Darwin-L Message Log 33: 1–42 — May 1996
Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences
Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.
This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during May 1996. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”
----------------------------------------- DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 33: 1-42 -- MAY 1996 ----------------------------------------- DARWIN-L A Network Discussion Group on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu is an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Darwin-L was established in September 1993 to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among academic professionals in these fields. Darwin-L is not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin but instead addresses the entire range of historical sciences from an interdisciplinary perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical anthropology, historical geography, and related "palaetiological" fields. This log contains the public messages posted to Darwin-L during May 1996. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and some administrative messages and personal messages posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster. The master copy of this log is maintained in the archives of Darwin-L by email@example.com, and is also available on the Darwin-L Web Server at http://rjohara.uncg.edu. For instructions on how to retrieve copies of this and other log files, and for additional information about Darwin-L, send the e-mail message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org, or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server. Darwin-L is administered by Robert J. O'Hara (email@example.com), Center for Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A., and it is supported by the Center for Critical Inquiry, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and the Department of History and the Academic Computing Center, University of Kansas. _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:1>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed May 1 00:31:47 1996 Date: Wed, 01 May 1996 01:31:08 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: List owner's monthly greeting To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Greetings to all Darwin-L subscribers. On the first of every month I send out a short note on the status of our group, along with a reminder of basic commands. For additional information about the group please visit the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu). Darwin-L is an international discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences. The group is not devoted to any particular discipline, such as evolutionary biology, but rather seeks to promote interdisciplinary comparisons across the entire range of "palaetiology", including evolution, historical linguistics, archeology, geology, cosmology, historical geography, textual transmission, and history proper. Darwin-L currently has more than 700 members from over 35 countries. Because different mail systems work differently, not all subscribers see the e-mail address of the original sender of each message in the message header (some people only see "Darwin-L" as the source). It is therefore very important to include your name and e-mail address at the end of every message you post so that everyone can identify you and reply privately if appropriate. Remember also that in most cases when you type "reply" in response to a message from Darwin-L your reply is sent to the group as a whole, rather than to the original sender. The following are the most frequently used listserv commands that Darwin-L members may wish to know. All of these commands should be sent as regular e-mail messages to the listserv address (email@example.com), not to the address of the group as a whole (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu). In each case leave the subject line of the message blank and include no extraneous text, as the command will be read and processed by the listserv program rather than by a person. To join the group send the message: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L Your Name For example: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L John Smith To cancel your subscription send the message: UNSUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L If you feel burdened by the volume of mail you receive from Darwin-L you may instruct the listserv program to deliver mail to you in digest format (one message per day consisting of the whole day's posts bundled together). To receive your mail in digest format send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL DIGEST To change your subscription from digest format back to one-at-a-time delivery send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL ACK To temporarily suspend mail delivery (when you go on vacation, for example) send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL POSTPONE To resume regular delivery send either the DIGEST or ACK messages above. For a comprehensive introduction to Darwin-L with notes on our scope and on network etiquette, and a summary of all available commands, send the message: INFO DARWIN-L To post a public message to the group as a whole simply send it as regular e-mail to the group's address (Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu). I thank you all for your continuing interest in Darwin-L and in the interdisciplinary study of the historical sciences. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Dr. Robert J. O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) Senior Tutor, Cornelia Strong College The University of North Carolina at Greensboro Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:2>From email@example.com Tue Apr 30 01:54:07 1996 From: Joe Felsenstein <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Re: David Stove's "Darwinian Fairytales" To: email@example.com Date: Tue, 30 Apr 1996 00:01:53 -0700 (PDT) Jeremy Ahouse wrote: > I've just been reading David Stove's recent book. I am wondering > what you all think of it. I won't recapitulate the whole argument. He goes > to the heart of the claim that populations are ever increasing save for > limited food resources. He considers this claim to be core to the Darwinian > selectionist hypothesis and since it is obviously false (many populations > aren't tracking their food supply to the hilt) selectionism is tarnished. > It may still be the best explanation but it is clearly far off the mark. > This brevity doesn't do the argument justice. It sounds like a strawman (or fairy tale). Although Darwin talked a lot about the importance of limitation of resources as forcing survival of the fittest, for a long time evolutionary biologists have been quite ready to see selection as also acting when one is a lot below the carrying capacity. I was astonished to hear that selectionism depends on being near carrying capacity. Most contemporary evolutionary biologists would say the same, I think. If anything, contemporary ecologists give too _little_ credit to density dependence. But whether or not populations spend much time near their limits, selection can act, it just acts in a different way. See, for example, the extensive literature on "r and K selection". Also, resources other than "food" can be limiting too (nest sites, etc.) -- Joe Felsenstein firstname.lastname@example.org (IP No. 126.96.36.199) Dept. of Genetics, Univ. of Washington, Box 357360, Seattle, WA 98195-7360 USA _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:3>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed May 1 12:32:56 1996 Date: Wed, 01 May 1996 13:32:38 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: population increase (from Polly Winsor) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- From: Mary P Winsor <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: population increase To: email@example.com Date: Mon, 29 Apr 1996 15:38:15 -0400 (EDT) Jeremy's statement to the effect that the core of Darwinian selection has to do with increasing populations, or food supplies pressing on populations, resembles an error students commonly make. I assume neither Jeremy nor David Stove (whom I haven't seen) were falling into this error, but here's my correction anyway: The Malthusian principle of population is not that populations ARE increasing, it is that they are NOT. (Confusion was increased when "Malthusian Leagues" in the late 19th century promoted birth control.) Count the eggs in a fish, seeds on a plant, lifetime offspring of a healthy elephant, and you will see why the normal STABILITY of a population needs explaining. In a brief moment of instability (a few rabbits multiplying in Australia) a species can briefly escape from the pressures that normally restrain it. The causes of NON-increase in population are many, at different times and for different species, and neither Malthus nor Darwin required starvation. Starvation is only required in the thought experiment, to counter the optimist who removes disease, predators, accident, war, every other source of premature mortality. Polly Winsor firstname.lastname@example.org p.s. I traced the source of Malthus's ideas to Scottish minister Robert Wallace, and showed his concept of population was the product of his experiences counting the number of widows a new life insurance scheme would have to support. M.P. Winsor "Robert Wallace: predecessor of Malthus and pioneering actuary," Acta historia scient. nat. et med. 39 (1987):215-224. --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:4>From email@example.com Wed May 1 07:34:45 1996 Date: Wed, 1 May 1996 08:34:15 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: "Jeremy C. Ahouse" <email@example.com> Subject: Re: David Stove's "Darwinian Fairytales" >Jeremy Ahouse wrote: >> I've just been reading David Stove's recent book. I am wondering >> what you all think of it. I won't recapitulate the whole argument. He goes >> to the heart of the claim that populations are ever increasing save for >> limited food resources. He considers this claim to be core to the Darwinian >> selectionist hypothesis and since it is obviously false (many populations >> aren't tracking their food supply to the hilt) selectionism is tarnished. >> Stove allows that selection may still be the best explanation >> but it is clearly far off the mark. >> This brevity doesn't do the argument justice. > >Joe Felsenstein replied: >It sounds like a strawman (or fairy tale). Although Darwin talked a lot >about the importance of limitation of resources as forcing survival >of the fittest, for a long time evolutionary biologists have been quite >ready to see selection as also acting when one is a lot below the >carrying capacity. I was astonished to hear that selectionism depends >on being near carrying capacity. Most contemporary evolutionary biologists >would say the same, I think. Joe, This is very much what I thought... I like the argument mostly because it is an early and quick rejoinder to an oversimplified selectionist story and raises the need to talk population dynamics. To look at long term population trends and think about the repeated founder effects in small population K selected species. So it is a good sharpening stone for moving toward a position where we weigh an increasing number of factors. There does seem to be a tacit assumption in the pop literature(Dawkins, Dennett) that we can talk in equilibrium ("selection is molding") terms because a lot of time has passed(?), many populations are large(?), because if we didn't we would have precious few generalizations(?). There are a few models out there (the dynamics of birth and death of lineages, coalescent processes in understanding genome dynamics in a population) that start to help us know when we can confidently ignore the detailed population history... but it isn't clear to me that we have a good handle on this. Do you? If so, please send the refs. - Jeremy Jeremy C. Ahouse Biology Department Brandeis University Waltham, MA 02254-9110 ph: (617) 736-4954 fax: (617) 736-2405 email: firstname.lastname@example.org web: http://www.rose.brandeis.edu/users/simister/pages/Ahouse _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:5>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu May 2 12:11:24 1996 Date: Thu, 02 May 1996 13:09:56 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: May 2 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MAY 2 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1551: WILLIAM CAMDEN is born in London, England. Camden will study at St. Paul's School and Oxford University, where his interest in antiquities will begin to develop. Following the example of an earlier generation of continental European antiquarians, Camden will travel widely throughout the British Isles, collecting and describing Roman remains, transcribing inscriptions, and searching through ecclesiastical and public archives. The product of his labors, _Britannia_ (London, 1586), will be the first comprehensive historical and topographical survey of British antiquities, and it will establish a new standard of scholarship for an entire generation of British historians. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:6>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sat May 4 14:59:15 1996 Date: Sat, 04 May 1996 15:58:27 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Narrative in the historical sciences (revised bibliography) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro A little while ago I posted a preliminary list of references on the role of narrative in the historical sciences, with a request for additional items that might be included. Debra Journet (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Linnda R. Caporael (email@example.com) kindly mailed suggestions, and I have tracked down a few more references from my files also. The expanded list of titles appears below. It is certainly incomplete, and the criteria for inclusion are a bit fuzzy, but the list ought to provide some starting points for people interested in the topic. I will be happy to receive additional suggestions for titles to include. Bob O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) --------------------------------------- PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY ON NARRATIVE IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES. Compiled by Robert J. O'Hara (email@example.com) with additions from Debra Journet (firstname.lastname@example.org) and Linnda R. Caporael (email@example.com). 4 May 1996. Beer, Gillian. 1983. Darwin's Plots. London: Ark. Caporael, Linnda R. 1994. Of myth and science: Origin stories and evolutionary scenarios. Social Science Information, 33:9-23. Dyke, C. 1990. Strange attraction, curious liaison: Clio meets Chaos. The Philosophical Forum, 21:369-392. Hull, David L. 1975. Central subjects and historical narratives. History and Theory, 14:253-274. [Discusses the species problem.] Hull, David L. 1981. Historical narratives and integrating explanations. Pp. 172-188 in: Pragmatism and Purpose: Essays Presented to Thomas A. Goudge (Sumner, Slater, & Wilson, eds.). Toronto: University of Toronoto Press. Journet, Debra. 1991. Ecological theories as cultural narratives: F. E. Clements's and H. A. Gleason's 'stories' of community succession. Written Communication, 8:446-472. Journet, Debra. 1995. Synthesizing disciplinary narratives: George Gaylord Simpson's _Tempo and Mode in Evolution_. Social Epistemology, 9:113-150. Landau, Misia. 1991. Narratives of Human Evolution. New Haven: Yale University Press. Latour, Bruno, and Strum, S. C. 1986. Human social origins: Oh please, tell us another story. Journal of Social and Biological Structures, 9:169-187. Levine, G. 1987. Darwin and the Novelists: Patterns of Science in Victorian Fiction. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. MacIntyre, Alisdair. 1977. Epistemological crises, dramatic narrative and the philosophy of science. The Monist, 60:453-472. Maynard Smith, John. 1987. Science and myth. Pp. 222-229 in: The Natural History Reader in Evolution (Niles Eldredge, ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. McCloskey, Donald N. 1995. Once upon a time there was a theory. Scientific American, February 1995, p. 25. [Note on narrative in economics.] Miller, Carolyn, and Scott M. Halloran. 1993. Reading Darwin, reading nature; or, on the ethos of historical science. Pp. 106-126 in: Understanding Scientific Prose (Jack Selzer, ed.). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Miller, Hugh. 1939. History and Science: A Study of the Relation of Historical and Theoretical Knowledge. Berkeley: University of California Press. Mitchell, W. J. T., ed. 1981. On Narrative. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [Essays dealing with narrative in a number of disciplines, including psychoanalysis, history, and anthropology.] Myers, G. 1989. Writing Biology: Texts in the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. O'Hara, Robert J. 1988. Homage to Clio, or, toward an historical philosophy for evolutionary biology. Systematic Zoology, 37:142-155. O'Hara, Robert J. 1992. Telling the tree: narrative representation and the study of evolutionary history. Biology and Philosophy, 7:135-160. Richards, Robert J. 1992. The structure of narrative explantion in history and biology. Pp. 19-53 in: History and Evolution (Matthew H. Nitecki & Doris V. Nitecki, eds.). Albany: SUNY Press. Rouse, Joseph. 1990. The narrative reconstruction of science. Inquiry, 33:179-196. Ruse, Michael. 1971. Narrative explantion and the theory of evolution. Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 1:59-74. White, Eric C. 1990. Contemporary cosmology and narrative theory. Pp. 91-112 in: Literature and Science: Theory and Practice (Stuart Peterfreund, ed.). Boston: Northeastern University Press. White, Eric C. 1990. The end of metanarratives in evolutionary biology. Modern Language Quarterly, 51:63-81. --------------------------------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:7>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sat May 4 15:19:44 1996 Date: Sat, 04 May 1996 16:19:25 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: May 4 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MAY 4 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1556: LUCA GHINI dies at Bologna, Italy. One of the founders of modern botany, Ghini was born in Croara d'Imola around 1490. He studied medicine at the University of Bologna and taught at Bologna for many years, devising a method of preserving plants by pressing, drying, and mounting them on cards to produce the first modern herbarium or "hortus siccus". Ghini left Bologna in 1544 to take up a professorship at the University of Pisa, and he established there one of the first university botanical gardens. He travelled extensively in the vicinity of Pisa and Bologna collecting specimens for his garden and herbarium, and his scientific correspondents sent him botanical material from as far away as Egypt. Although he published little during his life, Ghini numbered among his students an entire generation of early modern European botanists, including Andrea Cesalpino, Ulisse Aldrovandi, Luigi Anguillara, William Turner, and John Falconer. 1816: THOMAS OLDHAM is born in Dublin, Ireland. Following undergraduate study at Trinity College, Dublin, Oldham will travel to Edinburgh where he will study geology and mineralogy with Robert Jameson. In 1839 he will return to Ireland where he will work initially for the Ordnance Survey, and later be appointed professor of geology at Trinity. His successful geological work in Ireland will lead to his appointment as geological surveyor to the British East India Company, and eventually to the founding of a Geological Survey of India. His report _On the Coal Resources of India_ will appear in 1864, and he will superintend the creation of many Indian geological journals, including the Survey's _Palaeontologica Indica_ in 1861. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:8>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sat May 4 16:45:54 1996 Date: Sat, 04 May 1996 17:45:35 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Phylogeny conference in London, 14 May 1996 (fwd from CLASS-L) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- INTERNATIONAL BIOMETRIC SOCIETY BRITISH REGION & INSTITUTE OF MATHEMATICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS Phylogenetic Trees & Evolutionary Models Tuesday, 14th May 1996 at 9.30am a one day meeting at the Natural History Museum Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK Dr Frank WRIGHT (Biomathematics & Statistics Scotland) Phylogenetic Trees and Real Data Sets Dr Mark PAGEL (University of Oxford) Inferring Evolutionary Processes from Phylogenies Professor Paul SHARP (University of Nottingham) Origins & Evolution of AIDS Viruses Dr Sean NEE (University of Oxford) Using Phylogenetic Trees to See into the Past Professor David HILLIS (University of Texas) Accuracy & Hypothesis Testing in Phylogenetic Analysis For further details, please contact: Clive Moncrieff, Head of Biometry, Biometrics Section, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK e-mail: email@example.com. The registration fee of 25 pounds (same price for students) will include coffee, lunch and tea. -- Frank Wright, Biomathematics & Statistics Scotland, University of Edinburgh, JCMB, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland, U.K. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org WWW: http://www.bioss.sari.ac.uk/~frank --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:9>From wilkins@wehi.EDU.AU Sun May 5 19:22:32 1996 Date: Mon, 06 May 1996 10:25:53 +1000 From: wilkins@wehi.EDU.AU Subject: Narrative in the historical sciences (revised bibliography) To: email@example.com I suggest adding David Hull's _Science as a Process_ (University of Chicago Press 1988), since chapters 2-7 provide narratives, self-consciously, on the history of Darwinism and taxonomy, including some interesting inside narratives of the pheneticism-cladism constroversies, followed by a discussion of how historians can address such narratives. It's not directly on narrative as a topic, but covers metamodels of science in a way that is relevant. John Wilkins Head of Communication Services Walter and Eliza Hall Institute <http://www.wehi.edu.au/~wilkins/www.html> <mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org> _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:10>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu May 9 00:30:10 1996 Date: Thu, 09 May 1996 01:29:51 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: May 9 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MAY 9 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1892: WALTER ZIMMERMANN is born at Walldurn, Germany. Following study at the Karlsruhe Technical University and at Berlin and Freiburg, as well as military service in the First World War, Zimmermann will be made a lecturer in botany at the University of Tubingen, and will remain at Tubingen for the rest of his career. Zimmermann will publish many works on plant physiology and algology, but he will be best remembered for his work in phylogeny and phylogenetic theory. His comprehensive _Die Phylogenie der Pflanzen_ will appear in 1930, and his lengthy theoretical paper "Arbeitsweise der botanischen Phylogenetik" (1931) will influence the later writings of Willi Hennig, and through Hennig, much of modern systematics: "The task of historical phylogenetics is to find out 'how it was.' This task would be completely solved if we could...erect a gigantic phylogenetic tree of genealogical affinities for all organisms which ever existed and enter all transformations by which descendants are distinguished from their ancestors." Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:11>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed May 15 00:40:15 1996 Date: Wed, 15 May 1996 01:39:52 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: May 15 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MAY 15 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1847: EDWIN RAY LANKESTER is born at London, England. The son of a medical doctor, Lankester will study zoology and geology at the universities of Cambridge and Oxford, and will be appointed professor of zoology at University College, London, in 1872. A wide-ranging practitioner and theorist of the new evolutionary anatomy, he will coin a number of words, such as "homoplasy" and "blastopore", that will become standard terms in the field. In 1891 Lankester will be appointed Linacre Professor of Comparative Anatomy at Oxford, and then in 1898 director of the British Museum (Natural History). In his retirement he will write a number of popular books on natural history, including _Extinct Animals_ (1909) and _Diversions of a Naturalist_ (1915). 1862: "On May 15th, 1862," CHARLES DARWIN will write in his autobiography, "my little book on the _Fertilisation of Orchids_, which cost me ten months' work, was published: most of the facts had been slowly accumulated during several previous years." Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:12>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu May 16 00:30:14 1996 Date: Thu, 16 May 1996 01:29:52 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: May 16 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MAY 16 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1799: EBENEZER EMMONS is born at Middlefield, Massachusetts. Emmons will study natural history and medicine at Williams College and at the Berkshire Medical School, and will eventually succeed his teacher, Chester Dewey, as professor of natural history at Williams. One of the pioneers of American geology, Emmons will do more than any other person to establish in the 1830s and 1840s a geologic column for North America, independent of those being developed for England and continental Europe. His extensive field work in New York and western New England will form the basis for his _Manual of Mineralogy and Geology_ (Albany, 1826), and in 1832 he will move from Williams to the new Rensselaer School (later Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) in Troy, New York. Emmons's later career will be marred by a bitter controversy with James Hall and Louis Agassiz over the strata that he will call the Taconic System, and Emmons will depart New York for North Carolina in 1851 to take up a position as state geologist. He will die in North Carolina in 1863, a casualty of the American Civil War. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:13>From email@example.com Thu May 16 09:47:18 1996 Date: Thu, 16 May 1996 10:44:14 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Linnda Caporael <email@example.com> Subject: Peacock's tail and female choice I would appreciate help in tracking some information. Does anyone have a reference to reseach showing peahens preferences for peacocks with flamboyant tail feathers? This seems to be a paradigmatic example, but I never see references to empirical citations and would like to take a closer look at the data. Thanks, Linnda Caporael Dr. Linnda Caporael Science & Technology Studies Department Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy NY 12180 _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:14>From TShanaha@lmumail.lmu.edu Thu May 16 12:30:50 1996 Date: Thu, 16 May 1996 10:17:54 -0700 From: TShanaha@lmumail.lmu.edu Subject: Re: Peacock's tail and female choice To: firstname.lastname@example.org, Linnda Caporael <email@example.com> Linnda (and any interested others), You might take a look at: Petrie, M., Halliday, T., and Sanders, C. (1991), "Peahens Prefer Peacocks with Elaborate Trains," *Animal Behaviour* 41:323-331. There is also a (very brief) discussion of this in Helena Cronin (1991), *The Ant and the Peacock* (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). Hope that this gets you started. Timothy Shanahan Dept. of Philosophy Loyola Marymount University Los Angeles, CA 90045-2699 _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:15>From firstname.lastname@example.org Thu May 16 15:31:26 1996 Date: Thu, 16 May 1996 13:26:05 -0700 From: Phillip E Johnson <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: Peacock's tail and female choice On p.222 of _The Ant and the Peacock_, Helena Cronin quotes the following statement from a 1984 article by Linda Partridge and Tim Halliday: "it is common for the consequences of intersexual selection to be exemplified by the peacock and birds of paradise. Evidence that females actually choose their mates in these species is, however, slight or non-existent. Indeed, some recent studies suggest that elaborate male plumage in these birds may be, at least in part, the evolutionary result of inter-male competition; males may be intimidated by the elaborate plumage of rivals in aggressive encounters.... Such field studies as have been carried out on species in which the evolution of elaborate male plumage has classically been attributed to female choice generally fail to support that hypothesis unequivocally." Cronin has a lot of interesting information on sexual selection, but everything seems to end in "maybes." She notes on p. 229 that there are great practical difficulties in testing theories of sexual selection. Another great "just-so" story bites the dust! _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:16>From email@example.com Thu May 16 15:57:38 1996 Date: Thu, 16 May 1996 16:57:12 -0400 (EDT) From: "Jeffrey Streelman (BIO)" <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: email@example.com Subject: Re: Peacock's tail and female choice was a paper in the journal nature last year or the year before regarding increased fitness of peacocks with brighter tails. not sure of the author. J.T. Streelman Department of Biology LIF 136 University of South Florida Tampa FL 33620-5150 firstname.lastname@example.org (813) 974-2878 974-5233 _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:17>From email@example.com Thu May 16 17:15:55 1996 Date: Thu, 16 May 1996 18:15:20 -0400 (EDT) From: Patricia Princehouse <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Re: Peacock's tail and female choice To: email@example.com Although it's not about peafowl, Linda Fedigan's book _Primate Paradigms_ has an interesting discussion of sexual selection in a chapter called "Female Choice or Hobson's Choice". -Patricia Princehouse firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:18>From email@example.com Thu May 16 17:42:50 1996 From: "Hans-Cees Speel" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Organization: TUDelft To: email@example.com Date: Fri, 17 May 1996 00:29:58 +0000 Subject: In Memoriam: Donald T. Campbell My apologies if this was send before on the list. I tried to send it before, but it didn't reach me, so I concluded it didn't reach you too. This sad news seems important on especially this list. It came from the PCP list. Hans-Cees Speel I just heard about the death of Donald T. Campbell, emeritus professor at Lehigh University. He died on Sunday, May 5, apparently from the complications of surgery. Campbell was one of the truly important thinkers in evolutionary philosophy and social science methodology, and one of the most cited authors in the social sciences. He was a past president of the American Psychological Association, a distinction comparable to a Nobel prize in psychology. As a recent newsgroup message called him: "A very great experimental psychologist and methodologist (perhaps the greatest)" (Claire Gilbert <firstname.lastname@example.org>). We had made him a honorary "Associate" of the Principia Cybernetica Project (see http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/MASTHEAD.html), since he had always supported our plans to collaboratively develop an evolutionary-cybernetic philosophy. I recently had the chance to collaborate with him on a paper entitled "Selection at the Social Level" (published in "World Futures", see http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/WFISSUE.html), and we had plans to write further joint papers on the evolution of social systems. Alas, that cannot happen anymore. I was personally in his debt, as he had helped me at a difficult moment in my career, when I was at the cross-roads between losing my temporary research contract and getting a permanent appointment. He wrote some glowing recommendations (in which I was virtually described as his intellectual heir), which undoubtedly helped me in securing my position. The announcement included below emphasizes Campbell's contribution to experimental methodology. So let me remind you of his more philosophical contributions. He was the founder of the domain of "evolutionary epistemology" (a label he created), in which he generalized Popper's falsificationist philosophy of science to knowledge processes at all biological, psychological and social levels. Within that domain his main contributions are the concepts of: 1) "Blind-Variation-and-Selective-Retention (BVSR)", where he emphasizes the fact that knowledge initially can only be developed by trial-and-error, and 2) "vicarious selectors", which allowed him to explain how initially blind trials could develop into intelligent search guided by knowledge developed earlier. He generalized the hierarchical organization of vicarious selectors in his analysis of the phenomenon of "downward causation" (another term popularized by him), where a higher level system or whole constrains its parts. He applied this same evolutionary philosophy to the development of social systems, arguing that cultural evolution is necessary to explain the development of human society. The necessary tension between cultural and biological evolution allowed him to explain the organization of archaic societies and the emergence of religious systems. He used these insights to plead for the development of an evolutionary ethics, which could guide our actions without recurring to arbitrary metaphysical principles. He also applied these ideas to some problems in present-day society, arguing for alternative types of social organization, without falling into the trap of designing utopias which only work on paper. The depth and thoroughness of his thinking, his attention to detail, and the width of the interdisciplinary terrain he covered (from psychology to anthropology, sociology, education, biology, philosophy and systems theory), should be an example to us all. Although he is no longer here to teach us in person, he leaves behind a wealth of writings which will inspire researchers for the decades to come. Francis Heylighen ------------------------------ > From: Burt Perrin <100276.3165@COMPUSERVE.COM> > > I have just learned that Donald T. Campbell has died > apparently from complications following surgery. > > Don Campbell was one of the giants-arguably *the* giant-in evaluation as > well as in social psychology, philosophy of science, and in many other > fields. He was one of the few true rennaissance men of our day, although > I am sure he would reject the label. He spoke with people across many > different disciplines and many different theoretical orientations, > acknowledging the contributions of all. > > He set the intellectual direction for evaluation. For example, he reminded > us that that our goal, as researchers and evaluators, is to aim to eliminate > rival competing hypotheses through the simplest means possible. Campbell may > be best known within evaluation circle for coining the concept of quasi- > experimental designs and for advocating use of experimental methods for > evaluation. Perhaps less well known is that Campbell did not hold these > methods to be a priori superior to any other. Long before it became > fashionable to do so, he also strongly defended the use of qualitative > methods-and indeed of the application of common sense. The method must follow > the question. Campbell, many decades ago, promoted the concept of > triangulation - that every method has its limitations, and multiple > methods are usually needed. > > I had the privilege of studying with Campbell in the 60s at Northwestern > University - before anyone spoke of evaluation. He was my major intellectual > inspiration. I remember how he frequently welcomed me-a lowly undergraduate- > into his office - and invariably could insert a hand into a file cabinet or a > pile of papers on or near his desk - and pull out something he had written > about almost any conceivable topic. > > I will stop now. Program evaluation, psychology, philosophy, and humankind > has suffered a major loss. > > Burt Perrin > Toronto, Canada > email@example.com ________________________________________________________________________ Dr. Francis Heylighen, Systems Researcher firstname.lastname@example.org PESP, Free University of Brussels, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium Tel +32-2-6292525; Fax +32-2-6292489; http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/HEYL.html _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:19>From email@example.com Thu May 16 20:00:50 1996 Date: Thu, 16 May 96 21:00:29 EDT From: firstname.lastname@example.org (John Staddon) To: email@example.com Subject: Re: Peacock's tail and female choice See Nature paperrs by Arak last year or so on a mechanism for the selection of symmetry in flowers. Something similar may apply to peacocks. JS _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:20>From firstname.lastname@example.org Fri May 17 03:48:27 1996 Date: Fri, 17 May 1996 09:47:37 +0100 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Ian Harvey) Subject: Re: Peacock's tail and female choice >On p.222 of _The Ant and the Peacock_, Helena Cronin quotes the >following statement from a 1984 article by Linda Partridge and >Tim Halliday: [snip] >aggressive encounters.... Such field studies as have been >carried out on species in which the evolution of elaborate >male plumage has classically been attributed to female choice >generally fail to support that hypothesis unequivocally." This may have been true in 1984 when Halliday and Partridge were writing, but I think most behavioural ecologists would now accept that there are good studies demonstrating female choice. Indeed the work by Halliday and Petrie on peafowl demosntrates both female choice for males with elaborate trains and that the offspring of males with elaborate trains survive better. A recent book by Malte Andersson (1995) _Sexual Selection_ Princeton UP, summarises much of this research >Cronin has a lot of interesting information on sexual selection, >but everything seems to end in "maybes." She notes on p. 229 that >there are great practical difficulties in testing theories >of sexual selection. Yes, there are difficulties but great progress has been made in the last few years. >Another great "just-so" story bites the dust! In fact Petrie's work on peafowl is about the best demonstration of the 'good genes' model of sexual selection! ****************************************************************************** Ian Harvey Tel: +151 794 5028 Population Biology Research Group Fax: +151 794 5094 Department of Environmental and Evolutionary Biology The University of Liverpool email:email@example.com PO Box 147, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK ****************************************************************************** _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:21>From firstname.lastname@example.org Fri May 17 11:22:38 1996 Date: Fri, 17 May 1996 12:22:20 -0400 To: Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu (Darwin List) From: email@example.com (Jeremy C. Ahouse) Subject: Rosenberg on Naturalism Dear DarwinL, I very much enjoyed: Rosenberg, Alex (1996) A Field Guide to Recent Species of Naturalism. Brit J. Phil. Sci. 47, 1-29. Of particular interest to the members of this group may be the central place that he gives to Darwinian explanations, both as a model of theorizing and as a way to underwrite notions of progress in science. If you find Rosenberg's comments about Larry Laudan interesting you will then be happy to know that Laudan has a brand new & clear statement of both his positive (naturalism) and negative (anti-positivism/postpositivism) projects. Laudan's most stimulating claim is that _all_ the seeds of postpositivist relativism, constructionism, anarchism... are sown and growing in positivist soil. Laudan, Larry (1996) "Beyond positivism and relativism: theory, method, and evidence" Westview Press. Q175 .L2938 1996 - Jeremy p.s. if this subject really grabs you by the collar you may also wish to visit with Ruse, Michael (1995) "Evolutionary naturalism: selected essays" Routledge. B818 .R87 1995 Jeremy C. Ahouse Biology Department Brandeis University Waltham, MA 02254-9110 ph: (617) 736-4954 fax: (617) 736-2405 email: firstname.lastname@example.org web: http://www.rose.brandeis.edu/users/simister/pages/Ahouse _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:22>From email@example.com Sat May 18 02:52:09 1996 From: Danny Fagandini <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: email@example.com Subject: Re: Peacock's tail and female choice Date: Fri, 17 May 1996 19:59:00 BST Phillip E Johnson <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote: > Another great "just-so" story bites the dust! That maybe so, but a very recent BBC2 nature study by David Attenborough specifically on Birds of Paradise in many locations around the world, over many years, point to the very opposite. Sexual selection would seem to be for real. -- danny email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:23>From GRANSOM@ucrac1.ucr.edu Sun May 19 13:59:14 1996 Date: Sun, 19 May 1996 11:58:14 -0700 (PDT) From: GREG RANSOM <GRANSOM@ucrac1.ucr.edu> To: DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu Subject: Economics & Narrative This is a bit delayed, but comes in response to John's inquiry about the literature on the place of narrative in the science of economics. The key texts in this literature are by D. McCloskey, _The Rhetoric of Economics_, _If Your So Smart_, and _Knowledge and Persuasion in Economics_. See also the essays in D. Lavoie, ed. _Economics and Hermeneutics_, and Vivienne Brown's essay "The Economy as Text" in R. Backhouse, ed. _New Directions in Economic Methodology_. The most import- ant paper on the relation between history and theory in the economic literature is F. Hayek, "The Facts of the Social Sciences" in F. Hayek, _Individualism and Economic Order_. See also his "The Theory of Complex Phenomena" in F. Hayek, _Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics_, which treats the common explanatory strategies of economics, biology, and neuroscience. On the overall role of narrative in argument and explanation, I couldn't recommend more highly Larry Wright's recent essay "Argument and Deliberation: A Plea for Understanding" _J. of Philosophy_, Nov. 1995, pp. 565-585. Joseph Rouse's new _Engaging Science_ is an important characterization of the way in which the intellegibility and significance of any scientific practice comes in part from the narrative understanding in which it is situated. I might also recommend F. Hayek's "The Uses of 'Gresham's Law' as an Illustration of 'Historical Theory'" and his "Degrees of Explanation" both in his _Studies_, for more on the commonalities between the explanatory strategies of economics and other complex sciences like biology, which share common problems of the relationship between theory and history. Greg Ransom Dept. of Philosophy UC-Riverside firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:24>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon May 20 11:43:37 1996 Date: Mon, 20 May 1996 12:43:12 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Directory of net resources on Egyptology (fwd) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Tue, 7 May 1996 11:34:59 -0500 From: Will Wagers <wagers@COMPUTEK.NET> Subject: New Egyptologist Web Page Dear Egyptologists, I have created a new resource page _for the Egyptologist_. The web address is: http://denton.computek.net/pub/wagers/ousia/Egyptologist.Shtml I have tried to make it fast and comprehensive. Please visit the site and e-mail me your comments, problems, or suggestions. I will be adding further entries over the next two weeks. This notice will be cross-posted, so you have my apologies if you happen to receive it more than once. Regards, Will PS I have lost the URL for CAAL. If you know it, please email me privately. Will firstname.lastname@example.org --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:25>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon May 20 13:11:12 1996 Date: Mon, 20 May 1996 14:10:35 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Administrative notes for the end of term (from the list owner) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro The list owner has finally made it to the end of a hectic semester <whew>, and hopes that many others on the list can now enjoy a relaxing summer or winter, depending upon which hemisphere you are in. (It is 95F today in North Carolina, so I think I am in the wrong hemisphere.) I am about to begin catching up on a backlog of email that had accumulated in my box over the last few busy weeks. My apologies to anyone who sent me a message recently but has not yet had a reply; I will be in touch shortly. When academic terms end many people change email addresses, and in order to keep the list running smoothly it will be helpful if subscribers would adjust their Darwin-L subscriptions as necessary. If you are moving to a new address or expect to be away for a long time you may wish to cancel your Darwin-L subscription. To do so just send the message: unsub Darwin-L to the address: firstname.lastname@example.org If you will be checking your mail only infrequently over the next few months you might prefer to set your subscription to "digest mode", under which you will continue to receive messages, but each day's collection of posts will be bundled together into a "digest" message leaving your mailbox less cluttered. To set your subscription to digest mode send the message: set Darwin-L mail digest to the same address. New subscribers who have not yet visited the Darwin-L Web Server are invited to do so (http://rjohara.uncg.edu). It contains more information about our list and about the comparative study of the historical sciences. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Dr. Robert J. O'Hara (email@example.com) | Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building | http://rjohara.uncg.edu University of North Carolina at Greensboro | http://strong.uncg.edu Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. | _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:26>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon May 20 13:50:32 1996 Date: Mon, 20 May 1996 14:50:01 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: New on the web: Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro The Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections was established several years ago to improve communication about the conservation of museum collections and to promote responsible collection management. They have recently established a web site that may be of interest to many people on Darwin-L; the details appear below. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Tue, 14 May 1996 11:54:13 -0800 From: Jackie Zak <JZak@Getty.edu> To: nhcoll-l@ucmp1.Berkeley.EDU Subject: Web Site for Natural History A new Web Site is now available for those interested in museums, preservation, and natural history. The site is sponsored by the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections (SPNHC) and offers information about the Society, its publications, committees, meetings, and training. It also offers links to other significant sites related to natural history collections and their preservation. Please stop by for a visit. Comments are welcome and should be addressed to the webmaster. the URL is: http://iscssun.uni.edu/vidal/spnhc See you there! --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:27>From email@example.com Mon May 20 15:21:29 1996 Date: Mon, 20 May 1996 10:20:50 -1000 From: Ron Amundson <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: Darwin-L List <email@example.com> Subject: Darwin quote I can't seem to put my finger on the quote from Darwin's Notebooks where he says that he can always remember the facts which he comes across which support his theory, but he tends to forget the ones which are inconsistent with his theory -- so he is very careful to write down the inconsistent ones. Anyone with quicker fingers than I? Ron __ Ron Amundson University of Hawaii at Hilo ronald@Hawaii.Edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:28>From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue May 21 10:18:36 1996 Date: Tue, 21 May 1996 08:14:09 -0700 From: email@example.com (Paul A. Nelson) Subject: Re: Darwin quote To: firstname.lastname@example.org Ron Amundson wrote: >I can't seem to put my finger on the quote from Darwin's Notebooks where >he says that he can always remember the facts which he comes across which >support his theory, but he tends to forget the ones which are >inconsistent with his theory -- so he is very careful to write down the >inconsistent ones. I found the following in Mayr's introduction to the 1964 facsimile reprint of the first edition of the _Origin_: In his _Autobiography_, Darwin wrote: "I had during many years followed a golden rule, namely...whenever [I came across] a published fact, a new observation or thought...which was opposed to my general results to make a memorandum of it without fail and at once; for I found by experience that such facts and thoughts were far more likely to escape from the memory than favorable ones. Owing to this habit very few objections were raised against my views which I had not at least noticed and attempted to answer." So it looks like the _Autobiography_ would be the place to look -- although I have this nagging sense that there's something in this vein in the Notebooks as well. Paul Nelson Univ of Chicago _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:29>From email@example.com Tue May 21 11:23:16 1996 From: Paul Farrar <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Re: Darwin quote To: email@example.com Date: Tue, 21 May 1996 11:26:06 -0500 (CDT) ... I had, also, during many years, followed a golden rule, namely, that whenever a published fact, a new observation or thought came across me, which was opposed to my general results, to make a memorandum of it without fail and at once; for I had found by experience that such facts and thoughts were far more apt to escape from the memory than favourable ones. Owing to this habit, very few objections were raised against my views which I had not at least noticed and attempted to answer. _The Autobiography of Charles Darwin, 1809-1882_, Nora Barlow edition, 1958, Norton. p123, in section "My Several Publications". Also p.45 of Francis D's Bowdlerized version, identical except that the ";" is a ":". -- Paul Farrar http://www.datasync.com/~farrar/ firstname.lastname@example.org 70053,3464 _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:30>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue May 21 21:56:16 1996 Date: Tue, 21 May 1996 22:55:47 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Re: Darwin quote (from Polly Winsor) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- From: Mary P Winsor <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Re: Darwin quote To: email@example.com Date: Tue, 21 May 1996 12:14:43 -0400 (EDT) The statement is only a few pages after the famous "happened to read for amusement Malthus" just before the famous paragraph that it is sometimes said that the theory was in the air, that is, on p. 123 of Nora Barlow's unexpurgated edition. Polly Winsor firstname.lastname@example.org --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:31>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue May 21 22:07:04 1996 Date: Tue, 21 May 1996 23:06:38 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Fulbright scholarships in history (fwd) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro The following notice about Fulbright Scholarships in history may be of interest to some Darwin-L members. (The grants are available only to US citizens, I'm afraid.) Perhaps someone among us will submit a proposal for an interdisciplinary study in the historical sciences. Bob O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Tue, 21 May 1996 11:33:28 -0400 From: email@example.com Subject: Approaching Deadline for 1997-98 Fulbright Scholar Program FULBRIGHT SCHOLAR PROGRAM: INTERNATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES FOR U.S. FACULTY AND PROFESSIONALS IN HISTORY Reminder: August 1 Deadline Approaching for the 1997-98 Competition Visit the Web Site: Program information and the listing of 1997-98 opportunities can be accessed via the Fulbright Scholar Program Web site at http://www.cies.org Summary: Below is a brief description of Fulbright grants for U.S. citizens to engage in lecturing and advanced research worldwide. These grants are excellent professional development opportunities and provide funding to pursue professional interests abroad. FULBRIGHT GRANTS FOR U.S. FACULTY AND PROFESSIONALS Description: Over 800 awards for college and university faculty and nonacademic professionals to lecture or pursue advanced research and/or related professional activity abroad. For U.S. candidates, grants are available to nearly 130 countries. Application Deadline: U.S. candidates have an August 1 deadline for lecturing or research awards. Non-U.S. candidates apply in their home country for awards to come to the United States. Areas of Interest: Opportunities exist in every area of the social sciences, arts and humanities, sciences, and many professional fields. Fulbright-supported activities include undergraduate and graduate teaching, individual advanced research, joint research collaboration, and more. Basic Eligibility Requirements: Ph.D. or equivalent professional/terminal degree at the time of application and U.S. citizenship (permanent residency is not sufficient). For professionals and artists outside academe, recognized professional standing comparable to that associated with the doctorate in higher education is required, unless otherwise noted in the individual award description. College or university teaching experience is expected at the level and in the field of the advertised assignment or proposed lecturing activity for lecturing and combined lecturing/research awards. Grant Duration: Awards range in duration from two months to twelve months. Most lecturing assignments are for an academic term/semester or a full academic year. Language: Foreign language proficiency may be expected as specified in the award description or as required for the completion of the proposed lecturing or research project. The majority of teaching assignments are in English. The major exceptions are Central and South America, where Spanish is usually required, and francophone Africa, where one is expected to be fluent in French. Action: U.S. candidates may view detailed descriptions of award opportunities and request application materials via the Fulbright Scholar Program web site: http://www.cies.org Requests for hard copy of the awards booklet and application kit can be made by E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org (Requests for mailing of materials only!) Telephone: 202/686-7877 U.S. mail: USIA Fulbright Senior Scholar Program Council for International Exchange of Scholars Box INET 3007 Tilden St., NW, Suite 5M Washington, DC 20008-3009 Non-U.S. candidates must contact the Fulbright commission or U.S. embassy in their home country. --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:32>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu May 23 00:45:24 1996 Date: Thu, 23 May 1996 01:44:55 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: May 23 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MAY 23 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1617: ELIAS ASHMOLE is born at Lichfield, England. The child of humble parents, Ashmole will study at the Lichfield Grammar School and then move to London, where he will receive training in the law. As a result of several fortunate political and social connections he will make while in London, Ashmole will receive a royal appointment in the College of Arms, eventually becoming a leading authority on the history of heraldry, and a significant collector of antiquities. His expanding interests will lead him to the study of botany, medicine, alchemy, and astrology, and he will be one of the founding members of the Royal Society in 1660. Ashmole will offer his extensive personal collections of antiquities and natural history specimens to the University of Oxford in 1675, and the Ashmolean Museum, the first public museum in England, will open at Oxford in 1683. 1707: CARL LINNAEUS is born at Sodra, Smaland, Sweden. The son of a country parson, Linnaeus will rise to be one of the most prominent figures in the history of natural history. Following study in medicine and botany at the Universities of Lund and Uppsala, Linnaeus will first spend time travelling in Lapland, and then will move to Holland where he will receive his medical degree. While in Leiden he will publish the first edition of his masterwork, _Systema Naturae_ (1735), which he will revise and expand many times over the course of his life. In 1741 Linnaeus will be appointed professor of medicine at Uppsala, and through his many students and his voluminous writings on systematics and natural history, his influence will spread throughout Europe and the world. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:33>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu May 23 12:52:12 1996 Date: Thu, 23 May 1996 13:51:22 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Thesaurus Linguae Latinae on the web To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Thu, 2 May 1996 16:39:50 -0600 (CST) From: Ann DeVito <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: new URL for e-TLL home page Change of URL announcement The Consortium for Latin Lexicography would like to announce that the Home Page for the Electronic Thesaurus Linguae Latinae has moved. The new URL is: http://www.cs.usask.ca/faculty/devito/e-TLL/ These web pages describe the planned development of a TLL in electronic form. We hope to continue to publish progress reports on the Electronic TLL at this site as work proceeds. For more information on these web pages, the Electronic TLL project, or the Consortium for Latin Lexicography, please contact CLL Director Patrick Sinclair at CLL@uci.edu or CLL Systems Analyst Ann DeVito at email@example.com. Ann DeVito, Systems Analyst Consortium for Latin Lexicography Dept. of Computer Science 1C101 Engineering Building University of Saskatchewan 57 Campus Drive Saskatoon, Saskatchewan CANADA S7N 5A9 <firstname.lastname@example.org> --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:34>From email@example.com Thu May 23 09:15:06 1996 Date: Thu, 23 May 1996 16:14:35 +0200 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Geoffrey Miller) Subject: Forget the peacock's tail, look at the barn swallow As Ian Harvey pointed out in his message, Malte Andersson's book _Sexual Selection_ is an excellent review, but by far the most impressive single-species case study is Anders Moller's (1994) _Sexual selection and the barn swallow_ (Oxford UP, 365 pp.), summarizing a decade of research on sexual selection for reliable indicators ('good genes') in this socially monogamous bird. Dr. Geoffrey F. Miller firstname.lastname@example.org Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research 24 Leopoldstr., 80802 Munich, Germany (+49) (089) 38602-237 (office) (+49) (089) 342473 (fax) _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:35>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Thu May 23 15:15:41 1996 Date: Thu, 23 May 1996 16:15:13 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Narrative bibliography now on the Darwin-L Web Server To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro The preliminary bibliography on narrative in the historical sciences that several Darwin-L members contributed to is now available on the Files page of the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu). Please browse through it if the topic is of interest. Bob O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:36>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri May 24 00:30:21 1996 Date: Fri, 24 May 1996 01:29:56 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: May 24 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MAY 24 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1794: WILLIAM WHEWELL is born at Lancaster, England. The son of a carpenter, Whewell's precocious intellect will win him admittance to the Heversham grammar school and then to Trinity College, Cambridge. He will be made a fellow of Trinity in 1817, and will remain there throughout his career, rising to the mastership in 1841, and serving twice as vice-chancellor of the University. An extraordinarily polymathic philosopher, historian, and scientist, Whewell will write extensively on physics, mathematics, theology, ethics, meteorology, political economy, architecture, Classical literature, mineralogy, geology, education, and the theory of science. In 1837 he will coin the term "palaetiology" for the sciences of historical causation, and he will later recommend the palaetiological sciences as important elements of a liberal education: "I have ventured to give reasons why the chemical sciences (chemistry, mineralogy, electrochemistry) are not at the present time in a condition which makes them important general elements of a liberal education. But there is another class of sciences, the palaetiological sciences, which from the largeness of their views and the exactness of the best portions of their reasonings are well fitted to form part of that philosophical discipline which a liberal education ought to include. Of these sciences, I have mentioned two, one depending mainly upon the study of language and the other upon the sciences which deal with the material world. These two sciences, ethnography, or comparative philology, and geology, are among those progressive sciences which may be most properly taken into a liberal education as instructive instances of the wide and rich field of facts and reasonings with which modern science deals, still retaining, in many of its steps, great rigour of proof; and as an animating display also of the large and grand vistas of time, succession, and causation, which are open to the speculative powers of man." 1851: The English author, artist, and critic JOHN RUSKIN writes to his friend Henry Acland: "You speak of the Flimsiness of your own faith. Mine, which was never strong, is being beaten into mere gold leaf, and flutters in weak rags from the letter of its old forms; but the only letters it can hold by at all are the old Evangelical formulae. If only the Geologists would let me alone, I could do very well, but those dreadful Hammers! I hear the clink of them at the end of every cadence of the Bible verses." Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:37>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sat May 25 16:16:16 1996 Date: Sat, 25 May 1996 17:15:42 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: New phylogenetic software, perhaps of interest to linguists as well (fwd) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro This notice of a new piece of software for phylogenetic analysis recently appeared on several natural history lists. In addition to being of interest to systematists, this particular package may be of interest to some of our historical linguists as well. One of the controversies in the reconstruction of very old linguistic relationships is how chance resemblances can be distinguished from genuine historical "signal". This topic has begun to attract a lot of attention in systematics in the last few years, and this software package is an example of one attempt to address the question. Bob O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Fri, 24 May 1996 18:51:37 -0700 From: James Lyons-Weiler <weiler@ERS.UNR.EDU> Subject: New Phylogenetics Software Apologies for semi-redundant and cross postings. New information included: ********************************************************************* ************ Announcing RASA 1.1.1 and RASA Plot 1.1.1 ************** ********************************************************************* (updated 5/24/96) Nascent software for the Mac that will perform "Relative Apparent Synapomorphy Analysis", a test for the presence of phylogenetic signal (a.k.a. cladistic hierarchy) in any type of discrete character data matrix (morphological or molecular), is now available at the following URL as a binhexed self-extracting archive: http://loco.biology.unr.edu/archives/rasa/rasa.html *** and by anonymous ftp at loco.biology.unr.edu (pub) (rasa) There you'll find rasa.sea, which contains the following: RASA 1.1.1 <-- Reads a data file, measures signal, and writes a file readable by: RASA Plot 1.1.1 <-- Allows you to view in graphical and tabular form the results of the test. RASA.help <-- A help file that you might find, well, helpful. sample1 <-- A sample data file with no signal. sample2 <-- A sample data file with signal. README-1.1.1 <-- A file with FAQs, bugs, etc. Although this software is in the beta stage, I consider the output to be reliable. The reference for the algorithm and detailed justification and discussion of limitations of the approach can be expected in July: Lyons-Weiler, J., G.A. Hoelzer, and R.J. Tausch. 1996. Relative Apparent Synapomorphy Analysis (RASA) I: the statistical measurement of phylogenetic signal. Molecular Biology and Evolution, in press. A more sophisticated version in under development. Send questions off the list; FAQs will be included in the README file as they arrive. Direct inquiries to email@example.com. James _______________________________________________________________________________ \ / / \ / JAMES LYONS-WEILER ______________ \/ / \/ |..............| \ / / |..............| \/ / DOCTORAL PROGRAM IN |..............| \ / ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION, AND |...***........| \ / CONSERVATION BIOLOGY |..*****.......| \ / |.******.......| \/ 1000 VALLEY ROAD/186 |********......| ______________ THE UNIVERSITY OF -------------- | will perform | NEVADA, RENO | statistical | RENO, NEVADA 89512-0013 | phylogenetic | | analyses for | "(Biology) is not religion; if it were, we'd | food | have a much easier time raising money." -------------- -Leon Lederman _______________________________________________________________________________ --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:38>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed May 29 15:07:20 1996 Date: Wed, 29 May 1996 16:06:50 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Another bibliography: history of systematics To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Following this message I will send another preliminary bibliography I've put together, this one on the history of systematics. I will be grateful for any suggestions Darwin-L members may have regarding additions, deletions, or corrections. The bibliography only includes works published _since 1965_; I didn't make any effort to go back before that date. As I was putting the bibliography together I was surprised at how much material I was able to find. I tend to think of the history of systematics as a relatively neglected field, and I continue to believe it is in comparison to the amount of depth the subject exhibits, but there is in fact more published material available than one might expect. What is available, however is extraordinarily scattered -- I wish there were some statistic by which the degree of scatter in a bibliography could be measured, because I bet this list would set a record. This is perhaps one of the reasons it doesn't feel like there is a lot of material available, because some of it is in systematics journals, some in history journals, some in philosophy journals, some in books on general intellectual history, and all in a variety of languages. Hopefully that will make this bibliography particularly useful. Please feel free to post comments and suggestions to the group as a whole. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Robert J. O'Hara (email@example.com) Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building The University of North Carolina at Greensboro Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:39>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed May 29 15:16:30 1996 Date: Wed, 29 May 1996 16:15:55 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Preliminary Bibliography: History of Systematics To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro PRELIMINARY BIBLIOGRAPHY: RECENT WORKS ON THE HISTORY OF SYSTEMATICS. Version of May 1996. Compiled by Robert J. O'Hara, Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412, U.S.A. (email@example.com). This bibliography attempts to list works published *since 1965* that include substantial treatments of some aspect of the history of systematics, particularly systematic theory. I have ordinarily excluded biographical works and general histories of natural history unless they include special sections on the history of systematics. Suggestions for additions, deletions, and corrections are welcome; I have not seen all of the items included. This is the first version of this bibliography, and it probably contains many gaps. Revised versions will be posted on the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu). Appel, T. 1980. Henri de Blainville and the animal series: a nineteenth century chain of being. Journal of the History of Biology, 13:291-319. Atran, Scott. 1990. Cognitive Foundations of Natural History: Toward an Anthropology of Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Barsanti, Giulio. 1984. Linne et Buffon: deux visions differentes de l'histoire naturelle. Revue de Synthese, 113-114:83-107. Barsanti, Giulio. 1988. Le immagini della natura: scale, mappe, alberi 1700-1800. Nuncius, 3:55-125. Barsanti, Giulio. 1992. La scala, la mappa, l'albero: immagini e classificazioni della natura fra sei e ottocento. Florence: Sansoni. Barsanti, Giulio. 1992. Buffon et l'image de la nature: de l'echelle des etres a la carte geographique et l'arbre genealogique. Pp. ?? in: Buffon 88 (J. Gayon, ed.). Paris: VRIN, Libraire Philosophique. Bernier, R. 1975. Aux sources de la biologie. Tome premier. Les vingt premiers siecles. La classification. Montreal: Le presses de l'Universite du Quebec. Bernier, R. 1984. Systeme et methode en taxonomie: Adanson, A.-L. de Jussieu et A.-P. de Candolle. Naturaliste Canad., 111:3-12. Burtt, B. L. 1966. Adanson and modern taxonomy. Notes Roy. Botanical Garden Edinburgh, 26:427-431. Cain, Arthur J. 1981. The development of systematic ideas of variation illustrated by malacology. Pp. 151-156 in: History in the Service of Systematics (A. Wheeler & J. H. Price, eds.). (Society for the Bibliography of Natural History, Special Publication No. 1.) Cain, Arthur J. 1990. Constantine Samuel Rafinesque Schmaltz on classification: a translation of the early works by Rafinesque with introduction and notes. Tryonia, 20. Philadelphia: Academy of Natural Sciences. Cain, Arthur J. 1992. Was Linnaeus a Rosicrucian? Linnean, 8(3):23-44. Cain, Arthur J. 1993. Linnaeus's Ordines naturales. Archives of Natural History, 20:405-415. Cain, Arthur J. 1994. Numerus, figura, proportio, situs: Linnaeus's definitory attributes. Archives of Natural History, 21:17-36. Callot, E. 1965. Systeme et methode dans l'histoire de la botanique. Rev. Hist. Sci. Applic., 18:45-53. Craw, Robin. 1992. Margins of cladistics: identity, difference and place in the emergence of phylogenetic systematics, 1864-1975. Pp. 65-107 in: Trees of Life: Essays in Philosophy of Biology (Paul Griffiths, ed.). Australasian Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 11. Cronk, Q. C. B. 1990. The name of the pea: a quantitative history of legume classification. New Phytologist, 116:163-175. Dean, J. 1979. Controversy over classification: a case study from the history of botany. Pp. 211-230 in: Natural Order: Historical Studies of Scientific Culture (B. Barnes and S. Shapin, eds.). Berkeley: Sage. Dean, John Philip. 1980. A Naturalistic Model of Classification and its Relevance to Some Contorversies in Botanical Systematics, 1900-1950. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Edinburgh. Dean, John Philip. 1979. Controversy over classification: a case study from the history of botany. Pp. ?? in: Natural Order: Historical Studies in Scientific Culture (B. Barnes & S. Shapin, eds.). London. Di Gregorio, M. A. 1982. In search of the natural system: problems of zoological classification in Victorian Britain. Hist. Philos. Life Sci., 4:225-254. Donoghue, Michael J., & J. W. Kadereit. 1992 Walter Zimmerman and the growth of phylogenetic theory. Systematic Biology, 41:74-85. Dupuis, C. 1979. La "Systematique phylogenetique" de W. Hennig. Cahiers de Naturalistes, 34:1-69. Farber, Paul L. 1982. The Emergence of Ornithology as a Scientific Discipline, 1760-1850. Dordrecht: D. Reidel. Foucault, Michel. 1970. The Order of Things. New York: Random House. Gaffney, Eugene S. 1984. Historical analysis of theories of chelonian relationship. Systematic Zoology, 33:283-301. Ghiselin, Michael T. 1969. The Triumph of the Darwinian Method. Berkeley: University of California Press. [Reprinted 1984, University of Chicago Press.] Ghiselin, Michael T., & L. Jaffe. 1973. Phylogenetic classification in Darwin's Monograph on the Sub-class Cirripedia. Systematic Zoology, 22:132-140. Gilmour, J. S. L. 1989. Two early papers on classification. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 167:97-107. Gruber, Howard E. 1972. Darwin's 'tree of nature' and other images of wider scope. Pp. 121-140 in: On Aesthetics and Science (J. Wechsler, ed.). Cambridge: MIT Press. Guedes, M. 1967. La methode taxonomique de Adanson. Rev. His. Sci. Applic., 20:361-386. Hagen, Joel. 1982. Experimental taxonomy, 1930-1950: the impact of cytology, ecology, and genetics on ideas of biological classification. Ph.D. Dissertation, Oregon State University. Holman, E. W. 1985. Evolutionary and psychological effects in pre- evolutionary classifications. J. Classific., 2:29-39. Hull, David L. 1965. The effect of essentialism on taxonomy: two thousand years of stasis. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 15:314- 366, 16:1-18. Hull, David L. 1988. Science as a Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [Includes an account of the recent (post-1960) history of systematics.] Knight, D. 1985. William Swainson: types, circles and affinities. Pp. 83-94 in: The Light of Nature: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science Presented to A. C. Crombie (J. D. North and J. J. Roche, eds.). Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff. Larson, James L. 1971. Reason and Experience: The Representation of Natural Order in the Work of Carl von Linne. Berkeley: University of California Press. La Vergata, A. 1987. Au nom de l'espece: classification et nomenclature au XIXe siecle. Pp. 193-225 in: Histoire du concept de l'espece dans les sciences de la vie (S. Atran, ed.). Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac. Lindroth, C. H. 1973. Systematics specialises between Fabricius and Darwin, 1800-1859. Pp. 119-154 in: History of Entomology (R. F. Smith et al., eds.). Palo Alto: Annual Reviews. Mayr, Ernst. 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Nelson, Gareth G., & Norman I. Platnick. 1981. Systematics and Biogeography: Cladistics and Vicariance. New York: Columbia University Press. Nelson, G. 1979. Cladistic analysis and synthesis: principles and definitions, with a historical note on Adanson's Familles des Plantes (1763-1764). Systematic Zoology, 28:1-21. O'Hara, Robert J. 1988. Diagrammatic classifications of birds, 1819-1901: views of the natural system in 19th-century British ornithology. Pp. 2746- 2759 in: Acta XIX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici (H. Ouellet, ed.). Ottawa: National Museum of Natural Sciences. O'Hara, Robert J. 1991. Representations of the natural system in the nineteenth century. Biology and Philosophy, 6:255-274. O'Hara, Robert J. 1992. Telling the tree: narrative representation and the study of evolutionary history. Biology and Philosophy, 7:135-160. O'Hara, Robert. J. In press. Trees of history in systematics and philology. Memorie della Societa italiana di scienze naturali e del Museo civico di storia naturale di Milano. Oppenheimer, Jane M. 1987. Haeckel's variations on Darwin. Hoenigswald & Wiener, 1987:123-135. [On the tree diagrams of the German evolutionist Ernst Haeckel.] de Queiroz, Kevin. 1988. Systematics and the Darwinian revolution. Philosophy of Science, 55:238-259. Reif, Wolf-Ernst. 1983. Hilgendorf's (1863) dissertation on the Steinheim planorbids (Gastropoda; Miocene): the development of a phylogenetic research program for paleontology. Palaontologische Zeitschrift, 57:7-20. Rieppel, O. 1987. Pattern and process: the early classification of snakes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 31:405-420. Ritvo, H. 1990. New presbyter or old priest? Reconsidering zoological taxonomy in Britain, 1750-1840. Hist. Human Sci., 3:259-276. Sloan, Phillip R. 1972. John Locke, John Ray, and the problem of the natural system. Journal of the History of Biology, 5:1-53. Sloan, Phillip R. 1979. Buffon, German biology, and the historical interpretation of biological species. British Journal for the History of Science, 12:109-153. Sloan, P. R. 1987. From logical universals to historical individuals: Buffon's idea of biological species. pp. 101-140 in: Histoire du concept de l'espece dans les sciences de la vie (S. Atran, ed.). Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac. Stafleu, F. A. 1969. A historical review of systematic botany. Pp. 16-44 in: Systematic Biology: Proceedings of an International Conference. Washington: National Academy of Sciences. Stemerding, D. 1993. How to make oneself nature's spokesman? A Latourian account of classification in eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century natural history. Philos. Sci., 8:199-223. Stevens, Peter F. 1982. Augustin Augier's "Arbre Botanique" (1801), a remarkable early botanical representation of the natural system. Taxon, 32:203-211. Stevens, Peter F. 1983. Hauy and A.-P. de Candolle: crystallography, botanical systematics, and comparative morphology, 1780-1840. Journal of the History of Biology, 17:49-82. Stevens, Peter F. 1984. Metaphors and typology in the development of botanical systematics 1690-1960, or the art of putting new wine in old bottles. Taxon, 33:169-211. Stevens, Peter F. 1986. Evolutionary classification in botany, 1960-1985. J. Arnold Arbor., 67:313-339. Stevens, Peter F. 1992. Species: historical perspectives. Pp. 302-311 in: Keywords in Evolutionary Biology (E. F. Keller and E. A. Lloyd, eds.). Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Stevens, Peter F., and S. P. Cullen. 1990. Linnaeus, the cortex-medulla theory, and the key to his understanding of plant form and natural relationships. J. Arnold Arbor., 71:179-220. Stresemann, Erwin. 1975. Ornithology from Aristotle to the Present. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Uschmann, G. 1967. Zur Geschichte der Stammbaum-Darstellungen. Pp. 9-30 in: Gesammelte Vortrage uber moderne Probleme der Abstammlungslehre, vol. 2 (M. Gersch, ed.). Jena: Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat. Vernon, Keith. 1988. The founding of numerical taxonomy. British Journal for the History of Science, 21:143-158. Vernon, Keith. 1993. Desperately seeking status: evolutionary systematics and the taxonomists' search for respectability, 1940-1960. British Journal for the History of Science, 26:207-227. Wagner, Warren H., Jr. 1980. Origin and philosophy of the groundplan- divergence method of cladistics. Systematic Botany, 5:173-193. Walters, S. M. 1961. The name of the rose: a review of ideas on the European bias in angiosperm classification. New Phytologist, 104:527-546. Webster, G. 1987. The saga of the spurges: a review of classification and relationships in the Euphorbiales. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 94:3-46. Williams, R. L. 1988. Gerard and Jaume: Two neglected figures in the history of Jussiaean classification. Taxon, 37:2-34, 233-271. Winsor, Mary P. 1969. Barnacle larvae in the nineteenth century: a case study in taxonomic theory. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 24:194-209. Winsor, Mary P. 1976. The development of Linnean insect classification. Taxon, 25:57-67. Winsor, Mary P. 1976. Starfish, Jellyfish, and the Order of Life. New Haven: Yale University Press. Winsor, Mary P. 1979. Louis Agassiz and the species question. Studies in History of Biology, 3:89-117. Winsor, Mary P. 1985. The impact of Darwinism on the Linnaean enterprise, with special reference to T. H. Huxley. Pp. 55-84 in: Contemporary Perspectives on Carl von Linne (J. M. Weinstock, ed.). University Press of America. Winsor, Mary P. 1991. Reading the Shape of Nature: Comparative Zoology at the Agassiz Museum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Winsor, Mary P. 1994. The lessons of history. Pp. 1-9 in: Models in Phylogeny Reconstruction (R. W. Scotland, D. J. Siebert, & D. M. Williams, eds.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. (Systematics Association Special Volume No. 52.) Winsor, Mary P. 1995. The English debate on taxonomy and phylogeny, 1937- 1940. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences, 17:227-252. _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:40>From firstname.lastname@example.org Fri May 24 11:43:08 1996 Date: Fri, 24 May 1996 19:38:44 -0700 From: David Bloch <email@example.com> Organization: Salt & Separation Engineering . To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: population increase > From: Mary P Winsor <email@example.com> > Subject: population increase >===============================-- At the risk plunging into a dark unknown Darwinian jungle:- Salt..... made the world go round, though unfortunately for History and particularly for archaeologists, salt disolves, leaving no trace, with the exception of various unexplained artifacts.- Unless we are made aware of how salt and its derivatives influenced ancient civilisations, we may fail to take into account items essential to man's survival and which have consequently played a major role in our history. Sexual function is the first to suffer when a man or woman becomes very salt hungry. As a result, salt starved people find salt a strong Aphrodisiac. In Cyprus Aphrodite was worshipped both as Goddess of love and of Salt. Her festivities combine a solumn eating of salt and orgiastic rites. Plutarch put it.... but it is most probable that the salt raiseth an itching in animals, and makes them Salacious ...... Aphrodite and Poseidon were not the only ones to be worshipped for providing salt. Power to control a population's salt supply, was power over life and death. Why were the rabbits in Australia an exception to the 'stability'? The physiological need for salt, is well documented, though today we tend to disregard this need, with modern medicine's [mistaken] veiled warnings of too much salt in our diets. We forget that salt is no less important than water, in balancing a stable saline environment in the body. The establishment of early settlements, the increase and decrease of populations, wars, large demographic shifts and the development of agriculture have in the past been intimately related to the absence or presence of salt supplies. With the development of agriculture, salt became critically important in preserving meat for distribution in organised communities and for storing every day essentials, hides, fish, cheese, olives, for dehydrating and immunising them from bacteria. Thus the physiological need, estimated at minimum 10 grams per day per person, and the preservative need, increased consumption to 20 grams and in some cases 100 grams became quantitively so great, that it required special attention to guarrantee the supply, transport, and protection of the salt sources. The increased consumption of salt above the minimum physiological requirement had a striking result which may have some importance. This additional salt intake changed the bromine ratio in the diet since crystallised salt used for food preservation has a chlorine to bromine ratio of over 2000-1 In other words it contains almost no bromine. Since bromine has a sedative effect on the nervous system one might speculate that a bromine reduction, stimulated greater activity. The importance of controlling the salt supply to the community made itself felt in the everyday process of slaughtering animals in the Abattoirs, such as the Temple in Jerusalem, and the Parthenon. They were expensive installations to erect. and the rigorous procedure and hygienic precautions, taken by kings and priests alike [for they were responsible for the health of their communities,] demanded that the ritual be pleasing and be profitable. Under the Roman Empire of the Caesars immense semi-private trade organisations were set up to handle about one million tons of salt a year for an estimated population of 100 million people. The production.of salt was mostly by the easiest method, coastal evaporation systems, however it appears that the ocean and in particular the Mediterranean sea levels fluctuated causing either flooding or land locking of the evaporation pans, and forcing communities to look elswhere. The reorganisation of supplies was to be the determining factor in the importance of strategic towns and supply routes, for example Jerusalem and the Dead Sea, which would explain the otherwise senseless determination of Roman emperors Vespasian and Titus to conquer desert strongholds like Masada, at a time when most of Rome's Italian coast sources were flooded. ***Researching the History of salt **** * and its influence on society up * to the industrial revolution * keywords: sea-levels, money, power * craving, dehydration, * sacrifice, embalming * MRBLOCH SALT ARCHIVE *http://www.geocities.com/Athens/2707/phys.html * E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org *************************************** _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:41>From LCOOK@fs2.scg.man.ac.uk Thu May 30 06:29:55 1996 From: Laurence Martin Cook <LCOOK@fs2.scg.man.ac.uk> Organization: University of Manchester, UK To: email@example.com Date: Thu, 30 May 1996 12:15:53 GMT+1 Subject: Re: salt Mary Winsor provides an interesting and diverse range of remarks on the importance of salt. Reminds me that salt has evidently had a political significance in India, too. Alexander Burnes, in Journey into Bokhara, reports that at the end of the 18th and start of the 19th Century Ranjit Singh was concerned about control of rock salt supplies from an area in the northwest frontier, and if I remember correctly salt monopolies were one of the bones of contention used by Gandhi against the British administration. There is probably a vein which may be mined here, going back a long way. Laurence Cook Laurence M. Cook The Manchester Museum University of Manchester Manchester M13 9PL _______________________________________________________________________________ <33:42>From Michael_Kenny@sfu.ca Fri May 31 10:08:38 1996 Date: Fri, 31 May 1996 07:38:06 -0700 (PDT) To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Michael_Kenny@sfu.ca (Michael Kenny) Subject: more on salt The growth of trade networks around salt deposits, and the possible evolutionary significance of these networks for the emergence of state structures is an important historical theme. There is a considerable literature on this topic concerning Africa, one that I became attuned to in finding that local production of salt is still going on along the shores of Lake Victoria in SW Kenya; oral historical sources indicated a very widespread pre-colonial network of canoe-borne trade in salt and other commodities around the Lake (Kenny, 'Pre-Colonial Trade in Eastern Lake Victoria,' Azania 14: 97-107 (1979)). Other important deposits are found in western Uganda. If memory serves Venice grew up around lagoons in which it was possible to evaporate sea-salt, and likewise that there was extensive trans-Saharan trade emanating from the Lake Chad area. Michael G. Kenny Dept. of Sociology & Anthropology Simon Fraser University Burnaby, B.C. V5A 1S6; Canada Michael_Kenny@sfu.ca phone: (604) 291-4270 fax: (604) 291-5799 _______________________________________________________________________________ Darwin-L Message Log 33: 1-42 -- May 1996 End
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