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Darwin-L Message Log 36: 31–63 — August 1996

Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences

Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.

This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during August 1996. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.

The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”


---------------------------------------------
DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 36: 31-63 -- AUGUST 1996
---------------------------------------------

DARWIN-L
A Network Discussion Group on the
History and Theory of the Historical Sciences

Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu is an international network discussion group on
the history and theory of the historical sciences.  Darwin-L was established
in September 1993 to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of
which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present,
and to encourage communication among academic professionals in these fields.
Darwin-L is not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles
Darwin but instead addresses the entire range of historical sciences from an
interdisciplinary perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical
linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology,
systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical
anthropology, historical geography, and related "palaetiological" fields.

This log contains public messages posted to Darwin-L during August 1996.
It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease
of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been
reformatted, and some administrative messages and personal messages posted to
the group as a whole have been deleted.  No genuine editorial changes have been
made to the content of any of the posts.  This log is provided for personal
reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein
should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained on the Darwin-L Web Server at
http://rjohara.uncg.edu.  For instructions on how to retrieve copies of this
and other log files, and for additional information about Darwin-L and the
historical sciences, connect to the Darwin-L Web Server or send the e-mail
message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@raven.cc.ukans.edu.

Darwin-L is administered by Robert J. O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu), Center for
Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and Department of Biology, University of
North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A., and it
is supported by the Center for Critical Inquiry, University of North Carolina
at Greensboro, and the Department of History and the Academic Computing Center,
University of Kansas.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:31>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sat Aug 24 22:12:35 1996

Date: Sat, 24 Aug 1996 23:12:30 -0500 (EST)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: Apologies for the delay
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

Apologies for the delay in sending out Darwin-L messages over the past
week.  I have been preoccupied with the reopening of the university and
my own college, and this has led me to fall far behind.  (Pay us a visit at
http://strong.uncg.edu if you like.)  I hope to get the backlog of messages
cleared up shortly.

We still seem to be having the mysterious problem of messages from the
past being resurrected by the listserv software; how this happens I do not
know, but fortunately it is infrequent.  I will try to see if a solution
can be found to it.

The school year is beginning for many of us around the world.  If any
Darwin-L members are teaching unusual interdisciplinary courses in the
historical sciences we would be delighted to hear about them.  Any courses
combining linguistics and evolution out there, or geology and civil history,
or any other palaetiological combination?

Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner

Robert J. O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu)      |
Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building  |  http://rjohara.uncg.edu
University of North Carolina at Greensboro   |  http://strong.uncg.edu
Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A.      |

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:32>From joe@genetics.washington.edu Fri Aug 16 17:27:46 1996

From: Joe Felsenstein <joe@genetics.washington.edu>
Subject: Re: Kuhn on NPR (pwd)
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Fri, 16 Aug 1996 15:36:54 -0700 (PDT)

Dawn Ogden forwarded this to darwin-l (which Dan Garber sent to another list):

>         Tomorrow (Friday) at 3 eastern time there will be a radio broadcast
> centering on the work of Thomas Kuhn. It will be on Science Friday, part of
> NPR's "Talk of the Nation" series, a live call-in show. The guests will be
> myself and David Sloan Wilson, a biologist known for his work on group
> selection, which he thinks constitutes a scientific revolution, I am told.

Some months ago I noted here that Kuhn's work led to a lot of young scientists
who tried to make their mark by founding new paradigms, assuming that otherwise
they would be known as mere dullards.  I got some reactions from people in
other fields saying that they never noticed this phenomenon.

It was noticeable in evolutionary biology, and it is nice to have Garber's
post as evidence ...

I'm sorry to have had to miss that broadcast.

--
Joe Felsenstein         joe@genetics.washington.edu     (IP No. 128.95.12.41)
 Dept. of Genetics, Univ. of Washington, Box 357360, Seattle, WA 98195-7360 USA

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:33>From RAC7@aol.com Sat Aug 17 13:23:49 1996

Date: Sat, 17 Aug 1996 14:23:46 -0400
From: RAC7@aol.com
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: "This view of life..."

Darwin-Listers

I have encountered two different versions of the oft-quoted last sentence in
The Origin.  They are:

"There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been
originally breathed into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this
planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so
simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been,
and are being, evolved."

and the second

"There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been
originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that,
whilst this planet has gone cycling on according to the fixed law of gravity,
from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful
have been, and are being, evolved."

The only difference being the reference to the Creator in the second version.
 My question is: Which of these two quotations is the earlier of the two?  It
would seem to me that the second quotation which makes reference to the
Creator must be from an earlier edition, since , as I understand it, Darwin
originally believed in a Creator and was also an admirer of Paley's Natural
Theology, but made a shift toward agnosticism later in life.  Can anyone fill
me in on the story behind the change in wording here.  I would also
appreciate any refs that might be helpful.

Thanks
Bob Cooper

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:34>From HANSS@sepa.tudelft.nl Mon Aug 19 07:17:20 1996

From: "Hans-Cees Speel" <HANSS@sepa.tudelft.nl>
Organization:  TU Delft
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Mon, 19 Aug 1996 14:19:40 MET
Subject: biology and philosophy/adress request

Dear Darwinners,
I am looking for an adress of the journal 'biology and philosophy'.
Do they have an internet adress, or does anyone know editors with an
internet adress?
Sorry for the inconveniance,

greetings Hans-Cees

Theories come and go, the frog stays [F. Jacob]
-------------------------------------------------------
|Hans-Cees Speel School of Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis and management
|Technical Univ. Delft, Jaffalaan 5 2600 GA Delft PO Box 5015 The Netherlands
|telephone +3115785776 telefax +3115783422 E-mail hanss@sepa.tudelft.nl
HTTP://www.sepa.tudelft.nl/~afd_ba/hanss.html featuring evolution and memetics!

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:35>From jmarks@yalevm.cis.yale.edu Sat Aug 24 23:18:20 1996

Date: Sat, 24 Aug 1996 23:18:19 -0500
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
From: jmarks@yalevm.cis.yale.edu (Jonathan Marks)
Subject: Re: "This view of life..."

"...by the Creator.." was an addition, not a subtraction.  It was made, I
believe, to the second edition, to show that the ideas therein were
compatible with deism and not necessarily atheistic.  Just goes to show,
establishing polarities can be tricky!
        --Jon Marks

     -- Jon Marks

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:36>From jmarks@yalevm.cis.yale.edu Sat Aug 24 23:20:11 1996

Date: Sat, 24 Aug 1996 23:20:10 -0500
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
From: jmarks@yalevm.cis.yale.edu (Jonathan Marks)
Subject: Re: Rushton, evolution, eugenics, and Africa

>As a further link in this chain, Baker dedicates his book to C.P. Blacker,
>a leading member of the British eugenics movement (cf. Kevles, *In the Name
>of Eugenics*). So the intellectual lineage is fairly clear. What I would
>like to know most particularly, is: Who was J.R. Baker, and how did he come
>by these theories? But, beyond this, I would much appreciate whatever
>insights anyone might be willing to offer about this and related questions.

I think John R. Baker was a South African physician.

     -- Jon Marks

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:37>From ronald@hawaii.edu Sun Aug 25 00:10:39 1996

Date: 	Sat, 24 Aug 1996 19:10:13 -1000
From: Ron Amundson <ronald@hawaii.edu>
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: "This view of life..."

Reference to the Creator inserted into the Second Edition; the
First Edition had no reference to the Creator.

Also consider:

"There is a simple grandeur in the view of life with its powers of growth,
assimilation and reproduction, being originally breathed into matter under
one or a few forms, and that whilst this our planet has gone according to
fixed laws, and land and water, in a cycle of change, have gone on
replacing each other, that from so simple an origin, ..." Essay of
1842.

"There is a [simple] grandeur in the view of life with its several powers
off growth, reproduction and of sensation, having been originally breathed
into matter under a few forms, perhaps into only one..."  Essay of 1844.

Darwin sure liked this elegant passage.  I wonder where he got the idea.
Was it, ... could it have been, ... ~~SATAN~~ (or a natural theologian,
close enough)

"There is extreme grandeur in the thought of an anticipating or
prospective intelligence; in reflecting that what was finally accomplished
in man, was begun in times incalculably remote, and antecendent to the
great revolutions which the earths surface has undergone. ... If we seek
to discover the relations of things, how sublime is the relation
established between that state of the earth's surface, which has resulted
from a long succession of revolutions, and the final condition of its
inhabitants as created in accordance with the change."  Charles Bell, _The
Hand: It's Mechanism and Vital Endowments as Evincing Design, Bridgewater
Treatise IV, 1833, read by Darwin in 1838.

The idea of "grandeur" and the emphasis on a long and stately process of
change are pretty similar.  Of course Bell endorsed the modern notion of
an ancient earth, even though he was an anti-evolutionist.  So in a way he
may have had similar needs to Darwin -- defuse the anger of the
conservatives, who (in Bell's case) were still in favor of a literal
reading of Genesis.  Darwin's desire to defuse anger is apparent from the
Creator's appearance (Deus ex editorial revision) in the 2nd Edition.

Recapitulation just keeps going around.

Ron

__
Ron Amundson
University of Hawaii at Hilo
ronald@Hawaii.Edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:38>From maisel@SDSC.EDU Sun Aug 25 07:16:59 1996

Date: Sun, 25 Aug 1996 05:16:54 -0700 (PDT)
From: Merry Maisel <maisel@SDSC.EDU>
To: Michael Kenny <Michael_Kenny@sfu.ca>
Cc: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: Rushton, evolution, eugenics, and Africa

From MELVYL, the UC catalogue (available online
to the public), it seems that, whatever he was,
J.R. Baker was prolific.  These are the books
listed for him and their publication dates.

20. BAKER, John Randal, 1900-
	Abraham Trembley of Geneva,. 1952
21. 	The biology of parasitic protozoa. 1982
22. 	The cell theory : a restatement,... 1988
23. 	The chemical control of conception. 1935
24. 	The controversy on freedom in... 1962
25. 	Cytological technique,. 1933
26. 	Cytological technique; the... 1950
27. 	Cytological technique; the... 1945
28. 	Cytological technique; the... 1960
29. 	Cytological technique: the... 1966
30. 	Freedom and authority in scientific... 1953
31. 	Freedom in research. 1957
32. 	The freedom of science. 1975
33. 	Freiheit und Wissenschaft. 1950
34. 	Julian Huxley, scientist and world... 1978
35. 	Man and animals in the New Hebrides,. 1929
36. 	A new chemical contraceptive,. 1938
37. 	Principles of biological... 1958
36. 	A new chemical contraceptive,. 1938
37. 	Principles of biological... 1958
38. 	Race. 1974
39. 	Race. 1981
40. 	Science and the planned state,. 1945
41. 	Science and the planned state,. 1945
42. 	Science and the sputniks. 1958
43. 	The scientific life,. 1943
44. 	The scientific life. 1944
45. 	Sex in man and animals,. 1926
46. 	Sex in man and animals. 1926
47. 	Sir Arthur Tansley, 1871-1955. 1955

fyi.

Merry Maisel
maisel@sdsc.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:39>From rgk@nhm.ac.uk Sun Aug 25 10:53:54 1996

Date: Sun, 25 Aug 1996 16:53:33 +0100 (BST)
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
From: Rob Kruszynski <rgk@nhm.ac.uk>
Subject: Re: "This view of life..."

Bob,

I checked all editions except the fourth :

1st 1859 : no reference to Creator in final sentence
2nd 1860 (so-called 'American') :   ditto
also 2nd 1860 :  with ref to Creator
3rd 1861 : ditto (i.e. with 'Creator')
4th : no access to . . .
5th : 1869 : ditto
6th : 1872 & 1882 & 1894 etc : ditto

So it the reverse of what you think !

All editions after the second in effect are a watering down
of Darwin's original thinking it is sometimes said and maybe
that is right in this case.

Perhaps for what Darwin really thought on religion you should
refer to the unexpurgated ediution of his 1876 autobiography
 -  but only published in full in 1958 - edited by Nora Barlow.

You might also profit from reading Janet Browne's 1995 biography
of Darwin called Darwin Vol 1 : Voyaging  (publ. by Random House).

There is also a variorum text of the six editions of Origin but I don't
have the ref for it.

Regards,

Robert  Kruszynski
********************************************************

From: Robert Kruszynski, Human Origins Group,
The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, U.K.
Tel.: 00 44 (0) 171 938 8711   or     00 44 (0) 171 938 9270
E-mail: rgk@nhm.ac.uk            Fax: 00 44 (0) 171 938 9277

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:40>From charlie_urbanowicz@macgate.csuchico.edu Sun Aug 25 17:02:05 1996

Date: 25 Aug 1996 15:05:10 U
From: "Charlie Urbanowicz" <charlie_urbanowicz@macgate.csuchico.edu>
Subject: Darwin + "Creator"
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Cc: "Donna Crowe" <donna_crowe@macgate.csuchico.edu>

Hello Bob:

The first quote, without the "Creator" appeared in the 1st edition of ORIGIN;
in the 2nd edition of 1860 (and all subsequent editions), CD added the
"Creator" term; the definitive line-by-line comparison of the six editions
comes from Morse Peckham's labor of love (no other phrase comes to mind)
published in 1959:   THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY CHARLES DARWIN:  A VARIORUM TEXT
(U of Penn press).  Incidentally, according to my notes (since I do not own
Peckham and can only get it on inter-library loan, I believe Darwin had a
"comma" between "being, evolved" in the 1st edition and eliminated it, having
it read "being evolved" by the 6th edition. [That is the LEVEL of detail by
Peckham!!]  It is VERY interesting, from my perspective, to see who cites what
edition and try to deduce what purpose they are citing it for!  (In VOYAGE,
Darwin writes of the "God of Nature" in that book.)  If you care to send me a
mailing address, I will ship out a paper on Darwin that I distribute to my
senior seminar [I hope to get it on my WEB site this semester].  [Along with
our Media Center, I am also working on an instructional videotape where I
portray Darwin in the first person - we've shot about eight hours and hope to
finish it this semester.]  Happy reading, and do try and get a copy of
Peckham.
Charlie [Urbanowicz]
curbanowicz@oavax.csuchico.edu
[http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/
and
http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/resume.html]

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:41>From JCG@attach.edu.ar Sun Aug 25 18:38:22 1996

From: Juan Carlos Garelli <JCG@attach.edu.ar>
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Date: 	Sun, 25 Aug 1996 16:22:40 -0300
Subject: Re: biology and philosophy/adress request
Organization: Attachment Research Center

Biology and Philosophy Journal is published by the University of
Calgary Press. Its e.mail address is:

                   75001@ucdasvm1.admin.ucalgary.ca

You can also find it on the Web at:

                  Web: http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP

HTH,

JCG

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:42>From mycol1@unm.edu Sun Aug 25 20:15:40 1996

Date: Sun, 25 Aug 1996 19:15:37 -0600 (MDT)
From: Bryant <mycol1@unm.edu>
To: Michael Kenny <Michael_Kenny@sfu.ca>
Cc: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: Rushton, evolution, eugenics, and Africa

Michael Kenny said of Rushton's writings:

> Africans and people of African descent come off badly in all this. They are
> seen as r-selective in reproductive strategy, the males sowing their seeds
> where they may;

This in of itself isn't "bad" unless one is looking through a rather
ethnocentric lense.  Low investment reproductive tactics are rather
adaptive under certain circumstances, no?

>in Rushton's view they are unstable, undependable,
> hypersexual, crime-ridden, and stupid (as opposed to e.g. 'Mongoloids' with
> their strong and K-selective sense of family values).

As for "stupid," although I am not a fan of Rushton's, I feel that it
should be pointed out that he never uses such terminology, and that he
points to a well-accepted, widely documented mean difference between
black and white humans' IQs.

Rushton prematurely seeks an adaptationist explanation for the
difference, at least in my view, because most of the black populations he
cites are impoverished, and may suffer from substandard developmental
conditions.  Developmental instability of the impoverished, rather than
race per se, may be the cause of the differences in IQ between ethnic groups.

Lynn and others have, I believe, shown that malnutrition correlates with
low IQ.  Likewise, Nokes showed that parasitized children have lower IQs
which can be brought to normal levels with antibiotics (!).  (I'll chase
down refs for anybody who is interested.)

Bryant

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:43>From hanss@zondisk.sepa.tudelft.nl Mon Aug 26 06:18:52 1996

From: "Hans-Cees Speel" <hanss@zondisk.sepa.tudelft.nl>
Organization: TU Delft
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 13:30:42 +0000
Subject: references on evolutionary linguistics

Dear Darwinners,
I am looking for references on evolutionary approaches in
linguistics, prefferably references that everyone agrees are good
ones:-)

thank you everyone that responded to my question on biology and
philosophy.

greetings,
Hans-Cees

Theories come and go, the frog stays [F. Jacob]
-------------------------------------------------------
|Hans-Cees Speel School of Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis and management
|Technical Univ. Delft, Jaffalaan 5 2600 GA Delft PO Box 5015 The Netherlands
|telephone +3115785776 telefax +3115783422 E-mail hanss@sepa.tudelft.nl
HTTP://www.sepa.tudelft.nl/~afd_ba/hanss.html featuring evolution and memetics!

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:44>From mwinsor@chass.utoronto.ca Mon Aug 26 09:00:45 1996

From: Mary P Winsor <mwinsor@chass.utoronto.ca>
Subject: Biology & Philosophy
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu (bulletin board)
Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 10:00:45 -0400 (EDT)

The journal "Biology and Philosophy" is published by  D. Reidel, a
part of Kluwer Academic Publishers:   http:/www.wkap.nl

It is edited by Michael Ruse, Dept of Philosophy and Zoology,
University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 Canada.

Polly Winsor  mwinsor@chass.utoronto.ca

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:45>From ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu Mon Aug 26 10:00:58 1996

Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 11:01:31 -0400
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
From: ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu (Jeremy C. Ahouse)
Subject: Re: biology and philosophy/adress request

>Biology and Philosophy Journal is published by the University of
>Calgary Press. Its e.mail address is:
>
>                   75001@ucdasvm1.admin.ucalgary.ca
>
>You can also find it on the Web at:
>
>                  Web: http://www.ucalgary.ca/UofC/departments/UP

Actually it is published by Kluwer. They have a presence on the web:

gopher://Gopher.wkap.nl:70/11gopher_root%3A%5B_submit._jrnl.biph%5D

        - Jeremy

        Jeremy C. Ahouse
        Biology Department
        Brandeis University
        Waltham, MA 02254-9110
ph:     (617) 736-4954
fax:    (617) 736-2405
email:  ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu
web:    http://www.rose.brandeis.edu/users/simister/pages/Ahouse

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:46>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Aug 27 22:59:59 1996

Date: Tue, 27 Aug 1996 23:59:53 -0500 (EST)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: Re: references on evolutionary linguistics
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

Hans-Cees Speel asks about references for evolutionary approaches to
linguistics.  I suspect he may be looking for works that treat languages
populationally, as in population genetics; but if phylogenetic approaches
to linguistics are of interest there is a bibliography on "trees of history"
on the Files page of the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu).
This bibliography includes quite a few works on the problems of phylogenetic
inference and genealogical representation in linguistics, systematics, and
stemmatics.

Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner
University of North Carolina at Greensboro
darwin@iris.uncg.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:47>From ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu Mon Aug 26 13:02:30 1996

Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 14:03:06 -0400
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu (Darwin List)
From: ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu (Jeremy C. Ahouse)
Subject: short animation

DarwinL,

        this site has a wonderful short animation of development/evolution.

http://stripe.Colorado.EDU/~evodevo/Hanken.html

        - Jeremy

        Jeremy C. Ahouse
        Biology Department
        Brandeis University
        Waltham, MA 02254-9110
ph:     (617) 736-4954
fax:    (617) 736-2405
email:  ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu
web:    http://www.rose.brandeis.edu/users/simister/pages/Ahouse

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:48>From sklein@cs.wisc.edu Mon Aug 26 19:40:57 1996

Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 19:40:52 -0500
From: Sheldon Klein <sklein@cs.wisc.edu>
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Linguistics/Evolution course per O'Hara's query

Bob O'Hara asks,

>If any Darwin-L members are teaching unusual interdisciplinary courses in the
>historical sciences we would be delighted to hear about them.  Any courses
>combining linguistics and evolution out there, or geology and civil history,
>or any other palaetiological combination?

I taught a Linguistics Dept. topics course last Spring that seems to match
your query.  Attached is a course description, a reading list (paper)
and URLs leading to search engines, related areas, and selected readings
available on the WEB.

		<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Linguistics 373:  Analogy in Language, Culture & Cognition.      Spring 96.

The role of analogy in phonology-morphology-syntax-semantics,
	in sociocultural-symbolic systems, and
	in contemporary models of human cognition,
	  including a survey of very recent neurolinguistic
	  research results that contradict Chomsky's views about
	  the innate and unique nature of the brain structures
	  involved in human language.

MW 2:25         590 Van Hise       3cr.     Sheldon Klein
__________________________________________________________________________
Prereq.: background in Linguistics or  Anthropology or Psychology
	  or Logic or Folklore, or consent of instructor.

TEXTBOOKS FOR LINGUISTICS 373 (Paperbound preferred-- 10 copies each)

Instructor: Prof. Sheldon Klein
            Linguistics Dept.  (& Computer Sciences Dept.)
            1102 Van Hise
            Home phone: 271-8140
            e-mail:  sklein@cs.wisc.edu

(Home phone is best at this time of the year)

LINGUISTICS 373: ANALOGY IN LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND COGNITION

Carr, Phillip  1993.  Phonology.  New York: St. Martins.

Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson  1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago:
   University of Chicago Press.

Levi-Strauss, Claude  1966. The Savage Mind.
   University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Levi-Strauss, Claude	The Raw and the Cooked.

Lieberman, Philip  1991. Uniquely Human: The Evolution of Speech, Thought,
   and Selfless Behavior. Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass. & London.

Pinker, Steven  1994. The Language Instinct.
   Allen Lane, The Penguin Press: London.

Propp, V.  1968.  Morphology of the Folktale.
   Austin: University of Texas Press.

Whorf, Benjamin Lee (ed., J. B. Carroll).  1956. Language Thought and Reality.
   MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass.

>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>

Readings will include:
__________________________________________________________________

[An IN PRESS series of articles to appear in the journal,
	BEHAVIORAL & BRAIN SCIENCES]

Bickerton, Derek  1990. Language and Species.
   University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Carr, Phillip  1993.  Phonology.  New York: St. Martins.

Collins, A., Gathercole, S. & Badderley, A.  1993. Theories of Memory.
   Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Earlbaum.

Durkheim, Emile and Marcel Mauss  (translated by Rodney Needham)  1963.
   Primitive Classification. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Eco, Umberto 1995.  The Search for the Perfect Language. Oxford: Blackwell.

Gathercole, Susan E. & Badderley, Alan D.  1993. Working Memory and
   Language. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Earlbaum.

Gibson, Kathleen R. and Tim Ingold (Editors)  1993. Tools, Language and
   Cognition in Human Evolution. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Gill, Sam D.  1981. Sacred Words: a study of Navajo religion and prayer.
   Greenwood Press: Westport,Conn. & London.

Goffman, Erving.  1974.  Frame analysis : an essay on the organization
   Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass.

Haas, Mary  1978.  Language, Culture, and History. Stanford: Stanford U. Press.

Karmiloff-Smith, Annette.  1992. Beyond Modularity: A developmental
   perspective on Cognitive Science. Cambridge: MIT Press.

King, Barbara J.  1994. The Information Continuum:  Evolution of Social
   Information Transfer in Monkeys, Apes, and Hominids. University of
   Washington Press: Seattle (for School of American Research Press).

Lakoff, George  1987. Women, Fire and Dangerous Things: What categories
   reveal about the mind. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson  1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago:
   University of Chicago Press.

Lieberman, Philip  1991. Uniquely Human: The Evolution of Speech, Thought,
   and Selfless Behavior. Harvard University Press: Cambridge,Mass. & London.

Lucy, John A.  1992. Grammatical Categories and Cognition: a case study of
   the linguistic relativity hypothesis. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Levi-Strauss, Claude  1969. The Elementary Structures of Kinship.
   Beacon Press: Boston.

Levi-Strauss, Claude  1963. Structural Anthropology.
   Basic Books, Inc: New York.

Levi-Strauss, Claude  1966. The Savage Mind.
   University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

Mellars, Paul & Chris Stringer 1989. The Human Revolution: Behavioural
   and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans.

Piaget, Jean.  Six Psychological Studies. [Six Etudes de Psychologie.
   Editions Gonthier S.A.:  Geneva, 1964; Random House, 1967.]. Harvester
   Press:Brighton, Sussex.

Pinker, Steven  1994. The Language Instinct.
   Allen Lane, The Penguin Press: London.

Propp, V.  1968.  Morphology of the Folktale.
   Austin: University of Texas Press.

Schacter, Daniel L. & Endel Tulving, editors.  1994. Memory Systems.
   MIT Press: Cambridge, MA, London.

Schele, Linda and Mary Ellen Miller.  1986. The Blood of Kings: Dynasty and
   Ritual in Maya Art. George Braziller, Inc.: New York in association with
   Kimbell Art Museum: Fort Worth.

Seltman, Muriel & Peter Seltman.  1985. Piaget's Logic: A critique of
   genetic epistemology. George Allen & Unwin: London.

Tyler, Stephen A. (ed.)  1987 [1967].  Cognitive Anthropology.
   Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.

Whorf, Benjamin Lee (ed., J. B. Carroll).  1956. Language Thought and Reality.
   MIT Press: Cambridge, Mass.
______________________________________________________________________________
Linkname: Super Spider
Filename: http://www.altavista.digital.com/

Linkname: Artificial Intelligence
Filename: http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~shavlik/uwai.html

Linkname: Computational Linguistics
Filename: http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/iiip/nlp.html

Natural Language Processing
URL: http://sigart.acm.org/ai/subject.html#natlang

Linkname: Cognitive and Linguistic Sciences
Filename: http://www.cog.brown.edu/

PAPERS FOR THE CLASS TO READ LATER IN THE TERM

   Linkname: Precis of ORIGINS OF THE MODERN MIND:
   Filename: http://cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~bbs/Archive/bbs.donald.html

   Linkname: CO-EVOLUTION OF NEOCORTEX SIZE, GROUP SIZE AND LANGUAGE IN
   Filename: http://cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~bbs/Archive/bbs.dunbar.html


   Linkname: INNATENESS, AUTONOMY, UNIVERSALITY? NEUROBIOLOGICAL
          APPROACHES
   Filename: http://cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~bbs/Archive/bbs.mueller.html

   Linkname: BRAIN EVOLUTION AND NEUROLINGUISTIC PRECONDITIONS
   Filename: http://cogsci.ecs.soton.ac.uk/~bbs/Archive/bbs.wilkins.html

   Linkname: Precis of: Beyond Modularity: A Developmental Perspective on
   Filename: ftp://ftp.princeton.edu/pub/harnad/BBS/.WWW/bbs.karmsmith.html

__________________________________________________________________
Prof. Sheldon Klein		sklein@cs.wisc.edu

Computer Sciences Dept.		Linguistics Dept.
University of Wisconsin		1163 Van Hise
1210 W. Dayton St.			University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin 53706		Madison, Wisconsin 53706
USA
__________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:49>From wilcox@unm.edu Tue Aug 27 23:52:52 1996

Date: Tue, 27 Aug 1996 22:49:24 -0600
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
From: wilcox@unm.edu (Sherman Wilcox)
Subject: Re: references on evolutionary linguistics

>I am looking for references on evolutionary approaches in linguistics

Let me supply one that most people will not be aware of.

I am pleased to announce a new journal, published by John Benjamins
Publishing Co. (Amsterdam), called "Evolution of Communication." The focus
of this journal is on cross-disciplinary approaches to the study of
evolution of communication across various species, including but certainly
not limited to the evolution of human language. We intend the journal to
have a wide scope, including theoretical and empirical studies, from a
variety of disciplines including linguistics, biology, anthropology,
primatology, developmental and evolutionary psychology, artificial life,
neuroscience, and cognitive science.

The editorial board currently includes:

Barbara J. King, U.S. Associate Editor (primatology)
Luc Steels, European Associate Editor (artificial life)
David Armstrong (physical anthropology)
Bennett Galef (psychology, social learning in animals)
Kathleen Gibson (evolution of cognition and language)
John Haiman (linguistics)
Christine Johnson (cognitive science, primatology)
Michael Ryan (evolutionary biology)
Chris Sinha (psychology)
Eors Szathmary (evolutionary biology)
Michael Tomasello (psychology)
Anne Zeller (primatology)

I am General Editor for the journal.

The first issues of "Evolution of Communication" will appear in 1997. We of
course invite articles from readers of DARWIN-L. There is a small WWW site
(which I hope to expand soon) for the journal at:

  http://www.unm.edu/~wilcox/EOC

----------------------------
Sherman Wilcox
Dept. of Linguistics
University of New Mexico
Albuquerque, NM 87131
wilcox@unm.edu
----------------------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:50>From jmarks@yalevm.cis.yale.edu Sun Aug 25 22:10:49 1996

Date: Sun, 25 Aug 1996 22:10:48 -0500
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
From: jmarks@yalevm.cis.yale.edu (Jonathan Marks)
Subject: Re: Rushton, evolution, eugenics, and Africa

>As for "stupid," although I am not a fan of Rushton's, I feel that it
>should be pointed out that he never uses such terminology, and that he
>points to a well-accepted, widely documented mean difference between
>black and white humans' IQs.

Insofar as Rushton takes IQ to be a measure of innate intelligence, it
probably is proper to infer "stupid" for lower mean IQ when explaining his
views.

>Rushton prematurely seeks an adaptationist explanation for the
>difference, at least in my view, because most of the black populations he
>cites are impoverished, and may suffer from substandard developmental
>conditions.  Developmental instability of the impoverished, rather than
>race per se, may be the cause of the differences in IQ between ethnic groups.

In humans, of course, reproductive rate is highly sensitive to economics.
As people enter the middle class, they tend to curb their reproduction.
Likewise as countries develop economically.  The relation to evolutionary
biology of reproduction is strictly metaphorical.

     -- Jon Marks

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:51>From handford@julian.uwo.ca Mon Aug 26 15:06:22 1996

Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 16:05:53 +0500
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
From: handford@julian.uwo.ca (paul handford)
Subject: Re: Rushton, evolution, eugenics, and Africa

>I think John R. Baker was a South African physician.
>        --Jon Marks

John Baker was a member of the zoology department at Oxford University.  He
was primarily a cytologist by profession.

paul handford
ecology & evolution group
zoology department
university of western ontario
LONDON, ON, N6A  5B7   CANADA
519-661-3149   FAX  519-661-2014

http://www.uwo.ca/zoo/handford.html
http://www.uwo.ca/zoo/tvi.html (TVI's page)

Every man will dispute with great good humour upon a subject in which he is
not interested.
Samuel Johnson.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:52>From zinjman@uog9.uog.edu Mon Aug 26 17:02:30 1996

Date: Tue, 27 Aug 1996 08:05:15 +0000 (WET)
From: "Gary M. Heathcote" <zinjman@uog9.uog.edu>
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: DARWIN-L digest 665

Re:  "Who was J.R. Baker,....."

> >As a further link in this chain, Baker dedicates his book to C.P. Blacker,
> >a leading member of the British eugenics movement (cf. Kevles, *In the Name
> >of Eugenics*). So the intellectual lineage is fairly clear. What I would
> >like to know most particularly, is: Who was J.R. Baker, and how did he come
> >by these theories? But, beyond this, I would much appreciate whatever
> >insights anyone might be willing to offer about this and related questions.

In a book review of _Race_ (1974), Stanley Garn describes Baker as a
"retired reader in cytology at Oxford", but this is nothing beyond that
which appears on the dust jacket of Baker's book.   Garn's review (Am. J.
Physical Anthrop. 44(3):530-532, 1976) is highly informed in all other
respects, however.  Consider, e.g., the following passage: "Clearly, John
R. Baker has put a great deal of effort into compiling _Race_, from the
82 illustrations .... to the 1,181 references (most of them a century
old).  He has read widely, though not necessarily wisely, and there is no
particular evidence in the text or in the references to personal
familiarity with the subject-matter at hand,..."   Garn concludes with
"Baker adopts the now-it-can-be-told line of presentation, he hints at a
conspiracy of silence (which he has the unique courage to break), and he
refrains from predicting the end of the world.  Baker clearly believes
that some dogs are smarter than some Englishmen and this is a good place
to stop."

Gary Heathcote
Univeristy of Guam
<zinjman@uog.edu>

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:53>From RUSHTON@SSCL.UWO.CA Mon Aug 26 17:12:30 1996

Date: Mon, 26 Aug 1996 18:10:52 -0500 (EST)
From: RUSHTON@SSCL.UWO.CA
Subject: Rushton's Race Evolution and Behavior
To: DARWIN-L@UKANAIX.CC.UKANS.EDU

   Phil Rushton here as a recent joiner of the List after seeing a discussion
of my book on race differences.

   Hopefully needless to say there is much overlap of all racial distributions.
My own data show that black officers in the US Army have larger crania and
higher IQs than do White enlisted personnel.  The Bell Curve showed that
blacks (and whites) with IQs of 117 went on to professional careers whereas
blacks (and whites) with IQs of 100 did not.  The flashpoint for discussion,
of course, is that the distributions of cranial size and IQ for blacks are
offset lower than the ones for whites (by 110 cubic centimeters and 15 points,
respectively).  Fascinatingly, Asians average about 17 cm3 more cranial size
and 5 IQ points  more than do whites).

    Even more fascinating is that the same racial averages occur on over 60
other variables including non obvious ones like speed of dental development
(blacks fastest, Orientals slowest), two-egg twinning rates (per 1,000 live
births for blacks, 16, whites, 8, orientals, 4), and sex hormones like
testosterone (blacks most, Orientals least),

    No one denies the importance of the environment effects like nutrition,
tape worms, medical care , etc. My own behavior genetic studies of cranial
size suggests a 50 percent heritability and a 50 percent environmental
contribution.   But the consistency of the racial pattern on so many
variables suggests an evolutionary process,

    Charles Darwin certainly believed in racial differences in cranial size
and temperament (blacks talkative, Amerindians tactiturn, Orientals placid).
So did his cousin Francis Glaton.  Do did Harvard zoologist J.R. Baker
(cited in previous postings).   In fact EVERYONE did until PC after WW2
made it disappear from the scientific radar screen.  It is political
equalitarianism that denies it, not the data which are indisputible and
have been for 100 years.

     When history is written it will be a major challeng to explain how
something "known to science" was lost...all in a democracy using self
restraint.    I know of no other example of something being "lost" to
science in this way.   Darwin would surely sigh with sadness.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:54>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed Aug 28 13:19:56 1996

Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 14:19:49 -0500 (EST)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: CFP: Naturalism conference (fwd)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

--begin forwarded message--------------

CALL FOR PAPERS
(Revised 8/27/96)
Naturalism, Theism and the Scientific Enterprise
An Interdisciplinary Conference at the University of Texas -- Austin
Feb. 20-23, 1997

Sponsored by the UT Philosophy Dept.  Invited speakers include Michael Ruse
(Philosophy, University of Guelph, author of Darwinism Defended), Alvin
Plantinga (Philosophy, University of Notre Dame, author of Warrant and
Proper Function), Frederick Grinnell (UT Southwestern Medical Center,
author of The Scientific Attitude), and Phillip Johnson (Law School,
UC-Berkeley, author of Darwin on Trial and Reason in the Balance).

The conference is dedicated to fostering dialogue between naturalists and
theists on the impact of social and philosophical predispositions on the
development, interpretation and presentation of scientific knowledge.  Our
goal is to have a program balanced between defenders and critics of
naturalism in science.

We encourage submissions from all of the natural sciences, as well as from
philosophy, history and sociology of science.  Suggested topics:

* Does the scientific method exclude appeals to supernatural agency?
* Is there a distinction between methodological and ontological naturalism?
* What do case studies in the history of science reveal about the role of
naturalism or theism in advancing or retarding the progress of science?
* Does the plausibility of Darwinism and of naturalistic theories of the
origin of life depend on a prior commitment to naturalism?  Can the
scientific merits of naturalistic and theistic explanations be compared?
*Can theistic (directed) evolution or the appeal to cosmic design be
testable scientific hypotheses?  If so, does the available evidence weigh
for or against such conjectures?
* Is there a demarcation line between science and theology?  Are "natural
theology" and "theistic science" oxymorons?
* What social, political and educational factors influence the direction of
research and the presentation of science to the public?

Abstracts should be less than 500 words and should be submitted
electronically to Prof. Robert Koons (koons@phil.utexas.edu) in one of the
following formats:
* RTF or ASCII
* PostScript
* LaTeX

Deadlines:

Nov. 1 -- submission of abstracts
Dec. 1 -- notification of authors.
Jan. 15 -- submission of full papers.

Abstracts, papers, and conference information will be posted on our web site:
http://www.dla.utexas.edu/depts/philosophy/faculty/koons/ntse/main.html
Abstracts and inquiries can be sent to Prof. Robert Koons at:
koons@phil.utexas.edu

--end forwarded message----------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:55>From C9WILSON@a1.stthomas.edu Wed Aug 28 09:44:29 1996

Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 09:43:11 -0600 (CST)
From: Chester Wilson 962-5234 <C9WILSON@a1.stthomas.edu>
Subject: how about those references?
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

bryant (mycol1@unm.edu) said:

>Lynn and others have, I believe, shown that malnutrition correlates with
>low IQ.  Likewise, Nokes showed that parasitized children have lower IQs
>which can be brought to normal levels with antibiotics (!).  (I'll chase
>down refs for anybody who is interested.)

Well, now that you offer, I would be interested in such references,
especially those about parasitized children, IQ, and antibiotics.

Chester Wilson (c9wilson@stthomas.edu)
biology
University of St. Thomas
St. Paul, MN  55105
USA

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:56>From jmarks@yalevm.ycc.yale.edu Wed Aug 28 11:49:56 1996

Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 12:47:47 -0400 (EDT)
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
From: jmarks@yalevm.ycc.yale.edu (Jon Marks)
Subject: Re: Rushton's Race Evolution and Behavior

>     When history is written it will be a major challeng to explain how
>something "known to science" was lost...all in a democracy using self
>restraint.    I know of no other example of something being "lost" to
>science in this way.   Darwin would surely sigh with sadness.

Things "known to science" disappear all the time; that's how the field
progresses.  It used to be "known to science" that the sun goes around the
earth, based on the most fundamental evidence: visual, autoptic examination.
But recognizing that the sun doesn't actually go around the earth was a
major advance for science.

           --Jon Marks

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:57>From WCalvin@U.Washington.edu Wed Aug 28 14:29:33 1996

Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 12:27:48 -0700
From: "William H. Calvin" <WCalvin@U.Washington.edu>
Organization: University of Washington
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Evolution AND Language

Derek Bickerton's 1995 book LANGUAGE AND HUMAN BEHAVIOR (U of
Washington Press 1995) is also relevant, as is pp.147ff of Dan Dennett's
new KINDS OF MINDS (BasicBooks 1996) in the Science Masters series.
	The Edinburgh conference on language evolution last April
(http://www.ling.ed.ac.uk/~evoconf/) is full of good stuff, and we just
put on a symposium at the Budapest evolutionary biology meetings
(http://caesar.elte.hu/ICSEB5/neszi/szi02.htm) on the topic.  Bickerton,
by the way, has a new (as of Budapest last week; not in either book)
theory for a noncommunicative aspect of language origins, namely the
role of verb arguments in keeping track of credit assignments for
reciprocal altruism.
	I've got two new books coming out in late September that both address
language and evolutionary processes.  HOW BRAINS THINK:  Evolving
Intelligence, Then and Now, in the Science Masters series (BasicBooks in
the US), is more about intelligence but chapter 5 addresses language per
se.  THE CEREBRAL CODE:  Thinking a Thought in the Mosaics of the Mind
(MIT Press 1996) isn't directly about hominid evolution but concerns the
milliseconds-to-minutes neural processes for thought and language,
especially the ones that use a speeded-up version of the same darwinian
process used by species evolution and the immune response.
	My home page (URL below) has links to both books, plus a link to my
chapter in the Gibson 1993 book mentioned earlier.
--

  William H. Calvin                   WCalvin@U.Washington.edu
                       http://weber.u.washington.edu/~wcalvin/

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:58>From RAC7@aol.com Wed Aug 28 16:35:49 1996

Date: Wed, 28 Aug 1996 17:35:43 -0400
From: RAC7@aol.com
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: "This view of life..."

Darwin-L'ers

Thank you for all of the responses on Darwin's reference to the Creator.  The
responses were fascinating and very helpful.

Bob Cooper
RAC7@AOL.COM

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:59>From daaf@cerium.demon.co.uk Thu Aug 29 06:37:44 1996

From: Danny Fagandini <daaf@cerium.demon.co.uk>
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: CFP: Naturalism conference (fwd)
Date: Thu, 29 Aug 1996 10:17:25 BST

DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu wrote:

> Naturalism Conference

Would someone please supply a definition of Naturalism as intended
by the sponsors of this conference?  Thanks.

--
danny
daaf@cerium.demon.co.uk

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:60>From ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu Thu Aug 29 09:20:54 1996

Date: Thu, 29 Aug 1996 10:21:30 -0400
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu (Darwin List)
From: ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu (Jeremy C. Ahouse)
Subject: 2 books (FYI)

Hi DarwinL,

        I sent part of this along earlier but it never showed up in mail
box so I don't know if it made it to the listserv.

        I just finished reading the end of Kitcher's book on the Human
Genome Project. Any of you who are teaching a genetics class or an ethics
class may want to use his closing chapter as a reading in your course. It
is a nice summary of some of the issues.

        Kitcher, Philip (1996) The lives to come : the genetic revolution
and human possibilities. Simon & Schuster

Now in a very different vein; from the preface of Bender's new book (The
descent of love);

        My chief purposes in _The Descent of Love_ are to show,
        contrary to accepted literary history, that American writers
        began a vigorous response to Darwinian thought in the early
        1870s, when they first felt what Freud called "the
        biological blow" that Darwin had dealt to "to human
        narcissism"; that, writing of courtship and marriage after
        Darwin's _The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to
        Sex_ (1871), they were much more interested in his theory of
        sexual selection than his more famous theory of natural
        selection; that the complication of sexual seelction itself,
        together with the complex of evolutionary questions during
        the years I survey here, resulted in various forms of
        literary Darwinism that are far more subtle and interesting
        than the simple kind of "Darwinism" that literary historians
        describe in the work of Frank Norris, Jack London, and
        Theodore Dreiser; that American novels of courtship and
        marriage continued to draw on Darwin's theory of sexual
        selection throughout the first quarter of the 20th century;
        and that between 1871 and 1926 American novelist's views of
        sexual love became increasingly violent and dark.

Author:        Bender, Bert.
Title:         The descent of love : Darwin and the theory of sexual
                  selection in American fiction, 1871-1926 / Bert
                  Bender.
Published:     Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press,
                  c1996.
Description:   xvi, 440 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
LC Call No.:   PS374.L6 B46 1996
Dewey No.:     813/.409354 20
ISBN:          0812233441 (alk. paper)
Notes:         Includes bibliographical references (p. [405]-419) and
                  index.
Subjects:      American fiction -- 19th century -- History and
                  criticism.
               Love stories, American -- History and criticism.
               American fiction -- 20th century -- History and
                  criticism.
               Literature and science -- United States -- History.
               Man-woman relationships in literature.
               Darwin, Charles, -- 1809-1882 -- Influence.
               American fiction -- English influences.
               Evolution (Biology) in literature.
               Mate selection in literature.
               Courtship in literature.
               Love in literature.
               Sex in literature.
Control No.:   95042582

_______________________________________________________________________________

<36:61>From ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu Thu Aug 29 10:20:33 1996

Date: Thu, 29 Aug 1996 11:21:09 -0400
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu (Darwin List)
From: ahouse@hydra.rose.brandeis.edu (Jeremy C. Ahouse)
Subject: Nature, red in tooth and claw

DarwinL,

        I was asked yesterday where "Nature, red in tooth and claw" came
from (line 15). I thought you all might like to read the surrounding text.
And the context.

        Enjoy

        - Jeremy

In Memoriam A. H. H.: 55

1     "So careful of the type?" but no.
2         From scarped cliff and quarried stone
3         She cries, "A thousand types are gone:
4     I care for nothing, all shall go.

5     "Thou makest thine appeal to me:
6         I bring to life, I bring to death:
7         The spirit does but mean the breath:
8     I know no more." And he, shall he,

9     Man, her last work, who seem'd so fair,
10       Such splendid purpose in his eyes,
11       Who roll'd the psalm to wintry skies,
12   Who built him fanes of fruitless prayer,

13   Who trusted God was love indeed
14       And love Creation's final law--
15       Tho' Nature, red in tooth and claw
16   With ravine, shriek'd against his creed--

17   Who loved, who suffer'd countless ills,
18       Who battled for the True, the Just,
19       Be blown about the desert dust,
20   Or seal'd within the iron hills?

21   No more? A monster then, a dream,
22       A discord. Dragons of the prime,
23       That tare each other in their slime,
24   Were mellow music match'd with him.

25   O life as futile, then, as frail!
26       O for thy voice to soothe and bless!
27       What hope of answer, or redress?
28   Behind the veil, behind the veil.

Alfred lord Tennyson's final text, possibly Works. London: Macmillan, 1891.
Publication Date: 1850.
Found at <http://library.utoronto.ca/www/utel/rp/poems/tennyson36.html">

In 1827 Tennyson escaped the troubled atmosphere of his home when he
followed his two older brothers to Trinity College, Cambridge, where his
tutor was William Whewell -- see 19th century philosophy. Because they had
published Poems by Two Brothers in 1827 and each won university prizes for
poetry (Alfred winning the Chancellor's Gold Medal in 1828 for Timbuctoo)
the Tennyson brothers became well known at Cambridge. In 1829 The Apostles,
an undergraduate club, whose members remained Tennyson's friends all his
life, invited him to join. The group, which met to discuss major
philosophical and other issues, included Arthur Henry Hallam, James
Spedding, Edward Lushington (who later married Cecilia Tennyson), and
Richard Monckton Milnes--all eventually famous men who merited entries in
the Dictionary of National Biography.

Arthur Hallam's was the most important of these friendships. Hallam,
another precociously brilliant Victorian young man like Robert Browning,
John Stuart Mill, and Matthew Arnold, was uniformly recognized by his
contemporaries (including William Gladstone, his best friend at Eton) as
having unusual promise. He and Tennyson knew each other only four years,
but their intense friendship had major influence on the poet. On a visit to
Somersby, Hallam met and later became engaged to Emily Tennyson, and the
two friends looked forward to a life-long companionship. Hallam's death
from illness in 1833 (he was only 22) shocked Tennyson profoundly, and his
grief lead to most of his best poetry, including In Memoriam , "The Passing
of Arthur", Ulysses, and Tithonus.

From a short biography by Glenn Everett (Associate Professor of English,
University of Tennessee at Martin) <http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/
hypertext/landow/victorian/tennyson/tennybio.html>

A Tennyson page is maintained by Arthur Chandler
<http://charon.sfsu.edu/tennyson/tennyson.html>

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<36:62>From mycol1@unm.edu Fri Aug 30 09:44:59 1996

Date: Fri, 30 Aug 1996 08:44:51 -0600 (MDT)
From: Bryant <mycol1@unm.edu>
To: darwin-l@raven.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: Rushton's Race Evolution and Behavior

On Mon, 26 Aug 1996 RUSHTON@SSCL.UWO.CA wrote:

>     No one denies the importance of the environment effects like nutrition,
> tape worms, medical care , etc. My own behavior genetic studies of cranial
> size suggests a 50 percent heritability and a 50 percent environmental
> contribution.   But the consistency of the racial pattern on so many
> variables suggests an evolutionary process,

Do you think, then, that the heritability you observe for IQ is at loci
for brain development per se?

We're writing up a study on IQ and developmental instability which
suggests (to us) that heritability of IQ may be at loci affording
different levels of resistance to developmental stress, rather than IQ
per se.  I'd appreciate hearing your thoughts on the matter.

>     Charles Darwin certainly believed in racial differences in cranial size
> and temperament (blacks talkative, Amerindians tactiturn, Orientals placid).
> So did his cousin Francis Glaton.  Do did Harvard zoologist J.R. Baker
> (cited in previous postings).

I'm not sure Galton & Darwin saw eye to eye on the issue; in Expression
of Emotions, Darwin concludes that cross-cultural/racial
universialities in the expression of emotions argue for the "unity
of the races."

The differences you cite are indeed fascinating, but since
"hybridization" between the races doesn't result in increased
developmental instability, it would appear that a subspecies distinction
for human races is weakly supported (Jensen has used the term subspecies
for the races, I recall, but I do not remember if you use this
terminology.)

After all, we share more DNA homologies with chimps than subspecies of
deer mice share with one another, if I remember correctly what
mammalogist Terry Yates taught in his course a few years back.

A minor point.

Bryant

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<36:63>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sat Aug 31 14:26:52 1996

Date: Sat, 31 Aug 1996 15:26:48 -0500 (EST)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: August 31 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

AUGUST 31 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1815: HEINRICH ERNST BEYRICH is born at Berlin, Germany.  Beyrich will study
natural science at the Universities of Berlin and Bonn, and will come to
specialize in paleontology.  While travelling through Europe he will make the
acquaintance of many of the leading geologists of his day, and will eventually
take up a teaching post at Berlin where he will remain for his entire career.
Commissioned in 1842 to survey the geology of Silesia, he will publish his
results as _Uber die Entwickelung des Flotzgebirges in Schlesien_, a work that
will establish him an a prominent figure in the European geological community.
He will play an important role in the founding of the German Geological
Society in 1848, and will become director of the Berlin Museum of Natural
History in 1873.  His extensive publications on the geology and paleontology
of central Europe will lay the groundwork for many future investigations.

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.
Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to listserv@raven.cc.ukans.edu or connect to
the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information.

_______________________________________________________________________________
Darwin-L Message Log 36: 31-63 -- August 1996                               End

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