Darwin-L Message Log 36: 31–63 — August 1996
Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences
Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.
This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during August 1996. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”
--------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 36: 31-63 -- AUGUST 1996 --------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L A Network Discussion Group on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu is an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Darwin-L was established in September 1993 to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among academic professionals in these fields. Darwin-L is not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin but instead addresses the entire range of historical sciences from an interdisciplinary perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical anthropology, historical geography, and related "palaetiological" fields. This log contains public messages posted to Darwin-L during August 1996. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and some administrative messages and personal messages posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster. The master copy of this log is maintained on the Darwin-L Web Server at http://rjohara.uncg.edu. For instructions on how to retrieve copies of this and other log files, and for additional information about Darwin-L and the historical sciences, connect to the Darwin-L Web Server or send the e-mail message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com. Darwin-L is administered by Robert J. O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org), Center for Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A., and it is supported by the Center for Critical Inquiry, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and the Department of History and the Academic Computing Center, University of Kansas. _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:31>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sat Aug 24 22:12:35 1996 Date: Sat, 24 Aug 1996 23:12:30 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Apologies for the delay To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Apologies for the delay in sending out Darwin-L messages over the past week. I have been preoccupied with the reopening of the university and my own college, and this has led me to fall far behind. (Pay us a visit at http://strong.uncg.edu if you like.) I hope to get the backlog of messages cleared up shortly. We still seem to be having the mysterious problem of messages from the past being resurrected by the listserv software; how this happens I do not know, but fortunately it is infrequent. I will try to see if a solution can be found to it. The school year is beginning for many of us around the world. If any Darwin-L members are teaching unusual interdisciplinary courses in the historical sciences we would be delighted to hear about them. Any courses combining linguistics and evolution out there, or geology and civil history, or any other palaetiological combination? Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Robert J. O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) | Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building | http://rjohara.uncg.edu University of North Carolina at Greensboro | http://strong.uncg.edu Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. | _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:32>From email@example.com Fri Aug 16 17:27:46 1996 From: Joe Felsenstein <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Re: Kuhn on NPR (pwd) To: email@example.com Date: Fri, 16 Aug 1996 15:36:54 -0700 (PDT) Dawn Ogden forwarded this to darwin-l (which Dan Garber sent to another list): > Tomorrow (Friday) at 3 eastern time there will be a radio broadcast > centering on the work of Thomas Kuhn. It will be on Science Friday, part of > NPR's "Talk of the Nation" series, a live call-in show. The guests will be > myself and David Sloan Wilson, a biologist known for his work on group > selection, which he thinks constitutes a scientific revolution, I am told. Some months ago I noted here that Kuhn's work led to a lot of young scientists who tried to make their mark by founding new paradigms, assuming that otherwise they would be known as mere dullards. I got some reactions from people in other fields saying that they never noticed this phenomenon. It was noticeable in evolutionary biology, and it is nice to have Garber's post as evidence ... I'm sorry to have had to miss that broadcast. -- Joe Felsenstein firstname.lastname@example.org (IP No. 188.8.131.52) Dept. of Genetics, Univ. of Washington, Box 357360, Seattle, WA 98195-7360 USA _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:33>From RAC7@aol.com Sat Aug 17 13:23:49 1996 Date: Sat, 17 Aug 1996 14:23:46 -0400 From: RAC7@aol.com To: email@example.com Subject: "This view of life..." Darwin-Listers I have encountered two different versions of the oft-quoted last sentence in The Origin. They are: "There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved." and the second "There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being, evolved." The only difference being the reference to the Creator in the second version. My question is: Which of these two quotations is the earlier of the two? It would seem to me that the second quotation which makes reference to the Creator must be from an earlier edition, since , as I understand it, Darwin originally believed in a Creator and was also an admirer of Paley's Natural Theology, but made a shift toward agnosticism later in life. Can anyone fill me in on the story behind the change in wording here. I would also appreciate any refs that might be helpful. Thanks Bob Cooper _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:34>From HANSS@sepa.tudelft.nl Mon Aug 19 07:17:20 1996 From: "Hans-Cees Speel" <HANSS@sepa.tudelft.nl> Organization: TU Delft To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Mon, 19 Aug 1996 14:19:40 MET Subject: biology and philosophy/adress request Dear Darwinners, I am looking for an adress of the journal 'biology and philosophy'. Do they have an internet adress, or does anyone know editors with an internet adress? Sorry for the inconveniance, greetings Hans-Cees Theories come and go, the frog stays [F. Jacob] ------------------------------------------------------- |Hans-Cees Speel School of Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis and management |Technical Univ. Delft, Jaffalaan 5 2600 GA Delft PO Box 5015 The Netherlands |telephone +3115785776 telefax +3115783422 E-mail email@example.com HTTP://www.sepa.tudelft.nl/~afd_ba/hanss.html featuring evolution and memetics! _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:35>From firstname.lastname@example.org Sat Aug 24 23:18:20 1996 Date: Sat, 24 Aug 1996 23:18:19 -0500 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Jonathan Marks) Subject: Re: "This view of life..." "...by the Creator.." was an addition, not a subtraction. It was made, I believe, to the second edition, to show that the ideas therein were compatible with deism and not necessarily atheistic. Just goes to show, establishing polarities can be tricky! --Jon Marks -- Jon Marks _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:36>From email@example.com Sat Aug 24 23:20:11 1996 Date: Sat, 24 Aug 1996 23:20:10 -0500 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Jonathan Marks) Subject: Re: Rushton, evolution, eugenics, and Africa >As a further link in this chain, Baker dedicates his book to C.P. Blacker, >a leading member of the British eugenics movement (cf. Kevles, *In the Name >of Eugenics*). So the intellectual lineage is fairly clear. What I would >like to know most particularly, is: Who was J.R. Baker, and how did he come >by these theories? But, beyond this, I would much appreciate whatever >insights anyone might be willing to offer about this and related questions. I think John R. Baker was a South African physician. -- Jon Marks _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:37>From firstname.lastname@example.org Sun Aug 25 00:10:39 1996 Date: Sat, 24 Aug 1996 19:10:13 -1000 From: Ron Amundson <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: "This view of life..." Reference to the Creator inserted into the Second Edition; the First Edition had no reference to the Creator. Also consider: "There is a simple grandeur in the view of life with its powers of growth, assimilation and reproduction, being originally breathed into matter under one or a few forms, and that whilst this our planet has gone according to fixed laws, and land and water, in a cycle of change, have gone on replacing each other, that from so simple an origin, ..." Essay of 1842. "There is a [simple] grandeur in the view of life with its several powers off growth, reproduction and of sensation, having been originally breathed into matter under a few forms, perhaps into only one..." Essay of 1844. Darwin sure liked this elegant passage. I wonder where he got the idea. Was it, ... could it have been, ... ~~SATAN~~ (or a natural theologian, close enough) "There is extreme grandeur in the thought of an anticipating or prospective intelligence; in reflecting that what was finally accomplished in man, was begun in times incalculably remote, and antecendent to the great revolutions which the earths surface has undergone. ... If we seek to discover the relations of things, how sublime is the relation established between that state of the earth's surface, which has resulted from a long succession of revolutions, and the final condition of its inhabitants as created in accordance with the change." Charles Bell, _The Hand: It's Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design, Bridgewater Treatise IV, 1833, read by Darwin in 1838. The idea of "grandeur" and the emphasis on a long and stately process of change are pretty similar. Of course Bell endorsed the modern notion of an ancient earth, even though he was an anti-evolutionist. So in a way he may have had similar needs to Darwin -- defuse the anger of the conservatives, who (in Bell's case) were still in favor of a literal reading of Genesis. Darwin's desire to defuse anger is apparent from the Creator's appearance (Deus ex editorial revision) in the 2nd Edition. Recapitulation just keeps going around. Ron __ Ron Amundson University of Hawaii at Hilo ronald@Hawaii.Edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:38>From maisel@SDSC.EDU Sun Aug 25 07:16:59 1996 Date: Sun, 25 Aug 1996 05:16:54 -0700 (PDT) From: Merry Maisel <maisel@SDSC.EDU> To: Michael Kenny <Michael_Kenny@sfu.ca> Cc: email@example.com Subject: Re: Rushton, evolution, eugenics, and Africa From MELVYL, the UC catalogue (available online to the public), it seems that, whatever he was, J.R. Baker was prolific. These are the books listed for him and their publication dates. 20. BAKER, John Randal, 1900- Abraham Trembley of Geneva,. 1952 21. The biology of parasitic protozoa. 1982 22. The cell theory : a restatement,... 1988 23. The chemical control of conception. 1935 24. The controversy on freedom in... 1962 25. Cytological technique,. 1933 26. Cytological technique; the... 1950 27. Cytological technique; the... 1945 28. Cytological technique; the... 1960 29. Cytological technique: the... 1966 30. Freedom and authority in scientific... 1953 31. Freedom in research. 1957 32. The freedom of science. 1975 33. Freiheit und Wissenschaft. 1950 34. Julian Huxley, scientist and world... 1978 35. Man and animals in the New Hebrides,. 1929 36. A new chemical contraceptive,. 1938 37. Principles of biological... 1958 36. A new chemical contraceptive,. 1938 37. Principles of biological... 1958 38. Race. 1974 39. Race. 1981 40. Science and the planned state,. 1945 41. Science and the planned state,. 1945 42. Science and the sputniks. 1958 43. The scientific life,. 1943 44. The scientific life. 1944 45. Sex in man and animals,. 1926 46. Sex in man and animals. 1926 47. Sir Arthur Tansley, 1871-1955. 1955 fyi. Merry Maisel firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:39>From email@example.com Sun Aug 25 10:53:54 1996 Date: Sun, 25 Aug 1996 16:53:33 +0100 (BST) To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: Rob Kruszynski <email@example.com> Subject: Re: "This view of life..." Bob, I checked all editions except the fourth : 1st 1859 : no reference to Creator in final sentence 2nd 1860 (so-called 'American') : ditto also 2nd 1860 : with ref to Creator 3rd 1861 : ditto (i.e. with 'Creator') 4th : no access to . . . 5th : 1869 : ditto 6th : 1872 & 1882 & 1894 etc : ditto So it the reverse of what you think ! All editions after the second in effect are a watering down of Darwin's original thinking it is sometimes said and maybe that is right in this case. Perhaps for what Darwin really thought on religion you should refer to the unexpurgated ediution of his 1876 autobiography - but only published in full in 1958 - edited by Nora Barlow. You might also profit from reading Janet Browne's 1995 biography of Darwin called Darwin Vol 1 : Voyaging (publ. by Random House). There is also a variorum text of the six editions of Origin but I don't have the ref for it. Regards, Robert Kruszynski ******************************************************** From: Robert Kruszynski, Human Origins Group, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, U.K. Tel.: 00 44 (0) 171 938 8711 or 00 44 (0) 171 938 9270 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Fax: 00 44 (0) 171 938 9277 _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:40>From email@example.com Sun Aug 25 17:02:05 1996 Date: 25 Aug 1996 15:05:10 U From: "Charlie Urbanowicz" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Darwin + "Creator" To: email@example.com Cc: "Donna Crowe" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Hello Bob: The first quote, without the "Creator" appeared in the 1st edition of ORIGIN; in the 2nd edition of 1860 (and all subsequent editions), CD added the "Creator" term; the definitive line-by-line comparison of the six editions comes from Morse Peckham's labor of love (no other phrase comes to mind) published in 1959: THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY CHARLES DARWIN: A VARIORUM TEXT (U of Penn press). Incidentally, according to my notes (since I do not own Peckham and can only get it on inter-library loan, I believe Darwin had a "comma" between "being, evolved" in the 1st edition and eliminated it, having it read "being evolved" by the 6th edition. [That is the LEVEL of detail by Peckham!!] It is VERY interesting, from my perspective, to see who cites what edition and try to deduce what purpose they are citing it for! (In VOYAGE, Darwin writes of the "God of Nature" in that book.) If you care to send me a mailing address, I will ship out a paper on Darwin that I distribute to my senior seminar [I hope to get it on my WEB site this semester]. [Along with our Media Center, I am also working on an instructional videotape where I portray Darwin in the first person - we've shot about eight hours and hope to finish it this semester.] Happy reading, and do try and get a copy of Peckham. Charlie [Urbanowicz] email@example.com [http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/ and http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/resume.html] _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:41>From JCG@attach.edu.ar Sun Aug 25 18:38:22 1996 From: Juan Carlos Garelli <JCG@attach.edu.ar> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Sun, 25 Aug 1996 16:22:40 -0300 Subject: Re: biology and philosophy/adress request Organization: Attachment Research Center Biology and Philosophy Journal is published by the University of Calgary Press. Its e.mail address is: email@example.com You can also find it on the Web at: Web: http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP HTH, JCG _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:42>From firstname.lastname@example.org Sun Aug 25 20:15:40 1996 Date: Sun, 25 Aug 1996 19:15:37 -0600 (MDT) From: Bryant <email@example.com> To: Michael Kenny <Michael_Kenny@sfu.ca> Cc: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: Rushton, evolution, eugenics, and Africa Michael Kenny said of Rushton's writings: > Africans and people of African descent come off badly in all this. They are > seen as r-selective in reproductive strategy, the males sowing their seeds > where they may; This in of itself isn't "bad" unless one is looking through a rather ethnocentric lense. Low investment reproductive tactics are rather adaptive under certain circumstances, no? >in Rushton's view they are unstable, undependable, > hypersexual, crime-ridden, and stupid (as opposed to e.g. 'Mongoloids' with > their strong and K-selective sense of family values). As for "stupid," although I am not a fan of Rushton's, I feel that it should be pointed out that he never uses such terminology, and that he points to a well-accepted, widely documented mean difference between black and white humans' IQs. Rushton prematurely seeks an adaptationist explanation for the difference, at least in my view, because most of the black populations he cites are impoverished, and may suffer from substandard developmental conditions. Developmental instability of the impoverished, rather than race per se, may be the cause of the differences in IQ between ethnic groups. Lynn and others have, I believe, shown that malnutrition correlates with low IQ. Likewise, Nokes showed that parasitized children have lower IQs which can be brought to normal levels with antibiotics (!). (I'll chase down refs for anybody who is interested.) Bryant _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:43>From email@example.com Mon Aug 26 06:18:52 1996 From: "Hans-Cees Speel" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Organization: TU Delft To: email@example.com Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 13:30:42 +0000 Subject: references on evolutionary linguistics Dear Darwinners, I am looking for references on evolutionary approaches in linguistics, prefferably references that everyone agrees are good ones:-) thank you everyone that responded to my question on biology and philosophy. greetings, Hans-Cees Theories come and go, the frog stays [F. Jacob] ------------------------------------------------------- |Hans-Cees Speel School of Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis and management |Technical Univ. Delft, Jaffalaan 5 2600 GA Delft PO Box 5015 The Netherlands |telephone +3115785776 telefax +3115783422 E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org HTTP://www.sepa.tudelft.nl/~afd_ba/hanss.html featuring evolution and memetics! _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:44>From email@example.com Mon Aug 26 09:00:45 1996 From: Mary P Winsor <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Biology & Philosophy To: email@example.com (bulletin board) Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 10:00:45 -0400 (EDT) The journal "Biology and Philosophy" is published by D. Reidel, a part of Kluwer Academic Publishers: http:/www.wkap.nl It is edited by Michael Ruse, Dept of Philosophy and Zoology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 Canada. Polly Winsor firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:45>From email@example.com Mon Aug 26 10:00:58 1996 Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 11:01:31 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Jeremy C. Ahouse) Subject: Re: biology and philosophy/adress request >Biology and Philosophy Journal is published by the University of >Calgary Press. Its e.mail address is: > > firstname.lastname@example.org > >You can also find it on the Web at: > > Web: http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP Actually it is published by Kluwer. They have a presence on the web: gopher://Gopher.wkap.nl:70/11gopher_root%3A%5B_submit._jrnl.biph%5D - Jeremy Jeremy C. Ahouse Biology Department Brandeis University Waltham, MA 02254-9110 ph: (617) 736-4954 fax: (617) 736-2405 email: email@example.com web: http://www.rose.brandeis.edu/users/simister/pages/Ahouse _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:46>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Aug 27 22:59:59 1996 Date: Tue, 27 Aug 1996 23:59:53 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Re: references on evolutionary linguistics To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Hans-Cees Speel asks about references for evolutionary approaches to linguistics. I suspect he may be looking for works that treat languages populationally, as in population genetics; but if phylogenetic approaches to linguistics are of interest there is a bibliography on "trees of history" on the Files page of the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu). This bibliography includes quite a few works on the problems of phylogenetic inference and genealogical representation in linguistics, systematics, and stemmatics. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner University of North Carolina at Greensboro email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:47>From firstname.lastname@example.org Mon Aug 26 13:02:30 1996 Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 14:03:06 -0400 To: email@example.com (Darwin List) From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Jeremy C. Ahouse) Subject: short animation DarwinL, this site has a wonderful short animation of development/evolution. http://stripe.Colorado.EDU/~evodevo/Hanken.html - Jeremy Jeremy C. Ahouse Biology Department Brandeis University Waltham, MA 02254-9110 ph: (617) 736-4954 fax: (617) 736-2405 email: email@example.com web: http://www.rose.brandeis.edu/users/simister/pages/Ahouse _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:48>From firstname.lastname@example.org Mon Aug 26 19:40:57 1996 Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 19:40:52 -0500 From: Sheldon Klein <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Linguistics/Evolution course per O'Hara's query Bob O'Hara asks, >If any Darwin-L members are teaching unusual interdisciplinary courses in the >historical sciences we would be delighted to hear about them. Any courses >combining linguistics and evolution out there, or geology and civil history, >or any other palaetiological combination? I taught a Linguistics Dept. topics course last Spring that seems to match your query. Attached is a course description, a reading list (paper) and URLs leading to search engines, related areas, and selected readings available on the WEB. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Linguistics 373: Analogy in Language, Culture & Cognition. Spring 96. The role of analogy in phonology-morphology-syntax-semantics, in sociocultural-symbolic systems, and in contemporary models of human cognition, including a survey of very recent neurolinguistic research results that contradict Chomsky's views about the innate and unique nature of the brain structures involved in human language. MW 2:25 590 Van Hise 3cr. Sheldon Klein __________________________________________________________________________ Prereq.: background in Linguistics or Anthropology or Psychology or Logic or Folklore, or consent of instructor. TEXTBOOKS FOR LINGUISTICS 373 (Paperbound preferred-- 10 copies each) Instructor: Prof. Sheldon Klein Linguistics Dept. (& Computer Sciences Dept.) 1102 Van Hise Home phone: 271-8140 e-mail: email@example.com (Home phone is best at this time of the year) LINGUISTICS 373: ANALOGY IN LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND COGNITION Carr, Phillip 1993. Phonology. New York: St. Martins. Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Levi-Strauss, Claude 1966. The Savage Mind. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Levi-Strauss, Claude The Raw and the Cooked. Lieberman, Philip 1991. Uniquely Human: The Evolution of Speech, Thought, and Selfless Behavior. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass. & London. Pinker, Steven 1994. The Language Instinct. Allen Lane, The Penguin Press: London. Propp, V. 1968. Morphology of the Folktale. Austin: University of Texas Press. Whorf, Benjamin Lee (ed., J. B. Carroll). 1956. Language Thought and Reality. MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass. >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> Readings will include: __________________________________________________________________ [An IN PRESS series of articles to appear in the journal, BEHAVIORAL & BRAIN SCIENCES] Bickerton, Derek 1990. Language and Species. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Carr, Phillip 1993. Phonology. New York: St. Martins. Collins, A., Gathercole, S. & Badderley, A. 1993. Theories of Memory. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Earlbaum. Durkheim, Emile and Marcel Mauss (translated by Rodney Needham) 1963. Primitive Classification. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Eco, Umberto 1995. The Search for the Perfect Language. Oxford: Blackwell. Gathercole, Susan E. & Badderley, Alan D. 1993. Working Memory and Language. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Earlbaum. Gibson, Kathleen R. and Tim Ingold (Editors) 1993. Tools, Language and Cognition in Human Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Gill, Sam D. 1981. Sacred Words: a study of Navajo religion and prayer. Greenwood Press: Westport,Conn. & London. Goffman, Erving. 1974. Frame analysis : an essay on the organization Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass. Haas, Mary 1978. Language, Culture, and History. Stanford: Stanford U. Press. Karmiloff-Smith, Annette. 1992. Beyond Modularity: A developmental perspective on Cognitive Science. Cambridge: MIT Press. King, Barbara J. 1994. The Information Continuum: Evolution of Social Information Transfer in Monkeys, Apes, and Hominids. University of Washington Press: Seattle (for School of American Research Press). Lakoff, George 1987. Women, Fire and Dangerous Things: What categories reveal about the mind. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lieberman, Philip 1991. Uniquely Human: The Evolution of Speech, Thought, and Selfless Behavior. Harvard University Press: Cambridge,Mass. & London. Lucy, John A. 1992. Grammatical Categories and Cognition: a case study of the linguistic relativity hypothesis. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. Levi-Strauss, Claude 1969. The Elementary Structures of Kinship. Beacon Press: Boston. Levi-Strauss, Claude 1963. Structural Anthropology. Basic Books, Inc: New York. Levi-Strauss, Claude 1966. The Savage Mind. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. Mellars, Paul & Chris Stringer 1989. The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans. Piaget, Jean. Six Psychological Studies. [Six Etudes de Psychologie. Editions Gonthier S.A.: Geneva, 1964; Random House, 1967.]. Harvester Press:Brighton, Sussex. Pinker, Steven 1994. The Language Instinct. Allen Lane, The Penguin Press: London. Propp, V. 1968. Morphology of the Folktale. Austin: University of Texas Press. Schacter, Daniel L. & Endel Tulving, editors. 1994. Memory Systems. MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, London. Schele, Linda and Mary Ellen Miller. 1986. The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art. George Braziller, Inc.: New York in association with Kimbell Art Museum: Fort Worth. Seltman, Muriel & Peter Seltman. 1985. Piaget's Logic: A critique of genetic epistemology. George Allen & Unwin: London. Tyler, Stephen A. (ed.) 1987 . Cognitive Anthropology. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press. Whorf, Benjamin Lee (ed., J. B. Carroll). 1956. Language Thought and Reality. MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass. ______________________________________________________________________________ Linkname: Super Spider Filename: http://www.altavista.digital.com/ Linkname: Artificial Intelligence Filename: http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~shavlik/uwai.html Linkname: Computational Linguistics Filename: http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/iiip/nlp.html Natural Language Processing URL: http://sigart.acm.org/ai/subject.html#natlang Linkname: Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences Filename: http://www.cog.brown.edu/ PAPERS FOR THE CLASS TO READ LATER IN THE TERM Linkname: Precis of ORIGINS OF THE MODERN MIND: Filename: http://cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~bbs/Archive/bbs.donald.html Linkname: CO-EVOLUTION OF NEOCORTEX SIZE, GROUP SIZE AND LANGUAGE IN Filename: http://cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~bbs/Archive/bbs.dunbar.html Linkname: INNATENESS, AUTONOMY, UNIVERSALITY? NEUROBIOLOGICAL APPROACHES Filename: http://cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~bbs/Archive/bbs.mueller.html Linkname: BRAIN EVOLUTION AND NEUROLINGUISTIC PRECONDITIONS Filename: http://cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~bbs/Archive/bbs.wilkins.html Linkname: Precis of: Beyond Modularity: A Developmental Perspective on Filename: ftp://ftp.princeton.edu/pub/harnad/BBS/.WWW/bbs.karmsmith.html __________________________________________________________________ Prof. Sheldon Klein firstname.lastname@example.org Computer Sciences Dept. Linguistics Dept. University of Wisconsin 1163 Van Hise 1210 W. Dayton St. University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin 53706 Madison, Wisconsin 53706 USA __________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:49>From email@example.com Tue Aug 27 23:52:52 1996 Date: Tue, 27 Aug 1996 22:49:24 -0600 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Sherman Wilcox) Subject: Re: references on evolutionary linguistics >I am looking for references on evolutionary approaches in linguistics Let me supply one that most people will not be aware of. I am pleased to announce a new journal, published by John Benjamins Publishing Co. (Amsterdam), called "Evolution of Communication." The focus of this journal is on cross-disciplinary approaches to the study of evolution of communication across various species, including but certainly not limited to the evolution of human language. We intend the journal to have a wide scope, including theoretical and empirical studies, from a variety of disciplines including linguistics, biology, anthropology, primatology, developmental and evolutionary psychology, artificial life, neuroscience, and cognitive science. The editorial board currently includes: Barbara J. King, U.S. Associate Editor (primatology) Luc Steels, European Associate Editor (artificial life) David Armstrong (physical anthropology) Bennett Galef (psychology, social learning in animals) Kathleen Gibson (evolution of cognition and language) John Haiman (linguistics) Christine Johnson (cognitive science, primatology) Michael Ryan (evolutionary biology) Chris Sinha (psychology) Eors Szathmary (evolutionary biology) Michael Tomasello (psychology) Anne Zeller (primatology) I am General Editor for the journal. The first issues of "Evolution of Communication" will appear in 1997. We of course invite articles from readers of DARWIN-L. There is a small WWW site (which I hope to expand soon) for the journal at: http://www.unm.edu/~wilcox/EOC ---------------------------- Sherman Wilcox Dept. of Linguistics University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM 87131 firstname.lastname@example.org ---------------------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:50>From email@example.com Sun Aug 25 22:10:49 1996 Date: Sun, 25 Aug 1996 22:10:48 -0500 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Jonathan Marks) Subject: Re: Rushton, evolution, eugenics, and Africa >As for "stupid," although I am not a fan of Rushton's, I feel that it >should be pointed out that he never uses such terminology, and that he >points to a well-accepted, widely documented mean difference between >black and white humans' IQs. Insofar as Rushton takes IQ to be a measure of innate intelligence, it probably is proper to infer "stupid" for lower mean IQ when explaining his views. >Rushton prematurely seeks an adaptationist explanation for the >difference, at least in my view, because most of the black populations he >cites are impoverished, and may suffer from substandard developmental >conditions. Developmental instability of the impoverished, rather than >race per se, may be the cause of the differences in IQ between ethnic groups. In humans, of course, reproductive rate is highly sensitive to economics. As people enter the middle class, they tend to curb their reproduction. Likewise as countries develop economically. The relation to evolutionary biology of reproduction is strictly metaphorical. -- Jon Marks _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:51>From firstname.lastname@example.org Mon Aug 26 15:06:22 1996 Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 16:05:53 +0500 To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (paul handford) Subject: Re: Rushton, evolution, eugenics, and Africa >I think John R. Baker was a South African physician. > --Jon Marks John Baker was a member of the zoology department at Oxford University. He was primarily a cytologist by profession. paul handford ecology & evolution group zoology department university of western ontario LONDON, ON, N6A 5B7 CANADA 519-661-3149 FAX 519-661-2014 http://www.uwo.ca/zoo/handford.html http://www.uwo.ca/zoo/tvi.html (TVI's page) Every man will dispute with great good humour upon a subject in which he is not interested. Samuel Johnson. _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:52>From email@example.com Mon Aug 26 17:02:30 1996 Date: Tue, 27 Aug 1996 08:05:15 +0000 (WET) From: "Gary M. Heathcote" <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: email@example.com Subject: Re: DARWIN-L digest 665 Re: "Who was J.R. Baker,....." > >As a further link in this chain, Baker dedicates his book to C.P. Blacker, > >a leading member of the British eugenics movement (cf. Kevles, *In the Name > >of Eugenics*). So the intellectual lineage is fairly clear. What I would > >like to know most particularly, is: Who was J.R. Baker, and how did he come > >by these theories? But, beyond this, I would much appreciate whatever > >insights anyone might be willing to offer about this and related questions. In a book review of _Race_ (1974), Stanley Garn describes Baker as a "retired reader in cytology at Oxford", but this is nothing beyond that which appears on the dust jacket of Baker's book. Garn's review (Am. J. Physical Anthrop. 44(3):530-532, 1976) is highly informed in all other respects, however. Consider, e.g., the following passage: "Clearly, John R. Baker has put a great deal of effort into compiling _Race_, from the 82 illustrations .... to the 1,181 references (most of them a century old). He has read widely, though not necessarily wisely, and there is no particular evidence in the text or in the references to personal familiarity with the subject-matter at hand,..." Garn concludes with "Baker adopts the now-it-can-be-told line of presentation, he hints at a conspiracy of silence (which he has the unique courage to break), and he refrains from predicting the end of the world. Baker clearly believes that some dogs are smarter than some Englishmen and this is a good place to stop." Gary Heathcote Univeristy of Guam <firstname.lastname@example.org> _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:53>From RUSHTON@SSCL.UWO.CA Mon Aug 26 17:12:30 1996 Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 18:10:52 -0500 (EST) From: RUSHTON@SSCL.UWO.CA Subject: Rushton's Race Evolution and Behavior To: DARWIN-L@UKANAIX.CC.UKANS.EDU Phil Rushton here as a recent joiner of the List after seeing a discussion of my book on race differences. Hopefully needless to say there is much overlap of all racial distributions. My own data show that black officers in the US Army have larger crania and higher IQs than do White enlisted personnel. The Bell Curve showed that blacks (and whites) with IQs of 117 went on to professional careers whereas blacks (and whites) with IQs of 100 did not. The flashpoint for discussion, of course, is that the distributions of cranial size and IQ for blacks are offset lower than the ones for whites (by 110 cubic centimeters and 15 points, respectively). Fascinatingly, Asians average about 17 cm3 more cranial size and 5 IQ points more than do whites). Even more fascinating is that the same racial averages occur on over 60 other variables including non obvious ones like speed of dental development (blacks fastest, Orientals slowest), two-egg twinning rates (per 1,000 live births for blacks, 16, whites, 8, orientals, 4), and sex hormones like testosterone (blacks most, Orientals least), No one denies the importance of the environment effects like nutrition, tape worms, medical care , etc. My own behavior genetic studies of cranial size suggests a 50 percent heritability and a 50 percent environmental contribution. But the consistency of the racial pattern on so many variables suggests an evolutionary process, Charles Darwin certainly believed in racial differences in cranial size and temperament (blacks talkative, Amerindians tactiturn, Orientals placid). So did his cousin Francis Glaton. Do did Harvard zoologist J.R. Baker (cited in previous postings). In fact EVERYONE did until PC after WW2 made it disappear from the scientific radar screen. It is political equalitarianism that denies it, not the data which are indisputible and have been for 100 years. When history is written it will be a major challeng to explain how something "known to science" was lost...all in a democracy using self restraint. I know of no other example of something being "lost" to science in this way. Darwin would surely sigh with sadness. _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:54>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed Aug 28 13:19:56 1996 Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 14:19:49 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: CFP: Naturalism conference (fwd) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- CALL FOR PAPERS (Revised 8/27/96) Naturalism, Theism and the Scientific Enterprise An Interdisciplinary Conference at the University of Texas -- Austin Feb. 20-23, 1997 Sponsored by the UT Philosophy Dept. Invited speakers include Michael Ruse (Philosophy, University of Guelph, author of Darwinism Defended), Alvin Plantinga (Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, author of Warrant and Proper Function), Frederick Grinnell (UT Southwestern Medical Center, author of The Scientific Attitude), and Phillip Johnson (Law School, UC-Berkeley, author of Darwin on Trial and Reason in the Balance). The conference is dedicated to fostering dialogue between naturalists and theists on the impact of social and philosophical predispositions on the development, interpretation and presentation of scientific knowledge. Our goal is to have a program balanced between defenders and critics of naturalism in science. We encourage submissions from all of the natural sciences, as well as from philosophy, history and sociology of science. Suggested topics: * Does the scientific method exclude appeals to supernatural agency? * Is there a distinction between methodological and ontological naturalism? * What do case studies in the history of science reveal about the role of naturalism or theism in advancing or retarding the progress of science? * Does the plausibility of Darwinism and of naturalistic theories of the origin of life depend on a prior commitment to naturalism? Can the scientific merits of naturalistic and theistic explanations be compared? *Can theistic (directed) evolution or the appeal to cosmic design be testable scientific hypotheses? If so, does the available evidence weigh for or against such conjectures? * Is there a demarcation line between science and theology? Are "natural theology" and "theistic science" oxymorons? * What social, political and educational factors influence the direction of research and the presentation of science to the public? Abstracts should be less than 500 words and should be submitted electronically to Prof. Robert Koons (firstname.lastname@example.org) in one of the following formats: * RTF or ASCII * PostScript * LaTeX Deadlines: Nov. 1 -- submission of abstracts Dec. 1 -- notification of authors. Jan. 15 -- submission of full papers. Abstracts, papers, and conference information will be posted on our web site: http://www.dla.utexas.edu/depts/philosophy/faculty/koons/ntse/main.html Abstracts and inquiries can be sent to Prof. Robert Koons at: email@example.com --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:55>From C9WILSON@a1.stthomas.edu Wed Aug 28 09:44:29 1996 Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 09:43:11 -0600 (CST) From: Chester Wilson 962-5234 <C9WILSON@a1.stthomas.edu> Subject: how about those references? To: firstname.lastname@example.org bryant (email@example.com) said: >Lynn and others have, I believe, shown that malnutrition correlates with >low IQ. Likewise, Nokes showed that parasitized children have lower IQs >which can be brought to normal levels with antibiotics (!). (I'll chase >down refs for anybody who is interested.) Well, now that you offer, I would be interested in such references, especially those about parasitized children, IQ, and antibiotics. Chester Wilson (firstname.lastname@example.org) biology University of St. Thomas St. Paul, MN 55105 USA _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:56>From email@example.com Wed Aug 28 11:49:56 1996 Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 12:47:47 -0400 (EDT) To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Jon Marks) Subject: Re: Rushton's Race Evolution and Behavior > When history is written it will be a major challeng to explain how >something "known to science" was lost...all in a democracy using self >restraint. I know of no other example of something being "lost" to >science in this way. Darwin would surely sigh with sadness. Things "known to science" disappear all the time; that's how the field progresses. It used to be "known to science" that the sun goes around the earth, based on the most fundamental evidence: visual, autoptic examination. But recognizing that the sun doesn't actually go around the earth was a major advance for science. --Jon Marks _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:57>From WCalvin@U.Washington.edu Wed Aug 28 14:29:33 1996 Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 12:27:48 -0700 From: "William H. Calvin" <WCalvin@U.Washington.edu> Organization: University of Washington To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Evolution AND Language Derek Bickerton's 1995 book LANGUAGE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR (U of Washington Press 1995) is also relevant, as is pp.147ff of Dan Dennett's new KINDS OF MINDS (BasicBooks 1996) in the Science Masters series. The Edinburgh conference on language evolution last April (http://www.ling.ed.ac.uk/~evoconf/) is full of good stuff, and we just put on a symposium at the Budapest evolutionary biology meetings (http://caesar.elte.hu/ICSEB5/neszi/szi02.htm) on the topic. Bickerton, by the way, has a new (as of Budapest last week; not in either book) theory for a noncommunicative aspect of language origins, namely the role of verb arguments in keeping track of credit assignments for reciprocal altruism. I've got two new books coming out in late September that both address language and evolutionary processes. HOW BRAINS THINK: Evolving Intelligence, Then and Now, in the Science Masters series (BasicBooks in the US), is more about intelligence but chapter 5 addresses language per se. THE CEREBRAL CODE: Thinking a Thought in the Mosaics of the Mind (MIT Press 1996) isn't directly about hominid evolution but concerns the milliseconds-to-minutes neural processes for thought and language, especially the ones that use a speeded-up version of the same darwinian process used by species evolution and the immune response. My home page (URL below) has links to both books, plus a link to my chapter in the Gibson 1993 book mentioned earlier. -- William H. Calvin WCalvin@U.Washington.edu http://weber.u.washington.edu/~wcalvin/ _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:58>From RAC7@aol.com Wed Aug 28 16:35:49 1996 Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 17:35:43 -0400 From: RAC7@aol.com To: email@example.com Subject: Re: "This view of life..." Darwin-L'ers Thank you for all of the responses on Darwin's reference to the Creator. The responses were fascinating and very helpful. Bob Cooper RAC7@AOL.COM _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:59>From firstname.lastname@example.org Thu Aug 29 06:37:44 1996 From: Danny Fagandini <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: CFP: Naturalism conference (fwd) Date: Thu, 29 Aug 1996 10:17:25 BST DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu wrote: > Naturalism Conference Would someone please supply a definition of Naturalism as intended by the sponsors of this conference? Thanks. -- danny email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:60>From firstname.lastname@example.org Thu Aug 29 09:20:54 1996 Date: Thu, 29 Aug 1996 10:21:30 -0400 To: email@example.com (Darwin List) From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Jeremy C. Ahouse) Subject: 2 books (FYI) Hi DarwinL, I sent part of this along earlier but it never showed up in mail box so I don't know if it made it to the listserv. I just finished reading the end of Kitcher's book on the Human Genome Project. Any of you who are teaching a genetics class or an ethics class may want to use his closing chapter as a reading in your course. It is a nice summary of some of the issues. Kitcher, Philip (1996) The lives to come : the genetic revolution and human possibilities. Simon & Schuster Now in a very different vein; from the preface of Bender's new book (The descent of love); My chief purposes in _The Descent of Love_ are to show, contrary to accepted literary history, that American writers began a vigorous response to Darwinian thought in the early 1870s, when they first felt what Freud called "the biological blow" that Darwin had dealt to "to human narcissism"; that, writing of courtship and marriage after Darwin's _The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex_ (1871), they were much more interested in his theory of sexual selection than his more famous theory of natural selection; that the complication of sexual seelction itself, together with the complex of evolutionary questions during the years I survey here, resulted in various forms of literary Darwinism that are far more subtle and interesting than the simple kind of "Darwinism" that literary historians describe in the work of Frank Norris, Jack London, and Theodore Dreiser; that American novels of courtship and marriage continued to draw on Darwin's theory of sexual selection throughout the first quarter of the 20th century; and that between 1871 and 1926 American novelist's views of sexual love became increasingly violent and dark. Author: Bender, Bert. Title: The descent of love : Darwin and the theory of sexual selection in American fiction, 1871-1926 / Bert Bender. Published: Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, c1996. Description: xvi, 440 p. : ill. ; 24 cm. LC Call No.: PS374.L6 B46 1996 Dewey No.: 813/.409354 20 ISBN: 0812233441 (alk. paper) Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p. -419) and index. Subjects: American fiction -- 19th century -- History and criticism. Love stories, American -- History and criticism. American fiction -- 20th century -- History and criticism. Literature and science -- United States -- History. Man-woman relationships in literature. Darwin, Charles, -- 1809-1882 -- Influence. American fiction -- English influences. Evolution (Biology) in literature. Mate selection in literature. Courtship in literature. Love in literature. Sex in literature. Control No.: 95042582 _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:61>From email@example.com Thu Aug 29 10:20:33 1996 Date: Thu, 29 Aug 1996 11:21:09 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org (Darwin List) From: email@example.com (Jeremy C. Ahouse) Subject: Nature, red in tooth and claw DarwinL, I was asked yesterday where "Nature, red in tooth and claw" came from (line 15). I thought you all might like to read the surrounding text. And the context. Enjoy - Jeremy In Memoriam A. H. H.: 55 1 "So careful of the type?" but no. 2 From scarped cliff and quarried stone 3 She cries, "A thousand types are gone: 4 I care for nothing, all shall go. 5 "Thou makest thine appeal to me: 6 I bring to life, I bring to death: 7 The spirit does but mean the breath: 8 I know no more." And he, shall he, 9 Man, her last work, who seem'd so fair, 10 Such splendid purpose in his eyes, 11 Who roll'd the psalm to wintry skies, 12 Who built him fanes of fruitless prayer, 13 Who trusted God was love indeed 14 And love Creation's final law-- 15 Tho' Nature, red in tooth and claw 16 With ravine, shriek'd against his creed-- 17 Who loved, who suffer'd countless ills, 18 Who battled for the True, the Just, 19 Be blown about the desert dust, 20 Or seal'd within the iron hills? 21 No more? A monster then, a dream, 22 A discord. Dragons of the prime, 23 That tare each other in their slime, 24 Were mellow music match'd with him. 25 O life as futile, then, as frail! 26 O for thy voice to soothe and bless! 27 What hope of answer, or redress? 28 Behind the veil, behind the veil. Alfred lord Tennyson's final text, possibly Works. London: Macmillan, 1891. Publication Date: 1850. Found at <http://library.utoronto.ca/www/utel/rp/poems/tennyson36.html"> In 1827 Tennyson escaped the troubled atmosphere of his home when he followed his two older brothers to Trinity College, Cambridge, where his tutor was William Whewell -- see 19th century philosophy. Because they had published Poems by Two Brothers in 1827 and each won university prizes for poetry (Alfred winning the Chancellor's Gold Medal in 1828 for Timbuctoo) the Tennyson brothers became well known at Cambridge. In 1829 The Apostles, an undergraduate club, whose members remained Tennyson's friends all his life, invited him to join. The group, which met to discuss major philosophical and other issues, included Arthur Henry Hallam, James Spedding, Edward Lushington (who later married Cecilia Tennyson), and Richard Monckton Milnes--all eventually famous men who merited entries in the Dictionary of National Biography. Arthur Hallam's was the most important of these friendships. Hallam, another precociously brilliant Victorian young man like Robert Browning, John Stuart Mill, and Matthew Arnold, was uniformly recognized by his contemporaries (including William Gladstone, his best friend at Eton) as having unusual promise. He and Tennyson knew each other only four years, but their intense friendship had major influence on the poet. On a visit to Somersby, Hallam met and later became engaged to Emily Tennyson, and the two friends looked forward to a life-long companionship. Hallam's death from illness in 1833 (he was only 22) shocked Tennyson profoundly, and his grief lead to most of his best poetry, including In Memoriam , "The Passing of Arthur", Ulysses, and Tithonus. From a short biography by Glenn Everett (Associate Professor of English, University of Tennessee at Martin) <http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/ hypertext/landow/victorian/tennyson/tennybio.html> A Tennyson page is maintained by Arthur Chandler <http://charon.sfsu.edu/tennyson/tennyson.html> _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:62>From firstname.lastname@example.org Fri Aug 30 09:44:59 1996 Date: Fri, 30 Aug 1996 08:44:51 -0600 (MDT) From: Bryant <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: Rushton's Race Evolution and Behavior On Mon, 26 Aug 1996 RUSHTON@SSCL.UWO.CA wrote: > No one denies the importance of the environment effects like nutrition, > tape worms, medical care , etc. My own behavior genetic studies of cranial > size suggests a 50 percent heritability and a 50 percent environmental > contribution. But the consistency of the racial pattern on so many > variables suggests an evolutionary process, Do you think, then, that the heritability you observe for IQ is at loci for brain development per se? We're writing up a study on IQ and developmental instability which suggests (to us) that heritability of IQ may be at loci affording different levels of resistance to developmental stress, rather than IQ per se. I'd appreciate hearing your thoughts on the matter. > Charles Darwin certainly believed in racial differences in cranial size > and temperament (blacks talkative, Amerindians tactiturn, Orientals placid). > So did his cousin Francis Glaton. Do did Harvard zoologist J.R. Baker > (cited in previous postings). I'm not sure Galton & Darwin saw eye to eye on the issue; in Expression of Emotions, Darwin concludes that cross-cultural/racial universialities in the expression of emotions argue for the "unity of the races." The differences you cite are indeed fascinating, but since "hybridization" between the races doesn't result in increased developmental instability, it would appear that a subspecies distinction for human races is weakly supported (Jensen has used the term subspecies for the races, I recall, but I do not remember if you use this terminology.) After all, we share more DNA homologies with chimps than subspecies of deer mice share with one another, if I remember correctly what mammalogist Terry Yates taught in his course a few years back. A minor point. Bryant _______________________________________________________________________________ <36:63>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sat Aug 31 14:26:52 1996 Date: Sat, 31 Aug 1996 15:26:48 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: August 31 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro AUGUST 31 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1815: HEINRICH ERNST BEYRICH is born at Berlin, Germany. Beyrich will study natural science at the Universities of Berlin and Bonn, and will come to specialize in paleontology. While travelling through Europe he will make the acquaintance of many of the leading geologists of his day, and will eventually take up a teaching post at Berlin where he will remain for his entire career. Commissioned in 1842 to survey the geology of Silesia, he will publish his results as _Uber die Entwickelung des Flotzgebirges in Schlesien_, a work that will establish him an a prominent figure in the European geological community. He will play an important role in the founding of the German Geological Society in 1848, and will become director of the Berlin Museum of Natural History in 1873. His extensive publications on the geology and paleontology of central Europe will lay the groundwork for many future investigations. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ Darwin-L Message Log 36: 31-63 -- August 1996 End
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