Lagare@attach.edu.ar> ******************************************************** * Eliana Montuori, MD * Juncal 1966 * * Attachment Research Center * 1116, Buenos Aires * * Tel: +54-1 812 5521 Fax: +54-1 812 5432 * ******************************************************** _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:5>From email@example.com Fri Mar 1 13:02:20 1996 Date: Fri, 1 Mar 1996 11:02:06 -0800 From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Ron Roizen ) Subject: Whence a Spencer Spoof? To: DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu I'm having trouble locating a quotation. Many DARWIN-Lers out there may recall that Herbert Spencer once defined evolution as "an integration of matter and a concomitant dissipation of motion; during which the matter passes from a relatively indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a relatively definite, coherent heterogeneity, and during which the retained motion undergoes a parallel transformation." William James (if I recall its author correctly) wonderfully and hilariously spoofed and parodied this definition somewhere. Anybody recall James' exact words and where I can lay my hands on the quotation? Thanks! Ron Roizen -- ================================================================= Ron Roizen voice: 510-848-9123 1818 Hearst Ave. dulce est fax: 510-848-9210 Berkeley, CA 94703 desipere home: 510-848-9098 U.S.A. in loco email@example.com ================================================================= _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:6>From firstname.lastname@example.org Sat Mar 2 15:07:45 1996 Date: Sat, 2 Mar 1996 13:08:43 -0800 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Elihu M. Gerson) Subject: Re: Whence a Spencer Spoof? >I'm having trouble locating a quotation. Many DARWIN-Lers out there >may recall that Herbert Spencer once defined evolution as "an >integration of matter and a concomitant dissipation of motion; during >which the matter passes from a relatively indefinite, incoherent >homogeneity to a relatively definite, coherent heterogeneity, and >during which the retained motion undergoes a parallel transformation." >William James (if I recall its author correctly) wonderfully and >hilariously spoofed and parodied this definition somewhere. Anybody >recall James' exact words and where I can lay my hands on the >quotation? Thanks! Ron Roizen The original Spencer quote is from First Principles (1877), p. 396. The James parody was: "Evolution is a change from a no-howish untalkaboutable all-alikeness to a somehowish and in general talkaboutable not-all-alikeness by continuous sticktogetherations and somethingelseifications." It is quoted on p. 482 of Vol. 1 of R. B. Perry's biography, The Thought and Character of William James. 2 vols. Boston: Little, Brown. 1935. Elihu M. Gerson Tremont Research Institute 458 29 Street San Francisco, CA 94131 Phone: 415-285-7837 Fax: 415-648-7660 email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:7>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Mar 4 16:19:14 1996 Date: Mon, 04 Mar 1996 17:18:43 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Ligatures, vestiges, and a bibliography of paleography To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Following up on the topic of ligatures between letters in type (vestiges of handwritten letter designs) I dug up this working bibliography on paleography that was posted once to a medieval studies list. I post it here in case it may be of interest to some Darwin-L members. Bob O'Hara (email@example.com) --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Thu, 25 Nov 1993 00:00:53 -0600 Subject: MEDTEXTL Digest - 23 Nov 1993 to 24 Nov 1993 Sender: Medieval Texts - Philology Codicology and Technology <MEDTEXTL@UIUCVMD.BITNET> To: Recipients of MEDTEXTL digests <MEDTEXTL@VMD.CSO.UIUC.EDU> Date: Wed, 24 Nov 1993 18:31:41 GMT From: Avril Henry <A.K.Henry@EXETER.AC.UK> Subject: Palaeography bib. Quick and dirty, warts and all--with some holes and the usual irrelevant shelf-marks--and some once-accented characters caused havoc, which I simply excised . . . . Avril ----------------------------------------------------------------- PALAEOGRAPHY Alexander, J. J. G. "Scribes as Artists: The Arabesque Initial in Twelfth-Century English Manuscripts." _Medieval Scribes, Manuscripts and Libraries: Essays Presented to N. R. Ker_. Ed. M. B. Parkes and Andrew G. Watson. London: Scolar, 1978. 87-116. *724.567 MED* Avrin, Leila. _Scribes, Script and Books: The Book Arts from Antiquity to the Renaissance_. Chicago: American Library Ass'n., 1991. *724.567.AVR/X* Bieler, L. "Insular Paleography, Present State and Problems." _Scriptorium_ 3 (1949): 267-289. *P880.5 S10* Birch, Walter de Gray. _The History, Art and Palaeography of the Manuscript Styled the Utrecht Psalter_. London: Samuel Bagster, 1876. 724.567/UTR BIR Bischoff, Bernhard. _Latin Palaeography: Antiquity and the Middle Ages_. Trans. Daibhi O. Cronin and David Ganz. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1990. Trans. of: _Palaographie des romischen Altertums und des abendlandischen Mittelalters_, Berlin: Erich Schmidt, 1979. *471.7 BIS_* Bishop, T. A. M. _English Caroline Minuscule_. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971. [Excellent photographs and descriptions with bibliography.] 421.7. *091.721 BIS/X* Boyle, Leonard E. _Medieval Latin Palaeography: A Bibliographical Introduction_. Toronto Medieval Bibliographies 8. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1984; reprint 1986. *Bibliography 016.4717 BOY* Brown, Michelle P. _A Guide to Western Historical Scripts from Antiquity to 1600_. London: The British Library, 1990. *091.72 BRO/X* Buhler, C. F. _The Fifteenth-Century Book: The Scribes, the Printers, the Decorators_. Philadelphia: ............., 1960. *NOT IN EUL* _Calligraphy and Palaeography_. Ed. A. S. Osley. London: Faber & Faber, 1965. Cappelli, A. _Lexicon Abbreviaturarum: Dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane_. 6th ed. Milan: Hoepli 1961 (and reissues). *Old Library ROBOROUGH DICTIONARY 471 CAP* Cappelli, A. _The Elements of Abbreviation in Medieval Latin Paleography_. Trans. David Heimann and Richard Kay. University of Kansas Publications, Library Series, 47. [Lawrence, KS]: University of Kansas Libraries, 1982. *471.7 CAP [see Pelzer for supplement]* Chaytor, A. J. _From Script to Print: An Introduction to Medieval Vernacular Literature_. Cambridge: Heffer, 1945. [chapter on medieval scribe.] *809 CHA* Child, H. _The Calligrapher's Handbook_. London: Studio Vista, (?) _1985. Child, H., ed. _Calligraphy Today_. London: Studio Vista, 1976. *SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 724.561 CHI/X* _Codices Latini antiquiores: A Palaeographical Guide to Latin Manuscripts to the 9th Century_. Pt 2: _Great Britain and Ireland._ Ed. E. A. Lowe. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. *Old Library 091.COD/XX_ Dain, Alphone. _Les Manuscrits_. 3rd ed. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1975. *091.DAI* Dawson, G. E., and L. Kennedy-Skipton. _Elizabethan Handwriting 15OO-165O: A Guide to the Reading of Documents and Manuscripts_. London: Faber, 1968. [Parallel facsimiles and transcriptions]*091.721 DAW* Diringer, David. _The Alphabet_. 3rd ed. London: Hutchinson, 1968. [good bibliography and pictures]. *411 DIR* Doyle, A.I., and M. B. Parkes. "The Production of Copies of the _Canterbury Tales_ and the _Confessio Amantis_ in the Early Fifteenth Century." _Medieval Scribes, Manuscripts and Libraries: Essays Presented to N. R. Ker_. Ed. M. B. Parkes and A. G. Watson. London: Scolar Press, 1978. 163-210. *724.567 MED* Drogin, M. _Medieval Calligraphy. Its History and Technique_. Montclair, NJ: Allanheld & Schram, 1978. *724.561 DRO.X* Dumville, David N. "Beowulf Come Lately: Some Notes on the Palaeography of the Nowell Codex." _Archiv fur das Studium der Neueren Sprachen und Literaturen_ 225.1 (1988): 49-63 [dating study] Fairbank, Alfred. _A Book of Scripts_. King Penguin Books, 48. London: Penguin, 1949. [Very general (includes calligraphy) but readable]*091.72 FAI* Fairbank, A., and B. Wolpe. _Renaissance Handwriting: An Anthology of Italic Scripts_. London: Faber, 196O. *091.721 FAI/X* Fairbank, A. J., and R. W. Hunt, _Humanistic Script of the 15th and 16th Centuries_. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960. [Humanistic Script]*Not in EUL* Fry, Roger, and E. A. Lowe. _English Handwriting: With Thirty- four Facsimile Plates and Palaeographical Criticisms_. Tracts/Soc. for Pure English, 23. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1926. *420.6 SOC* Gordon, Joyce S., and Arthur E. Gordon. _Contributions to the Palaeography of Latin Inscriptions_. Berkeley: U of California P, 1957; Milan: Cisalpino-Goliardica, 1977. *471.7 GOR* Grieve, H. E. P. _Examples of English Handwriting 115O-175O: With Transcripts and Translations_. Essex Record Office Publications, 21. Chelmsford: Essex Education Authority, 1954. [Examples of cursive hand from parish records.]*421.7_*GRI_ Hamel, Christopher de. _Scribes and Illuminators_. Medieval Craftsmen. London: British Museum, 1992. *724.567 HAM* Hector, L. C. _Palaeography and Forgery_. St. Anthony's Hall publications 15. London: St. Anthony's Press, 1959. *Pamphlet 942.74 YOR* Hector, L. C. _The Handwriting of English Documents_. 2nd edn. London: Arnold, 1966. [Handbook to the reading of manuscripts plus brief history of handwriting. Good facsimiles with transcriptions and bibliography]*421.7 HEC* H lsmann, Margriet. "Pen Flourishing in _s_.xv Dutch Manuscripts: An Analytical Model for Defining Style Variants."*[Not yet published but keep trying MLA-CDRom for her name!]* Huot, Sylvia. "The Scribe as Editor: Rubrication as Critical Apparatus in Two Roman de la Rose Manuscripts," _L'Esprit Createur_ 27 (1987): 67-78. * P840.5 E35* Huot, Sylvia. "`Ci parle l'aucteur': Rubrication of Voice and Authorship in _Roman de la Rose_ Manuscripts," _Substance_ 56 (1988): 42-48. * _*Not in EUL: ORDER* Jed, Stephanie H. "Chastity on the Page: A Feminist Use of Palaeography." _Refiguring Woman: Perspectives on Gender and the Italian Renaissance_. Ed. Marilyn Migiel and Juliana Schiesari. Ithaca: Cornell UP; 1991. 114-30. Jenkinson, H. _Palaeography and the Practical Study of Court Hand_. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1915. *_*_*Alas, not in EUL! (Leicester, Kings Coll. London, UCL, Bedford and Royal Holloway have it)* Jenkinson, H. _The Later Court Hands in England from the Fifteenth to the Seventeenth Century_. 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1927. *Old Library REFERENCE 421.7 JEN/XX* Jensen, Hans. _Sign, Symbol and Script_. Trans. George Unwin. 3rd ed. London: Allen & Unwin, 1970. *411.JEN* _John Gower: Recent Readings_. Ed. R. F. Yeager. Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute, Western Michigan U., 1989. [_Confessio Amantis_, _Canterbury Tales_, Trivet, _Les Chronicles_, manuscript study] John, James J. "Latin Palaeography." _Medieval Studies: An Introduction_. Ed. James M. Powell. Syracuse: Syracuse UP; 1992. 3-81. Johnson, Charles, and H. Jenkinson. _English Court Hands A.D. 1066-1500 Illustrated Chiefly from the Public Records_. 2 vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1915. *Old Library _*REFERENCE: 421.7 JOH/XX* Johnston, E. _Writing and Illuminating and Lettering_. *_1946; NY: Pitman, 1958. * _[Handbook to the arts.]*Old Library s724.561 JOH* Jones, L. W. "Pricking Manuscripts: The Instruments and Their Significance." _Speculum_ 21 (1946): 389-4O3. *P.940.1 S62* Jones, L. W. _"The Art of Writing at Tours from 1000 to 1200 A.D." _Speculum_ 15 (1940) [Tours Script]*P.940.1 S62* Jones, L. W. "The Script of Tours in the Tenth Century," _Speculum_ 14 (1939) [Tours Script]*P.940.1 S62* _Ker. N. R. _Palaeographical Papers 19O7-1965_. 2 Vols. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. [Collection of Lowe's papers on palaeography. Heavy.]*Not in EUL* Kirchner, J. _Scriptura gothica libraria a saeculo XII usque ad finem medii aevi LXXXVII imaginibus illustrata_. Munich- Vienna: In aedibus Rudolfi Oldenbourg, 1966. *Not in EUL* Lindsay, Wallace M. _Notae Latinae: An Account of Abbreviation in Latin MSS. of the Early Minuscule Period (c.700-850)_. 1915; Hildesheim: Olm, 1963. [Abbreviations]*091.72 LIN* Lowe, E. A. _The Beneventan Script: A History of the South Italian Minuscule_. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1914. [Beneventan Script]*091.721 LAW* Lowe, E. A. _English Uncial_. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960) [Majuscule]. *Not in EUL* Lowe, E. A. _Handwriting: Our Medieval Legacy_. Rome: Storia e letteratura, 1969. [Superb facsimiles and transcriptions 5th- 16th C.]*091.721 LOW/X* Lowe, E. A. _Palaeographical Papers, 1907-1965_. Ed. Ludwig Bieler. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1972. [On classical texts]*091.7 LOW* _Medieval Scribes, Manuscripts and Libraries: Essays Presented to N. R. Ker_. Ed. M. B. Parkes and Andrew G. Watson. London: Scolar, 1978. *724.567 MED* Meiss, M. "Towards a More Comprehensive Renaissance Paleography," _Art Bulletin_ 42 (1960) [Humanistic Script]*P705.A55* Muir, Bernard James. _The Exeter Book: A Bibliography_. Exeter Medieval English Texts and Studies. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1992. *REFERENCE 829.101 MUI 10* Muir, Bernard James. _Watching the Exeter Book Scribe Copy Old English and Latin texts_. Saint Louis, Mo.: Vatican Film Library, Saint Louis University, 1991. Extracted from: _Manuscripta_ 35i (March 1991). *PAMPHLET LEA/MUI 10* Parkes, M. B. _English Cursive Book Hands, 1250-1500_. Oxford Palaeographical Handbooks. Rev. ed. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1979. * _[Excellent facsimiles dealing with different hands of one scribe etc.]*091.721 PAR/X* Parkes, Malcolm Beckwith. _The Scriptorium of Wearmouth-Jarrow_. [Jarrow: Parish of Jarrow, 1983]. *PAMPHLET 942.8 JAR* Parkes, Malcolm. _Pause and Effect: An Introduction to the History of Punctuation in the West_. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1993. *411.9 PAR/X* Parkes, Malcolm. _Scribes, Scripts and Readers: Studies in the Communication, Presentation and Dissemination of Medieval Texts_. London: Hambledon, 1991. *ON ORDER (18 Oct.1993)* Pelzer, Auguste. _Abbreviations latines medievales. Supplement au Dizionario di abbreviature latine ed italiane, de Adriano Cappelli_. Louvain: Publications universitaires; Paris: Beatrice-Nauwelaerts, 1964._*870 CAP/PEL* Pope, John C. "Palaeography and Poetry: Some Solved and Unsolved Problems of the Exeter Book." _Medieval Scribes, Manuscripts & Libraries: Essays Presented to N. R. Ker_. Ed. M. B. Parkes and Andrew G. Watson. London: Scolar Press, 1978. 25-65. *724.567 MED* Preston, Jean F., and Laetitia Yeandle. _English Handwriting 1400-1650: An Introductory Manual_. Binghamton, N.Y.: Centre for Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 1993. *Not in EUL, but worth buying: ISBN 1-85711-003-X* Rand, E. K. _Studies in the Script of Tours._ 2 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1929-1934. [Tours Script]*Not in EUL* Rumble, Alexander. _The Palaeography of the Domesday Manuscripts_. London: Edward Arnold, 1985. [Offprint of chapter 3 of _Domesday Book: A Reassessment_, ed. P.H. Sawyer]*CATHEDRAL RJ* _Scott-Fleming, Sonia. _The Analysis of Pen Flourishings in Thirteenth-Century Manuscripts_. Litterae textuales. Leiden- New York: E.J. Brill, 1989. State University of New York at Binghamton. Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Conference (10th: 1976: Binghampton). *Order* Skeat, W. W. _Twelve Facsimiles of Old English Manuscripts with Transcriptions and an Introduction_. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892. *829.08 SKE/X* _The Calligrapher's Handbook_. Ed. C. M. Lamb, 2d ed. London: Faber, 1956. *SCHOOL OF EDUCATION 724.56 LAM* Thompson, E. M. _An Introduction to Latin and Greek Paleography_. Oxford:* _Clarendon Press, 1912. *091.721 THO* Thompson, E. M. _The History of Handwriting: AD 7OO-14OO_. 19OO. [A little florid but interesting and helpful.]*Not in EUL* Thomson, S. Harrison. _Latin Bookhands of the Later Middle Ages, 1100-1500_. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1969. *091.721 THO/X* Thoyts, E. E. _How to Decipher and Study Old Documents_. LOndon: Stock, 1893. [Good example of earnest 19th C scholarship. Subtitled 'The Key to the Family Deed Chest'!)*091.725 THO* _*Ullman, B. L. _The Origin and Development of Humanistic Script_. Storia e Letteratura, 79. Rome: Edizione di Storia e Letteratura, 1960. [Excellent]*091.72 ULL* Ullman, __B. L. _Ancient Writing and Its Influence_. 1932; 2nd ed. Cambridge, Mass.: ........., 1969). *Old Library Roborough 091.72 ULL* University of London Library. _The Palaeography Collection_. 2 vols. Boston: G. K. Hall & Co., 1968. [Vol.1 Author catalogue, Vol. 2 subject catalogue]*Bibliography Section 016.0917 UNI* Wardrop, J. _The Script of Humanism_. Oxford: ......., 1963. Wills, Leonard Johnston. _The Palaeography of the Midlands_. 2nd ed. Liverpool: Liverpool UP, 1950. *Old Library 554.25 WIL* Wills, Leonard Johnston. _A Palaeographical Atlas of the British Isles and Adjacent Parts of Europe_. London: Blackie, 1951. *912.42 WIL _and*551.70942 WIL/X* Wright, C. E. _English Vernacular Hands: From the Twelfth to the Fifteenth Centuries_. Oxford: 196O. [Good facsimiles and descriptions. Helpful and readable] *091.721 WRI/X* --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:8>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri Mar 8 17:05:14 1996 Date: Fri, 08 Mar 1996 18:04:52 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: World Congress on Natural History Collections (fwd) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Fri, 1 Dec 1995 12:18:38 +0000 (GMT) From: Chris Collins <email@example.com> Subject: Second World Congress on Natural History Collections (fwd) 'Natural History Collections - A Resource for the Future.' "Second World Congress on the Preservation and Conservation of Natural History Collections." Sponsored by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council Hosted by the Geological Conservation Unit, the Sedgwick Museum and the Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge. Patrons: Sir David Attenborough Lord Dainton Sir Crispin Tickell Dates - 20th-24th August 1996. Natural History Collections document the range and abundance of species through time, providing a priceless and irreplaceable record of the planet's natural heritage. Recognition of their status as a valuable and unique resource has increased dramatically in recent years and the high profile of the Congress is reflected by its patrons (above). The Congress intends to develop the challenges inherent in preserving natural history collections to the year 2000 and beyond and to push forward philosophies and strategies to meet these challenges. The first World Congress in Madrid in 1992 attracted 500 delegates from 70 countries. It was a major success in establishing world-wide communication and awareness and led to the submission of the resolutions on the development of Natural History Collections as a world- wide resource to the UNCED meeting in Rio de Janeiro. The major issues that will be discussed at the congress include: 1. The use and development of collections in industry,research and education. 2. Accessibility of collections using Information technology,databases and international data exchange. 3. Current techniques in the care and management of collections. 4. Current condition of collections in the developed and developing countries. 5. The media image of natural history collections. 6. Economic and fund-raising aspects. 7. Strategies for the future including the practical development of the World Council on Collections resources (WCCR). This body acts as an umbrella group with the aim of promoting worldwide: a. international co-ordination between groups and institutions; b. standards in collection management; c. Communication between workers in the field; d. the public understanding of the value and importance of these collections. 8. Finally and most importantly, the development of Natural History Collections in Developing Countries as a socio-economic resource. This will be a practical Congress, providing practical solutions for the continued development and support of Natural Science Collections around the world. Participants from developing countries will be particularly welcomed and urged to participate in the congress. Every possible assistance will be given to attract funding to support participants from developing countries, so that these countries can influence the future practical initiatives being developed. The Congress will be structured around discussion sessions and Workshops involving every participant at the meeting. These will be lead by a lecture structure designed to initiate communication and discussion. Poster sessions relating to the discussion topics will also be run, for which all participants are invited to submit abstracts for posters. Information on poster abstracts will be sent out with the information pack. If you are interested in receiving more information or would like to register for the Congress then please return the attached form (with payment) below to: The Administrator - World Congress, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ. UK tel:+44 1223 33 34 21 Fax:+44 1223 33 34 50 [Registration form omitted. --RJO] --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:9>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Mar 11 11:49:48 1996 Date: Mon, 11 Mar 1996 12:49:25 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Software that models word evolution (fwd) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro This query appeared on HUMANIST (forwarded from LINGUIST); I thought some Darwin-L subscribers might know (or like to know) the answer. Bob O'Hara (email@example.com) --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Mon, 04 Mar 1996 17:58:25 +0100 From: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: software for the evolution of words [From the Linguist List] Dear linguists, Friends of mine who do not have access to the net are wandering if there exists a software to simulate the evolution of words. For example, entering a latin word and classical evolution rules, you could obtain the possible french word(s) derived from it. Have you ever heard of such tool ? Thank you for responses, Isabelle TELLIER LIFAC, Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan, 61 avenue du President Wilson 94235 CACHAN Cedex France tel : (16-1) 47 40 24 28 fax : (16-1) 47 40 24 64 E-mail: Isabelle.TELLIER@lifac.ens-cachan.fr --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:10>From CRAVENS@macc.wisc.edu Mon Mar 11 13:19:21 1996 Date: Mon, 11 Mar 96 13:01 CDT From: CRAVENS@macc.wisc.edu Subject: Re: Software that models word evolution (fwd) To: email@example.com I don't know about French, but Lee Hartman has written a very nice program ("Phono") which will replicate phonological developments from Latin to Modern Spanish. I *think* I remember Lee saying that someone with some programming experience wouldn't find it difficult to adapt Phono to other Romance languages. Tom Cravens Dept of French and Italian firstname.lastname@example.org 618 Van Hise Hall phone: 608-262-6522 University of Wisconsin-Madison fax: 608-265-3892 Madison, WI 53706 _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:11>From email@example.com Mon Mar 11 22:12:07 1996 Date: Mon, 11 Mar 1996 22:03:07 -0600 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: "Margaret E. Winters" <email@example.com> Subject: Re: Software that models word evolution (fwd) I've already sent Lee's name and address to the woman who posted the question (it appeared on the LINGUIST list). For anyone else who is interested, he can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org. I know he appreciates queries about his software. Margaret Winters Margaret E. Winters Academic Affairs Southern Illinois University at Carbondale Carbondale, IL, 62901-4517 Phone: (618) 549-0106 (Home); (618) 536-5535 (Office) email@example.com At 01:01 PM 3/11/96 CDT, you wrote: >I don't know about French, but Lee Hartman has written a very nice >program ("Phono") which will replicate phonological developments >From Latin to Modern Spanish. I *think* I remember Lee saying that >someone with some programming experience wouldn't find it difficult >to adapt Phono to other Romance languages. > >Tom Cravens _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:12>From ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU Tue Mar 12 09:34:21 1996 Date: Tue, 12 Mar 1996 09:33:59 CST From: ggale@CCTR.UMKC.EDU To: DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu Subject: This is a *FORWARD*; respond to original sender, NOT to GGALE Date: Mon, 11 Mar 1996 19:42:49 -0600 From: Steve Asma x5583 <sxa000@DNS.COLUM.EDU> Subject: Darwin and Asa Gray To: Multiple recipients of list HOPOS-L <HOPOS-L@UKCC.uky.edu> Dear Hopoi, I seem to recall that Asa Gray and Darwin had an exchange of letters about the origin of mutations or variations. Gray, wanting to synthesize Darwin's theory with theology, suggested that the Deity had some role in proposing new variations. Darwin, as I only vaguely recall, upbraided Gray for missing the point about natural selection being a winnowing process. If God dispatches the "correct" mutations, then there is no need for the law of natural selection. Can anyone help me to pin-point this exchange? Also, can anyone tell me exactly where the Darwin Archives are? -- and perhaps a contact person to whom I might write? Thanks for any help. --Steve Dr. Stephen T. Asma Philosophy Lib. Ed. Dept. Columbia College Chicago (312) 663-1600 x5583 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:13>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Mar 12 12:46:43 1996 Date: Tue, 12 Mar 1996 13:46:19 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: March 12 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MARCH 12 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1626: JOHN AUBREY is born at Easton Pierse, Wiltshire, England. Following study at Trinity College, Oxford, where his interest in antiquities will be kindled, Aubrey will inherit a considerable fortune from his father, but he will manage his affairs poorly and live extravagantly, and will be reduced to poverty within a few years. His cheerful disposition will win him many patrons, however, and his continuing and ever expanding interest in British antiquities will earn him a patent from the Crown giving him the right to make antiquarian surveys anywhere in Britain. His careful studies of the ancient monuments of Stonehenge and Avebury will serve as exemplars for future antiquarian investigators, and although he will formally publish almost nothing during his lifetime, he will leave behind a great quantity of influential manuscript material, including _Monumenta Britannica_, _Remains of Gentilism and Judaism_, and also the _Essay Towards the Description of the North Division of Wiltshire_ (1659): "Let us imagine then what kind of countrie this was in the time of the ancient Britons. By the nature of the soil, which is a sour woodsere land, very natural for the production of oakes especially, one may conclude that this North Division was a shady dismal wood: and the inhabitants almost as savage as the beasts whose skins were their only rayment. The language British, which for the honour of it was in those dayes spoken from the Orcades to Italie and Spain. The boats on the Avon (which signifies River) were basketts of twigges covered with an oxe skin: which the poore people in Wales use to this day. They call them _curricles_. Within this shire I believe that there were several _Reguli_ which often made war upon another: and the great ditches which run on in the plaines and elsewhere so many miles (not unlikely) their boundaries: and withall served for defence against the incursions of their enemies, as the Pict's wall, Offa's ditch: and that in China, to compare things small to great. Their religion is at large described by Caesar. Their priests were druids. Some of their temples I pretend to have restored, as Avebury, Stonehenge, &c., as also British sepulchres. Their waie of fighting is lively sett down by Caesar. Their camps with their way of meeting their antagonists I have sett down in another place. They knew the use of iron. They were two or three degrees, I suppose, less savage than the Americans." 1784: WILLIAM BUCKLAND is born at Axminster in Devonshire, England. Buckland will study at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and will eventually become Oxford's first Professor of Geology, the Dean of Westminster, and twice the president of the Geological Society of London. Among his many publications will be _Reliquiae diluvianae; or, observations on the organic remains contined in caves, fissures, and diluvial gravel, and on other geological phenomena, attesting to the action of an universal deluge_ (London, 1823). Visitors to his Oxford rooms will often remember the scene long after: Here see the wrecks of beasts and fishes With broken saucers, cups and dishes; The prae-Adamic systems jumbled, With Sublapsaria brecchia tumbled, And post-Noachian bears and flounders, With heads of crocodiles and flounders; Skins wanting bones, bones wanting skins, And various blocks to break your shins... The sage amidst the chaos stands Contemplative, with laden hands, This, grasping tight his bread and butter, And that a flint, whilst he doth utter Strange sentences that seem to say; -- 'I see it all as clear as day....' His eye in a fine frenzy rolling, He thus around the fragments strolling, Still entertains a fond illusion That all the strata's strange confusion He shall explain beyond conjecture, And clear in the ensuing lecture. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:14>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu Mar 14 00:07:05 1996 Date: Thu, 14 Mar 1996 01:06:44 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: March 14 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MARCH 14 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1793: KARL (KONRAD FRIEDRICH WILHELM) LACHMANN is born at Braunschweig, Germany. Lachmann will serve for most of his career as professor of philology at Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin, where he will codify the principles of modern textual criticism. From study of the many extant manuscripts of Lucretius's _De Rerum Natura_, Lachmann will publish in 1850 a reconstruction of the state of the ancestral manuscript from which they all had been copied, calculating even the number of pages in the lost ancestor and how many lines it had on each page. His work will establish a school of historical text criticism that will profoundly influence Classical scholarship for the remainder of the nineteenth century. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:15>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri Mar 15 15:10:43 1996 Date: Fri, 15 Mar 1996 16:09:16 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Conference on the Linnean hierarchy To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- THE LINNEAN HIERARCHY: PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE 12th Annual Southwestern Botanical Systematics Symposium 24-25 May 1996, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Gardens 1500 North College Avenue, Claremont, California 91711 The Linnean taxonomic hierarchy has long served as the backbone of systematic classification. The symposium presented by Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden reviews the history of the hierarchy and examines its attributes. Presentations will discuss the hierarchy's possible limitations, including the difficulty in incorporating phylogenetic information, and consider modifications or alternative systems. Speakers include: Kevin de Queiroz, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution; Kathleen A. Kron, Wake Forest University; Dan H. Nicholson, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution; and Tod F. Stuessy, Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County. For more information email Ann Joslin (firstname.lastname@example.org). --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:16>From email@example.com Thu Mar 14 14:34:08 1996 Date: Thu, 14 Mar 1996 14:33:59 -0600 (CST) From: Lopez Beltran Carlos-IIF <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: luis javier alvarez <email@example.com>, "Martinez Munoz Sergio F.-IIF" <firstname.lastname@example.org>, Benjamin Macias <email@example.com>, Darwinlist <firstname.lastname@example.org>, HOPOS-List <HOPOS-L@ukcc.uky.edu> Subject: Simulation & Science Studies - new email list started (fwd) ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Thu, 14 Mar 1996 16:47:20 +0000 (GMT) From: CSSSP CSEC E-List distrib <email@example.com> To: STS@CCTR.UMKC.EDU, firstname.lastname@example.org, SCIENCE-AS-CULTURE@SJUVM.STJOHNS.EDU Subject: Simulation & Science Studies - new email list started NEW EMAIL LIST ON SCIENCE STUDIES AND COMPUTER SIMULATION Since the 1950s, various computer simulation techniques have become increasingly important research tools across a wide range of natural (and social) sciences. Software packages based on these techniques are also widely used in more applied fields such as engineering, finance, or environmental management, often in connection with computerised databases and electronic data gathering devices. We are trying to get in touch with other people working in the broad area of Science Studies / STS / HPS, who are interested in the issues raised by these modelling techniques, and who would like to join a special interest email list. Our intention is that by having a relatively narrow focus to the list, there will be a good chance of having lively debate of interest to most subscribers. The list will be useful for: - exchange of ideas about computer simulation - passing on details of books and articles. - announcements of relevant conferences etc. To join the list, please send email containing only the words: subscribe simulist to the address email@example.com (No subject line necessary) Please pass on this message to anyone who may be interested. Thankyou, Andy Baxter, Centre for Science Studies and Science Policy, Lancaster University, U.K. (A.Baxter@lancaster.ac.uk) Deborah Dowling, Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Melbourne, Australia (firstname.lastname@example.org) _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:17>From email@example.com Mon Mar 18 13:38:28 1996 Date: Mon, 18 Mar 1996 13:38:29 -0600 (CST) From: Lopez Beltran Carlos-IIF <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: Darwinlist <email@example.com> Subject: Exhibition around Joseph Plateau (fwd) ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: Thu, 14 Mar 1996 11:15:39 +0000 From: Maurice F. Dorikens <Maurice.Dorikens@RUG.AC.BE> To: Multiple recipients of list HOPOS-L <HOPOS-L@UKCC.uky.edu> Subject: Exhibition around Joseph Plateau From April 1 till September 30 1996 the Museum for the History of Sciences of the University of Gent (Belgium) has an exhibition "The cultural and scientific heritage of Joseph Plateau". It shows scientific instruments, documents, books etc. from the collections of the Museum, but also items from private collections, i.e. from the collections of the descendants of Joseph Plateau. This great scientist, (1801-1883) who was a professor at the University of Gent, is best known as the precursor of the animation film, but he has done considerably more: extensive studies of the locus, studies about the persistenc of the image on the eye, develoement of the fantascope and the anorthoscope, experiments about the behaviour of liquids not subjected to gravity, surface tension in laminary systems, etc. The exhibition also concerns Prof. Felix Plateau (1841-1911) a well-known zoologist and son of Joseph, and prof. Gustave Van der Mensbrugghe (1835-1911), theoretical physicist, and son-in-law of Joseph Plateau. For the opening of the exhibition, the descendants of the Plateau family will gather at the museum. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- Museum for the History of Sciences of the University of Gent, Belgium Science Campus Krijgslaan 281, building S30 B-9000 Gent, Belgium Director: Prof.M.Dorikens tel: +32-9-264.49.30 fax: +32-9-264.49.73 email: Maurice.Dorikens@rug.ac.be _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:18>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed Mar 20 12:53:00 1996 Date: Wed, 20 Mar 1996 13:52:38 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Skiamorph/vestige To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Following up the discussion we were having a little while ago about the idea of "skiamorph", it would seem to me that one of the most general terms that captures this notion is "vestige". Is there a general term in historical linguistics for linguistic vestiges; silent letters, for example, that once were pronounced but are no longer, and yet persist in writing through inheritance? Some people mentioned the term "exaptation" -- this term was coined by Gould to refer to the familiar case of a feature that originally served one purpose being taken over for a second purpose. This doesn't seem to me to capture the meaning that the writer of the skiamorph essay was trying to communicate, however, which was much more the idea of a vestige: a formerly-functional thing that no longer functions but persists through inheritance. I went to look up Darwin's discussion of vestigial organs in the _Origin_, and my memory had failed me slightly because I saw that he used the term "rudimentary organs" rather than "vestigial organs" (Origin, chapter 13). In my dictionary, "rudiment" carries more the connotation of something beginning to develop, in contrast to "vestige" which comes from the Latin meaning "footprint" (something left behind; a trace of something from the past). It occurred to me that perhaps Darwin was specifically avoiding the word "vestige" because of its possible association with Chambers' _Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation_. Do any of our historians know whether this might be so? Has anyone previously commented upon the different connotations of "rudiment" and "vestige"? Knowing the etymology of "vestige" also shed light suddenly on another Victorian work of natural history: Hugh Miller's _Footprints of the Creator_, which was written as a rejoinder to Chambers' _Vestiges_. Rather clever of Miller, no? Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Robert J. O'Hara (email@example.com) Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building The University of North Carolina at Greensboro Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:19>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed Mar 20 13:09:11 1996 Date: Wed, 20 Mar 1996 14:08:53 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Fate of small museums To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro The short item below from the _Chronicle of Higher Education_ on the renovation of a small college museum recently caught my attention. Museums are the institutional foci of many of the historical sciences, and systematists have been bemoaning the lack of proper support for research collections in natural history for many years. Such concern is typically centered on larger research collections in major universities or public museums. Of equal concern, it seems to me, should be museums and collections in smaller colleges where the primary role of the institution is teaching. I remember as an undergraduate how valuable the small teaching collection at my university was to me. I would be interested to hear from any Darwin-L members who may be at smaller colleges: do you have teaching collections (in history, natural history, archeology, or other fields) that are important? Are they valued by your institution? Are there other success stories like the one below that ought to be told? Or are there only horror stories of valuable hundred-year-old collections being thrown out by ignorant administrators? Bob O'Hara (email@example.com) --begin quoted article----------------- ALFRED U. RENEWS A RELIC (Chronicle of Higher Education, 26 January 1996) Alfred, N.Y. -- Alfred University will finally reopen its museum after 40 years and a $1.5-million renovation. The Steinheim Museum, built in 1876, is the second-oldest college museum in the country, Alfred officials say. The Gothic building was constructed from 8,000 different types of stone and 700 varieties of wood. It was designed by Jonathan Allen, the university's second president. For many years, the building served as one of the countries few repositories of natural materials, including fossil and coral collections, bird specimens, and historical materials, including American Indian relics and Revolutionary War records. The building closed in 1950 because of deterioration. It is to be renamed for Robert R. McComsey, an Alfred trustee who gave the money for the renovation. --end quoted article------------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:20>From firstname.lastname@example.org Thu Mar 21 14:58:18 1996 Date: Thu, 21 Mar 1996 15:59:00 -0500 (EST) From: William Montgomery <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: Skiamorph/vestige Regarding Bob O'Hara's query about Darwin's use of the term rudimentary organs (instead of the term vestigial organs), I don't believe he was trying to avoid reminding his readers of Robert Chambers' "Vestiges of Creation." In fact, the term rudimentary organs was simply the accepted anatomical term of the day for the blind eyes of cave animals or the human tail bone. If you aren't an evolutionist, it makes no sense to refer to these as "vestigial." The term "rudimentary" had Idealist philosophical implications in that it suggested that the organs in question failed to reach ordinary norms of development; however, these implications were evidently not strong enough to dissuade Darwin from adopting the customary term. In a sense, his own usage was "vestigial" in that it carried with it baggage from the past. Bill Montgomery WMontgom@nasc.mass.edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:21>From email@example.com Mon Mar 25 14:18:12 1996 From: "Dr. William C. Kimler, History" <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: email@example.com Date: Mon, 25 Mar 1996 15:17:31 EST Subject: skEUOmorph? I'm a little puzzled about the discussion of "skiamorphs." The original Bill Atkinson article said that he >got the word, and the concept behind it, from a book on materials >science that I long ago mislaid. "Skiamorph" comes from the Greek for >"shadow" (skia) and "form" (morphe). My long-lost book coined it for >the unnecessary holdovers that show up when new technologies displace >existing ones. But I first encountered the word as "skeuomorph," in George Basalla's The Evolution of Technology (1988) [ppb., part of the Cambridge History of Science Series]. In that book, Basalla presented a cultural evolution model for changes in technology, drawing on notions of variability, novely, natural selection, continuity and discontinuity, and -- obviously -- skeuomorphic, historical remnants of design. On page 107, he writes that the word came from archeology [but with no citation -- curse the publisher who doesn't allow footnotes in paperback textbooks! I haven't been through his bibliographic essay to see if I can find the source. And curse newspaper articles that feel it unnecessary to track down sources of ideas. Especially if they're not quite right...? ]. The Oxford English Dictionary has skeuomorph, but no entry for skiamorph. It makes a big difference in the etymology -- "skeu-" refers to "vessel", from the origins of the term to describe remnants of vessel design elements in later pottery. [So even the word skeuomorph is a skeuomorph, if it no longer refers only to pottery.] As for Darwin's use of "rudiment" for the same idea in morphology, Bill Montgomery makes a good point when he wrote: >Regarding Bob O'Hara's query about Darwin's use of the term >rudimentary organs (instead of the term vestigial organs), I don't >believe he was trying to avoid reminding his readers of Robert >Chambers' "Vestiges of Creation." In fact, the term rudimentary >organs was simply the accepted anatomical term of the day for the >blind eyes of cave animals or the human tail bone. If you aren't an >evolutionist, it makes no sense to refer to these as "vestigial." We should always keep in mind the strategy required of Darwin -- to redefine words from their idealist to their new historical meaning, rather than simply coining new words. He wanted not to invent just an alternative possibility but to take over the domain of the earlier biology. Showing that older theoretical issues make more sense under his view was one of the strongest features of his argument. Funnily enough, on p. 454 of The Origin (1859 ed.), Darwin uses another example beyond morphology to make clear what he means about historical rudiments persisting -- "Rudimentary organs may be compared with the letters in a word, still retained in the spelling, but become useless in the pronunciation, but which serve as a clue in seeking for its derivation." pedantically, William Dr. William Kimler Department of History - Box 8108 North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-8108 (919) 515-2483 firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <31:22>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Mar 25 21:45:16 1996 Date: Mon, 25 Mar 1996 22:44:44 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Software for word evolution continued (fwd from HUMANIST) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message--------------  From: Russon Wooldridge <firstname.lastname@example.org> (27) Subject: Re: Software for the evolution of words Isabelle Tellier (Humanist 9.611) asks about "software to simulate the evolution of words". I have heard this idea discussed in the context of the Romance languages, where the laws of historical phonetics could be used to generate hypothetical vernacular forms derived from Latin and a database of attested forms would show the degree of conformity of the actual to the virtual (e.g. Lat. *tabula* > It. *tavola*, Fr. *table*, Sp. *tabla*). This could be a wonderful pedagogical tool which I hope someone -- or a team of someones, perhaps I. Tellier and her friends -- is working or will work on. In the meantime, the program Graphist (runs on a PC) is apparently (I have never received a promised beta version) able to generate Modern French forms from Renaissance and Classical ones. It was developed to help with the RENA (Robert Estienne - Nicot - Academie) project on the history of French orthography. The RENA project has been undertaken -- its main product, a *Dictionnaire historique de l'orthographe francaise*, was published by Larousse in 1994 -- at CNRS-HESO, 27 r. Paul Bert, 94200 Ivry-sur-Seine, tel. 126.96.36.199.12, fax 188.8.131.52.80. The author of Graphist is Laurent Catach (as of December 1994 at 10 r. Jouye-Rouve, 75020 Paris, tel. 184.108.40.206.64). An article describing Graphist can be found in CCH Working Papers, vol. 4; it should be reappearing soon in electronic form (for details of CCHWP see TCHWP at http://www.utoronto.ca:8080/tchwp/). I hope this information is useful. Russon Wooldridge ------------ Russon Wooldridge, Department of French, Trinity College, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 1H8, Canada Tel: 1-416-978-2885 -- Fax: 1-416-978-4949 E-mail: email@example.com Internet: http://www.epas.utoronto.ca:8080/~wulfric/ --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ Darwin-L Message Log 31: 1-22 -- March 1996 End
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