Darwin-L Message Log 38: 1–20 — October 1996
Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences
Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.
This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during October 1996. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”
--------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 38: 1-20 -- OCTOBER 1996 --------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L A Network Discussion Group on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu is an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Darwin-L was established in September 1993 to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among academic professionals in these fields. Darwin-L is not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin but instead addresses the entire range of historical sciences from an interdisciplinary perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical anthropology, historical geography, and related "palaetiological" fields. This log contains public messages posted to Darwin-L during October 1996. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and some administrative messages and personal messages posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster. The master copy of this log is maintained in the archives of Darwin-L by firstname.lastname@example.org, and is also available on the Darwin-L Web Server at http://rjohara.uncg.edu. For instructions on how to retrieve copies of this and other log files, and for additional information about Darwin-L, send the e-mail message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com, or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server. Darwin-L is administered by Robert J. O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org), Center for Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A., and it is supported by the Center for Critical Inquiry, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and the Department of History and the Academic Computing Center, University of Kansas. _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:1>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Oct 1 20:08:07 1996 Date: Tue, 01 Oct 1996 21:07:13 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: List owner's monthly greeting To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Greetings to all Darwin-L subscribers. On the first of every month I send out a short note on the status of our group, along with a reminder of basic commands. For additional information about the group please visit the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu). Darwin-L is an international discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences. The group is not devoted to any particular discipline, such as evolutionary biology, but rather seeks to promote interdisciplinary comparisons across the entire range of "palaetiology", including evolution, historical linguistics, archeology, geology, cosmology, historical geography, textual transmission, and history proper. Darwin-L currently has about 700 members from more than 35 countries. Because Darwin-L does have a large membership and is sometimes a high-volume discussion group it is important for all participants to try to keep their postings as substantive as possible so that we can maintain a favorable "signal-to-noise" ratio. Listserv discussion groups like Darwin-L are not able to comfortably handle the volume of messages that Usenet groups can handle, for example, and so personal messages should be sent by private e-mail rather than to the group as a whole. Darwin-L seeks to maintain a high level of scholarly interchange. The list owner does lightly moderate the group in order to filter out error messages, commercial advertising, and occasional off-topic postings. Subscribers who feel burdened from time to time by the volume of their Darwin-L mail may wish to take advantage of the "digest" option described below. Because different mail systems work differently, not all subscribers see the e-mail address of the original sender of each message in the message header (some people only see "Darwin-L" as the source). It is therefore very important to include your name and e-mail address at the end of every message you post so that everyone can identify you and reply privately if appropriate. Remember also that in most cases when you type "reply" in response to a message from Darwin-L your reply is sent to the group as a whole, rather than to the original sender. The following are the most frequently used listserv commands that Darwin-L members may wish to know. All of these commands should be sent as regular e-mail messages to the listserv address (firstname.lastname@example.org), not to the address of the group as a whole (Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu). In each case leave the subject line of the message blank and include no extraneous text, as the command will be read and processed by the listserv program rather than by a person. To join the group send the message: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L Your Name For example: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L John Smith To cancel your subscription send the message: UNSUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L If you feel burdened by the volume of mail you receive from Darwin-L you may instruct the listserv program to deliver mail to you in digest format (one message per day consisting of the whole day's posts bundled together). To receive your mail in digest format send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL DIGEST To change your subscription from digest format back to one-at-a-time delivery send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL ACK To temporarily suspend mail delivery (when you go on vacation, for example) send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL POSTPONE To resume regular delivery send either the DIGEST or ACK messages above. For a comprehensive introduction to Darwin-L with notes on our scope and on network etiquette, and a summary of all available commands, send the message: INFO DARWIN-L To post a public message to the group as a whole simply send it as regular e-mail to the group's address (Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu). I thank you all for your continuing interest in Darwin-L and in the interdisciplinary study of the historical sciences. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Dr. Robert J. O'Hara (email@example.com) | Darwin-L Server Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building | http://rjohara.uncg.edu University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Strong College Server Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. | http://strong.uncg.edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:2>From wilkins@wehi.EDU.AU Tue Oct 1 19:32:41 1996 Date: Wed, 02 Oct 1996 10:33:14 +1000 From: John Wilkins <wilkins@wehi.EDU.AU> Subject: Blending inheritance To: Darwin-L <Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu> Can anyone recommend a good treatment of blending inheritance and why it was a problem in Jenkins' criticisms? I need to understand the reason why Mendelian particulate inheritance is not subject to the same problems, and thus why blending inheritance is. A philosophical treatment would be most helpful. Any ideas appreciated. John Wilkins Head of Communication Services Walter and Eliza Hall Institute <http://www.wehi.edu.au/~wilkins/www.html> <mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org> _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:3>From email@example.com Tue Oct 1 13:25:41 1996 Date: Tue, 1 Oct 1996 14:25:14 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org (Darwin List) From: email@example.com (Jeremy C. Ahouse) Subject: FYI - ishpssb on web Originally sent to the list 9/10/96 but never posted at my site. My apologies if you are seeing this again. ___________ The International Society for History, Philosophy, and Social Studies of Biology (ISHPSSB) has opened a web site. <http://server.phil.vt.edu/ishpssb> - Jeremy Jeremy C. Ahouse Biology Department Brandeis University Waltham, MA 02254-9110 ph: (617) 736-4954 fax: (617) 736-2405 email: firstname.lastname@example.org web: http://www.rose.brandeis.edu/users/simister/pages/Ahouse _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:4>From email@example.com Tue Oct 1 13:25:37 1996 Date: Tue, 1 Oct 1996 14:25:09 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org (Darwin List) From: email@example.com (Jeremy C. Ahouse) Subject: Rare books Catalog (Darwin) DarwinL, I recently received a handsome catalog (spelled catalogue) from Don Connor & Jeff Weber rare books. The prices were too high for me, but I thought some of you might be interested. Here is a blurb from the inside cover: Catalogue forty-one offers the remaingin part of the superb Charles Darwin collection of Dr. Eric T. Pengelley. This extensive collection was built over a period of more than forty years. Highlights included many of the first editions of Darwin's great works. Though many of these have been sold, the more than 200 books offered in this joint catalogue make available a wide variety of fine books to collectors and scholars. Some titles have been added as seem appropriate to the subject of this catalogue. Don Connor Fine Books 1311 21st, Sacramento, CA 95814 916.443-2223 ph 916.444-2384 fax Jeff Weber Rare Books 1923 Foothill Dr., Glendale, CA 91201+1242 818.848-9704 ph 818.558-1904 fax firstname.lastname@example.org Jeremy C. Ahouse Biology Department Brandeis University Waltham, MA 02254-9110 ph: (617) 736-4954 fax: (617) 736-2405 email: email@example.com web: http://www.rose.brandeis.edu/users/simister/pages/Ahouse _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:5>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Oct 1 20:49:55 1996 Date: Tue, 01 Oct 1996 21:49:37 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: More on John Evans, evolutionary numismatist (fwd from Andrew Brown) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Fri, 27 Sep 1996 10:30:45 +0000 From: Andrew Brown <email@example.com> Subject: More on John Evans To: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu ==================== DNB extract follows ==================== Evans, Sir John 1823-1908, archaeologist and numismatist, born on 17 Nov. 1823 at Britwell Court, Burnham, Buckinghamshire, was second son of Arthur Benoni Evans, D.D. [q.v.], headmaster of the grammar school of Market Bosworth, Leicestershire, by his wife Anne, daughter of Thomas Dickinson, R.N. Anne Evans [q.v.] was a sister, and Sebastian Evans [q.v.] a brother. John was educated at his father's school, and was entered in 1839 for matriculation at Brasenose College, Oxford, of which college he was towards the close of his life (1903) made an honorary fellow. He did not, however, proceed to the university, but after spending seven months in Germany entered in 1840, at the age of seventeen, the paper-manufacturing business of John Dickinson & Co., at Nash Mills, Hemel Hempsted, Hertfordshire, of which firm his uncle, John Dickinson, F.R.S., was founder and senior partner (The Firm of John Dickinson, 1896, p. 15). In 1850 Evans was admitted a partner. He proved a strenuous man of business, keenly alive to every scientific improvement and quick to grapple with complicated details. Although he did not retire from the active duties of his firm till 1885, he always pursued many and diverse interests. When a boy of nine he had shown leanings towards natural science, and had hammered out for himself a collection of fossils from the Wenlock limestone quarries at Dudley. His later scientific studies were partly influenced by the practical requirements of his business. Water-supply being of primary importance to the paper-manufacturer, and his firm being engaged in an important law-suit, Dickinson v. The Grand Junction Canal Co., he made a special study of the subject, on which he became a recognised authority. He gave evidence before the royal commission on metropolitan water-supply, 1892. In his own district he explored the superficial deposits, as well as the deeper water-bearing strata, and investigated such matters as the relations between rainfall and evaporation, and the percolation of rain through soil. He kept in his own care the rain-gauges and percolation-gauges erected by his uncle at Nash Mills. In 1859 Evans accompanied Sir Joseph Prestwich [q.v.], the geologist, to France, as his assistant in an examination of flint-implements found in the old river-gravels of the valley of the Somme. Prestwich and Evans confirmed the opinion of the discoverer, Boucher de Perthes (circ. 1841-7), that these chipped flints were human handiwork and that they helped to prove the antiquity of man in western Europe. Evans wrote in 1860 in the "Archaeologia" on "Flint Implements in the Drift, being an account of their discovery on the Continent and in England" (xxxviii. 280; cf. xxxix. 57). He now began to devote more continuous attention to the traces of early man in river-gravels and cavern-deposits, and formed a remarkable collection of stone and bronze implements, partly by the purchase of representative examples, partly by his own keenness in the discovery of specimens, even on ground already explored by other collectors. From time to time he published notices, in the "Proceedings" of the Society of Antiquaries and of the Royal Society, of the discovery and distribution of new specimens. He was also interested in fossil remains of extinct animals and published an important paper, ("Nat. Hist. Rev." 1865; cf. "Geol. Mag." 1884, pp. 418-24) on the "Cranium and Jaw of an Archeopteryx." Evans also formed various collections of mediaeval and other antiquities, Anglo-Saxon, Lombardic jewellery, posy-rings, bronze weapons, and ornaments. In two books on primitive implements Evans gathered together all the evidence as to provenance, types, and distribution, and they were recognised as standard treatises. The first, "The Ancient Stone Implements, Weapons and Ornaments of Great Britain," was published in 1872 (French trans. 1878), a second and revised edition being issued in 1897. The other work, "The Ancient Bronze Implements, Weapons, and Ornaments of Great Britain and Ireland," was published in 1881 (French trans. 1882). Evans had a special predilection for numismatics, and formed splendid collections of ancient British money, of gold coins of the Roman emperors, including some unique specimens, and of Anglo-Saxon and English coins, among which the gold series was especially noticeable. To the pages of the "Numismatic Chronicle" he made more than a hundred contributions, many of them accounts of hoards and of unpublished coins from his own cabinets. His important paper ("Numismatic Chronicle," 1865) on "The short-cross Question," was the outcome of an examination of more than 6000 specimens of the early silver pennies inscribed with the name Henricvs, and he was able to show that these coins belonged to several classes and that they were attributable to the respective reigns of Henry II, Richard, John, and Henry III. But his attention was chiefly concentrated on the coinage of the ancient Britons. His paper "On the Date of British Coins," published in the "Numismatic Chronicle" for 1849-50 (xii. 127), was the first attempt to place the study of this coinage on a scientific basis. He showed, with pre-Darwinian instinct, that the appearance on these coins of horses, wheels, and ornaments, of which, previously, fanciful explanations had been given, was due to a slow process of evolution, and that the designs ("types") on the coins were the remote and degraded descendants of those on the gold staters of Philip of Macedon. Evans's conception of evolution as applied to the "types" and "fabric" of coins has since borne fruit in other branches of numismatics (cf. Keary, Morphology of Coins, and Evans's own paper, "Coinage of the Ancient Britons and Natural Selection," in the Transactions of the Hertfordshire Natural History Society, vol. iii. 1885). In 1864 he published the standard work, "The Coins of the Ancient Britons," for which he was awarded the Prix Allier de Hauteroche of the French Academy. A "Supplement" was published in 1890, in which Evans described the discoveries subsequent to 1864, and inserted a map showing the find-spots of British coins. Evans's varied knowledge, his grip of business, and habit of rapid decision made him a valuable officer of learned societies. He was elected F.R.S. in 1864, and for forty years took a conspicuous part in the society's business. He was a vice-president from 1876 and treasurer from 1878 to 1898. He joined the Geological Society in 1857, served as honorary secretary (1866-74), as president (1874-6), and acted as foreign secretary from 1895 till his death. In 1880 he received its Lyell medal for services to geology, especially post-tertiary geology, and his labours were eulogised as having bridged over the gulf that had once separated the researches of the archaeologist from those of the geologist. He became a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1852, and was its president from 1885 to 1892. The Numismatic Society of London (since 1904 the Royal Numismatic Society) was one of the earliest bodies that he joined. He became a member in 1849, was hon. secretary from 1854 to 1874, and president from 1874 till his death. From 1861 onwards he was a joint-editor of the society's journal, "The Numismatic Chronicle." In 1887 he received the society's medal (struck in gold) for distinguished services to numismatics. He acted as president of the Anthropological Institute (1878-9), the Egypt Exploration Fund, the Society of Arts (chairman in 1900), the Paper-makers' Association, and the Society of Chemical Industry. He was president of the British Association in 1897-8 (Toronto meeting), when he gave an address on the Antiquity of Man, and was a trustee of the British Museum from 1885 till his death; he took an active part in the meetings of its standing committee. Evans was a member of numerous scientific and archaeological bodies in foreign countries and had many academic honours. He was hon. D.C.L. of Oxford, LL.D. of Dublin and Toronto, Sc.D. of Cambridge, and a correspondent (elected in 1887) of the Institute of France (Academy of Inscriptions). In 1892 he was created K.C.B. In spite of almost daily engagements in London, Evans lived nearly all his life at his home at Nash Mills, Hemel Hempsted, in an old-fashioned house, close to the mills. It was filled in every corner with books and antiquities (cf. Herts County Homes, 1892, p. 138). Here Evans was seen in his happiest mood, showing his treasures freely and with undisguised pleasure, and entertaining almost every European antiquary of note, not excluding many young scholars and collectors, from whom he never withheld encouragement. He was active too in county business. For some years he was chairman of quarter sessions, and vice-chairman and chairman of the county council, Hertfordshire. He served as high sheriff of the county in 1881. He was president and one of the founders (1865) of the Watford (afterwards the Herts) Natural History Society, and for more than twenty-three years chairman of Berkhamsted school. In 1905 Sir John built a house, Britwell, on the edge of Berkhamsted Common, removing from Nash Mills in June 1906. He maintained his activities in old age, dying at Britwell on 31 May 1908, after an operation. He was buried in the parish church of Abbot's Langley, where there is a marble memorial of him, with a portrait-medallion by Sir William Richmond, R.A. A memorial window was placed in the chapel of Berkhamsted school. Evans married in 1850 Harriet Ann, daughter of his uncle, John Dickinson, by whom he had three sons and two daughters. The eldest son, Sir Arthur John Evans, F.R.S., is the well-known archaeologist and explorer of Crete. One daughter became the wife of Mr. Charles James Longman, the publisher. By his second marriage in 1859 to his cousin Frances, daughter of Joseph Phelps of Madeira, he had no children. He married, thirdly, in 1892, a lady of kindred archaeological tastes, Maria Millington, daughter of Charles Crawford Lathbury of Wimbledon. Lady Evans and the one child of the marriage, a daughter Joan, survive him. Evans left his principal collections of implements, coins, rings, and ornaments to his son, Sir Arthur Evans, who has presented certain portions of them to the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. His collection of Lambeth pottery was sold at Christie's on 14 Feb. 1911. Many of the later varieties of his collection of Roman gold coins were sold by auction at the Hotel Drouot, Paris, on 26 and 27 May 1909. An admirable portrait was painted by A. S. Cope, R.A., for the Royal Society (there are photogravure reproductions issued by the Fine Art Society, New Bond Street London). A second portrait by the Hon. John Collier was presented by subscription in 1905 in recognition of his public work in Hertfordshire (a replica is in the court house, St. Albans). A portrait-bust is on the obverse of the jubilee medal of the Numismatic Society of London (1887), engraved by Pinches from a drawing, and a large bronze cast medallion was executed by Frank Bowcher in 1899 for the Numismatic Society of London to celebrate Evans's fifty years' membership of the society (there is a reduced photograph of it in the "Numismatic Chronicle," 1899, pl. xi.). A good photograph is in the "Geological Magazine," 1908, plate i. ------------------------------ Andrew Brown Religious Affairs Correspondent, The Independent, London Not in the office right now. firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:6>From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue Oct 1 13:25:46 1996 Date: Tue, 1 Oct 1996 14:25:16 -0400 To: email@example.com (Darwin List) From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Jeremy C. Ahouse) Subject: 'Evolution' diffusing into the arts (Blues) Originally sent to the list 9/12/96 but never posted at my site. My apologies if you are seeing this again. ___________ DarwinL, flipping through the blues CDs at my favorite used CD store, my fingers lingered on a recent release from John Hammond. As I thought about the purchase I turned it in my hand, and noticed that one of the cuts was the "Evolution Blues" (words below). This tune is credited to Sam (Sammy) Price and Pleasant Joseph (aka Cousin Joe). (I have included the lyric as sung by John Hammond below). I exchanged notes with Pleasant Joseph's coauthor Harriet Ottenheimer (1987). She wrote me; >one year when the American Anthropological Association >was meeting in New Orleans, and Joe was still a regular on Bourbon >Street, I brought a group of anthro-friends to hear him. He agreed that >this was a particularly appropriate group for whom to perform the tune. > >I don't know as much as I would like to have known about the genesis of >this particular tune, but I do know that Joe was always looking for >interesting and arresting phrases around which to construct new songs. >The phrase, as you probably know, in Evolution Blues, goes something like >"it took a million years to make a man out of a monkey, but you sure made >a monkey out of me." It does, certainly, reflect the move of the >biological reality of evolution into a blues song, and in a very >interesting way, it seems to me. ... >(By the way, in keeping >with custom of the times, blues composers often had someone else attach >their names to their compositions--in this case Sam Price, who was a >musician who played with Joe on some of his 1940s recordings). All this makes me ask, do you all have other examples of evolution moving into popculture? Thanks, Jeremy _________ Evolution Blues (Sam Price/Pleasant Joseph) Nature made man out of monkey according to scientific history Nature made man out of monkey according to ancient history But it took a beautiful woman, to make a monkey out of me Well she'll give you little sweet talk and great big hug and squeeze ... she'll give you little sweet talk and great big hug and squeeze and before you know it, that woman will have you climbing trees Now you take old Samson he was the strongest man ... and now you take old Samson he was the strongest man But you know Delilah made him shave his head, just as clean as his hands You can be as strong as an ox or as big as a whale Yeah, you can be as strong as an ox or as big as a whale But when that woman gets through with you, all you'll need is a tail According to scientific history, so it was told to me, it took a thousand years for nature to make a man out of monkey but it took a very short time for a woman to make a monkey out of man You don't need map of the world or blueprint to understand. - covered by Hammond, John (1995) Found True Love. Virgin Records America, Inc. ___________ Joseph, Pleasant "Cousin Joe" 1907- & Harriet J. Ottenheimer 1941- (1987) Cousin Joe: blues from New Orleans. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. 227 pg. LC Call No.: ML420.C72 A3 1987 ISBN: 0226411982 ___________ Jeremy C. Ahouse Biology Department Brandeis University Waltham, MA 02254-9110 ph: (617) 736-4954 fax: (617) 736-2405 email: email@example.com web: http://www.rose.brandeis.edu/users/simister/pages/Ahouse _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:7>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed Oct 2 00:28:30 1996 Date: Wed, 02 Oct 1996 01:28:20 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: October 2 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro OCTOBER 2 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1836: His Majesty's Ship "Beagle" with Charles Darwin on board arrives back in her home port, having spent the past five years circumnavigating the globe. Darwin writes in his diary: "After a tolerably short passage, but with some very heavy weather, we came to anchor at Falmouth. -- To my surprise and shame I confess the first sight of the shores of England inspired me with no warmer feelings, than if it had been a miserable Portuguese settlement. The same night (and a dreadfully stormy one it was) I started by the Mail for Shrewsbury." Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:8>From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue Oct 1 23:57:04 1996 From: Joe Felsenstein <email@example.com> Subject: Re: Blending inheritance To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Tue, 1 Oct 1996 22:07:04 -0700 (PDT) John Wilkins asked: > Can anyone recommend a good treatment of blending inheritance and why it > was a problem in Jenkins' criticisms? I need to understand the reason > why Mendelian particulate inheritance is not subject to the same > problems, and thus why blending inheritance is. A philosophical > treatment would be most helpful. The simplest reason is that in Mendelian inheritance, when an individual is formed by uniting a gamete that bears the "A" alele with one that bears the "a" allele, the resulting heterozygous individual will produce two kinds of gamete ("A" and "a") in equal frequencies. Thus the variation among gametes does not decrease as a result of Mendelian segregation. By contrast, blending inheritance would predict that all gametes that the individual produces would have medium-sized A's, with no big-A or small-a gametes. The result is less variability among gametes each generation. In fact, half the variance disappears each generation. -- Joe Felsenstein email@example.com (IP No. 220.127.116.11) Dept. of Genetics, Univ. of Washington, Box 357360, Seattle, WA 98195-7360 USA _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:9>From Robert.Richardson@UC.EDU Wed Oct 2 08:34:33 1996 Date: Wed, 02 Oct 1996 09:37:29 -0400 From: Robert.Richardson@UC.EDU (Robert C. Richardson) Subject: Re: Blending inheritance To: firstname.lastname@example.org >John Wilkins asked: >> Can anyone recommend a good treatment of blending inheritance and why it >> was a problem in Jenkins' criticisms? I need to understand the reason >> why Mendelian particulate inheritance is not subject to the same >> problems, and thus why blending inheritance is. A philosophical >> treatment would be most helpful. This turns out to be a complicated question. Felsenstein's answer is very much the standard one, recognized first (as far as I know) by R.A. Fisher in *The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection* (1930). Fisher said that "... even relatively intense selection will change the ratio p:q of the gene frequencies relatively slowly, and no reasonable assumptions could be made by which the dimunition of variance due to selection, in the total absence of mutations, would be much more than a ten-thousandth of that ascribable to blending inheritance" (p. 10). What Felsenstein says is this: >The simplest reason is that in Mendelian inheritance, when an individual >is formed by uniting a gamete that bears the "A" alele with one that bears >the "a" allele, the resulting heterozugous individual will produce two >kinds of gamete ("A" and "a") in equal frequencies. Thus the variation >among gametes does not decrease as a result of Mendelian segregation. > >By contrast, blending inheritance would predict that all gametes that the >individual produces would have medium-sized A's, with no big-A or small-a >gametes. The result is less variability among gametes each generation. >In fact, half the variance disappears each generation. There are brief discussions of Darwin, Jenkin and blending inheritance in David Hull's *Philosophy of Biological Science* (Prentice Hall, 1974), as well as in Dobzhansky, Ayala, Stebbins and Valentine (1977). These pretty much agree with Felsenstein's description. There is also a relatively independent historical issue, concerning exactly what Darwin thought of the issue and how this affected 19th Century debates over Darwinism. That is, at least, less clear. Darwin's own view, as is well known, embraced particulate inheritance but blending at what we would call the level of the phenotype. For a view that takes an entirely different line from the more orthodox biological view, it's worth reading Peter J. Vorzimmer, "Charles Darwin and Blending Inheritance," in *Isis* 54 (1963), 371-90 or Vorzimmer's *Charles Darwin: The Years of Controversy* (Temple Uninversity Press, 1970). Robert C. Richardson email: Robert.Richardson@uc.edu Professor of Philosophy office phone: 513-556-6327 University of Cincinnati dept. fax: 513-556-2939 _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:10>From email@example.com Wed Oct 2 15:15:36 Date: 2 Oct 1996 12:45:24 U From: "Charlie Urbanowicz" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Darwin/DarwinSem-S95.html To: email@example.com Cc: "Donna Crowe" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Dear Darwin-L people: Individuals might be interested in a (rather) lengthy paper located at: http://www.csuchico.edu/~curban/Darwin/DarwinSem-S95.html While it is slightly out of date, we are still editing/working on the two "instructional videotapes" mentioned in the text = clicking on "Urbanowicz" and "Darwin" in the title will give you some idea of what we did here. Enjoy. Charlie Urbanowicz [email@example.com] _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:11>From firstname.lastname@example.org Wed Oct 2 07:53:27 1996 Date: Wed, 2 Oct 1996 07:53:22 -0500 (CDT) From: Gregory Mayer <email@example.com> Subject: Re: 'Evolution' diffusing into the arts (Blues) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Devo had a song popular in the late 70s which had the following lines in it: God made man, but he used a monkey to do it. God made man, but who made you? They say that we lost our tails, Evolving up, from little snails. I say it's all just wind in sails. Are we not men? We are Devo. The penultimate line also shows the influence of H.G. Wells. The lines are not necessarily in the order in which they appeared in the song (the title of which also escapes me; perhaps some devotee of VH-1 will be able to supply this). The name of the group is a shortened form of "de-evolution": some statement about decline, I suppose. Also, Gloria Estefan's summer tour this year was called "the Evolution Tour", and promoted widely and prominently as such. I haven't any idea what the connection between her tour and evolution might be. Gregory C. Mayer email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:12>From firstname.lastname@example.org Wed Oct 2 12:31:23 1996 From: "Dr. William C. Kimler, History" <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Wed, 2 Oct 1996 13:30:55 EST Subject: Re: 'Evolution' diffusing into the arts (Blues) Jeremy Ahouse asked about "other examples of evolution moving into popculture". For novels and poetry, start with David Oldroyd's _Darwinian Impacts_ (1983). In music, there are a number of modern rock songs with lyrical reference to biological origins and thus human nature. But I figured Darwin-L members would be more interested in this gem from 1874: "Too Thin. Or Darwin's Little Joke. A humorous Song." Words by Grace Carleton. Music by O'Rangoutang. Published by Wm. A Pond & Co., New York. Lyrics: 1. Upon my life the strangest things Now come to pass each day; One Darwin to a fellow brings Our ancesters [sic] so gray! It's very funny, odd and queer, He says this manly shape, This form to all the girls so dear Descended from an Ape! Chorus: It certainly is most absurd The fact can never be! My great grand daddy never was A "Monkey" up a tree! 2. He tells us, years and years ago That we were only Fleas! That ev'ry fellow had to grow From wretched bugs like these. Then we were Ostriches and Rats When this old world was new. And Elephants and Thomas-cats, Likewise a Kangaroo! 3. Now if it should be true that we Were "Croton Bugs" and "Flies," One may be a "Managerie" [sic] Before a fellow dies! -- A "Lapdog" for the girls to pet, A "Porpoise" or a "Frog;" Who knows that I may not be yet A festive "Polliwog!" 4. What Darwin says may all be true, Though very rough on us; Who wants to be related to A "Hippopotamus?" I choose to be a daisy bright, And I'll be that alone; All other relatives, in spite Of Darwin I disown! The cover illustration to the sheet music is priceless, with dancing monkeys encircling a Lincoln-esque figure in a position of prayer [Lincoln was often called a monkey in the press]; and off to the side is a caricatured African in ruffed shirt, cut-away, and yet no shoes, and he's holding hands with a chimp. You can take a look at a scan of a weak photocopy at http://social.chass.ncsu.edu/~kimler/toothin.jpg William ******************************** Dr. William Kimler Department of History - Box 8108 North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC 27695-8108 (919) 515-2483 FAX 515-3886 email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:13>From firstname.lastname@example.org Wed Oct 2 22:12:38 1996 From: "Patti H. Smith" <email@example.com> To: Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu Date: Wed, 2 Oct 1996 22:12:51 +0000 Subject: Charles Darwin - The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals Looking for information regarding Charles Darwin's book, "The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals." Any recent book reviews, comments, etc. Can anyone help? Patti H. Smith (firstname.lastname@example.org) _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:14>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri Oct 4 12:47:18 1996 Date: Fri, 04 Oct 1996 13:47:07 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Mutter Museum on the history of medicine (fwd from nhcoll-l) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro The following message which I received from nhcoll-l may be of interest to Darwin-L members. Museums are among the most important institutional structures in the historical sciences, and when they come under threat we should all be concerned. The attitudes people show toward collections is often an important indicator of the attitudes they show toward history. Bob O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Mon, 23 Sep 1996 9:24:25 -0400 (EDT) From: BENAMY@say.acnatsci.org To: nhcoll-l@ucmp1.BERKELEY.edu Subject: reposting essay on the Mutter Museum Message-ID: <email@example.com> Hello nhcoll-l folk: The following essay was posted to museum-l almost a week ago and I have been vainly trying to send it on. I hope it gets through this time. Elana Benamy Collection Manager, Invert. Paleo. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Tue, 17 Sep 1996 09:04:10 -0700 From: Matthew Baggott <mbagg@ITSA.UCSF.EDU> Subject: Mutter Museum in Danger? As many of you may know, the Mutter Museum of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia (founded in 1849 as a Museum of Pathological Anatomy) is a wonderful medical history museum. Its impressive collection includes hundreds of fluid-preserved anatomical and pathological specimens, dried cadavers stained to highlight anatomical fatures, antique medical instruments, reproductions of various pathologies in wax, paper mache, and plastic, portraits, and more. Because the collection is displayed in wood and glass cases and isn't brightly illuminated, the museum has a unique, almost 19th century, atmosphere. I find it hard to describe the rich and thought-provoking character of the museum. For me, encountering a glass case of 139 skulls --each labelled by some by-gone Viennese anatomist with a terse (culturally-loaded) life summary and description-- provokes far more thoughts about the history and nature of medicine than most larger and better funded historical displays. Not only does the Mutter Museum compare favorably to more conventional history displays, but its atmosphere and displays seem to me appropriate for the nature of the collection. Martin R. Lipp, M.D., in _Medical Landmarks USA_ calls it "arguably America's finest medical pathological and historical museum" and you won't find me disagreeing. Although I do not fully understand the politics of the situation, there seems to be reason for concern about the Mutter Museum's future. Laura Lindgren, who had directed the production of the Mutter Museum Calendars, recently sent out a letter explaining that the calendar project had been cancelled and enclosed an article from Philadelphia's _City Paper_ ("Not with my Mutter You Don't: is the Museum losing its edge?" by Margit Detweiler, _City Paper_ July 19 - 25, 1996) which provided some background explanation for this event. I find the calendar's cancellation disappointing. The award-winning calendar included the work of many excellent photographers (such as Rosamond Purcell and Olivia Parker) and was produced entirely on a volunteer basis (thus earning the College an estimated $10,000/yr). I first learned of the museum through the calendar (which I saw mentioned in _Whole Earth Review_) and it seems many others have as well. The year after the first calendar was published, museum attendence increased three-fold. The 1996 calendar features artfully executed photographs of specimens from the museums collection. Like the museum, the calendar is quirky, beautiful, and fascinating. I am saddened to see it go. However, the calendar's cancellation wouldn't be significant if it didn't signal other, more troubling, trends. Apparently there is a new administration at the College of Physicians of Philadelphia who feels that the calendar "is an outdated reflection of who we are," to quote the new Director of Public Affairs, Dick Levinson. Levinson (as quoted in the _City Paper_ article) explains by saying "If we're going to be coming to people and talking about [the College of Physicians] and getting them to focus on the important things we're doing, we can't simultaneously be involved in peddling a calendar which, to a lot of people, really smacks of the strange and bizarre." Since the calendar is essentially a set of photographs of the collection, this reflects a deeply negative attitude about the collection itself. Levinson's implication is clear: maintaining and displaying the Museum's collection isn't important to the new administration. It seems that the new administration wants to remake the College of Physicians into a source of modern healthcare information and therefore is trying to de-emphasize the 'dark' and unusual character of the Museum. Levinson, whose position was created for him, and Executive Director Mark Micozzi were both hired last fall. Previously both had worked at the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Washington, D.C., where Micozzi was founding director and Levinson was PR director. Together, they had apparently attempted to create something some critics called a sanitized and staid "HMO-like museum" out of what had been the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. In the conversion, "inanimate organs were replaced with high-tech displays about health and nutrition." However, Congress failed to approve the $17 - 20 million needed for the conversion, leading Micozzi and Levinson to move to the College of Physicians. Micozzi and Levinson apparently further justify their efforts to change the museums' characters by claiming that contemporary sensitivity to the display of human remains justifies their removal. However, the _City Paper_ article quotes Jane Bedno, the director of the graduate program in museum exhibits at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia, who says the display of human remains is only unacceptable in museums when it is culturally or ethnically loaded. I don't think this is the case with most of the Mutter Museum's collection. It's not like these are sacred objects from other cultures; they're bladder stones from prominent statesmen and antique models for teaching medicine. Yes, there are preserved cadavers, but remains of the anonymous sit next to those of the rich and famous. The squeamish may not enjoy the museum, but no museum is for everyone. Much of history requires a 'strong stomach' and to make the museum "inoffensive" would be to destroy its greatness. So far, recent changes have included the addition of the C. Everett Koop Community Health Information Center (Koop CHIC) and new exhibit gallery, both adjacent to the Mutter Museum. The Koop CHIC seems to be an underutilized, but nice community resource and has a decent library of books, pamphlets, periodicals, and videos on health issues. The rather conventional "Say AHHH!" exhibit next to the Mutter Museum examined how Americans understand their risk of disease, the steps they take to prevent it, and the measures they believe will cure them. Both of these new features are reasonable and potentially valuable additions to the College of Physician's public resources. However, I strongly hope that these will be just that: additions to the Museum, not replacements. But given the obvious lack of respect and interest which the new adminstration shows towards the Mutter Museum's collection, I am not optimistic. I hope that all of you who share my interest in medical and scientific history will take the time to express concern over the changes taking place at the Museum. Unless we act fast, we are in danger of losing a unique and wonderful medical history resource. Please write to Dr. Albert Fishman, President of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, 19 South 22nd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA. Marc Micozzi, the new Executive Director, may also be reached at the same address. Tell them you are concerned over the recent changes at the museum. Let them know that the Museum and its collections are an important resource which deserves their continuing support. Of course, anyone in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania area is urged to visit and enjoy the Museum itself. It is a treasure which may not always be accessible. Please feel free to post or distribute this note to other appropriate forums. Thank you. Matt Baggott, email@example.com Research Associate, Drug Dependence Research Center, Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, University of California, San Francisco --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:15>From firstname.lastname@example.org Thu Oct 3 09:45:21 1996 From: "Neil Haave" <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Thu, 3 Oct 1996 08:42:54 +0000 Subject: Re: 'Evolution' diffusing into the arts (Blues) Gregory, I seem to remember that the Devo song was entitled "Are We Not Men" from an LP of the same title. Cheers Neil Haave, Ph.D. Associate Professor Division of Biology and Chemistry 4901 - 46 Avenue Camrose, AB T4V 2R3 Canada mailto:email@example.com http://www.augustana.ab.ca/ fax (403) 679 1129 voice (403) 679 1100 _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:16>From firstname.lastname@example.org Thu Oct 3 19:07:04 1996 Date: Thu, 3 Oct 1996 20:00:37 -0400 From: email@example.com To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: 'Evolution' diffusing into the arts (Blues) With respect to monkeys, humans and art, I recently came across a very interesting predarwinian example which will probably be found amusing by the Darwin-lers: Following Vesalius' attack on Galen, Vesalius' former teacher, Sylvius, attempted to defend Galen by stating that modern humans, i.e., sixteenth century, may be anatomically different than the ancient Greeks. Of course, since Galen had dissected Barbary Apes, this would make Greeks more like monkeys than modern humans! A satirical drawing was made in which monkeys were substituted for the human figures in the framous sculpture the Laocoon. The original is in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, and was drawn by Baldini during the sixteenth century. spencer turkel life sciences nyit email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:17>From firstname.lastname@example.org Thu Oct 3 17:05:09 1996 Date: Fri, 4 Oct 1996 07:55:45 +1000 To: A.J.Lock@massey.ac.nz, E.M.Bristol@massey.ac.nz From: email@example.com (Iain Davidson) Subject: Creation NEW OBSERVATIONS ON CREATION 6000 YEARS ON "Most of them certain, the rest probable, all harmless, strange and rarely heard of before" A symposium of the University of New England organised by the Department of Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology 23 October 1996-The 6000th Anniversary of Creation In 1642, Dr John Lightfoot, then Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, improved on the calculation of Archbishop Ussher that the Bible recorded the Creation as happening in 4004 BC with the estimate that it occurred at 9 am (6 pm Eastern Australian time) on 23 October. Lightfoot's claim was published in a book: A Few and New Observations on the Book of Genesis, the most of them certain, the rest probable, all harmless, strange and rarely heard of before. In this whimsical spirit, the following people will each have their day, in the Di Watson Lecture Theatre, Department of Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology. 3.30 pm Introduction 3.45 pm Day 1 Associate Professor Gerry Woolsey, Department of Physics "Let there be light" 4.00 pm Day 2 Associate Professor Peter Flood, Department of Geology and Geophysics "Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters ... let the dry land appear" 4.15 pm Day 3 Dr Margaret Brock, Department of Botany "Let the earth bring forth grass, the kind that yields seed according to its kind, and the tree that yields fruit, whose seed is in itself according to its kind." 4.30 pm Day 4 Dr Mathew Fewell, Department of Physics "Let there be lights in the firmament of the heavens to divide the day from the night ...He made the stars also." 4.45 pm Day 5 Professor Peter Jarman, Department of Ecosystem Management "Let the waters abound with sea creatures and every living thing that moves ... and every winged bird according to its kind. ... Let the earth bring forth the living creature according to its kind: cattle and creeping thing and beast of the earth each according to its kind." 5.00 pm Day 6 Dr Peter Brown, Department of Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology "Let us make man in our own image, according to our likeness." 5.15 pm Day 7 Mr Ken Kippen, Department of Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology "... and he rested" 5.30 pm Day 8 Associate Professor Iain Davidson, Department of Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology Associate Professor William Noble, Department of Psychology "In the beginning was the word." 5.45 pm Conclusion Professor Graham Maddox, Dean of Arts 6pm The Big Bang (Champagne will be served) Please stay to celebrate with apples, figs and jelly snakes. Dress optional ************************************* Iain Davidson Tel +61 +67 732 441 Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology Fax +61 +67 732 526 University of New England Armidale, NSW 2351 AUSTRALIA Home page http://www.une.edu.au/~Arch/ArchHome.html see also http://www.une.edu.au/~Arch/HumEv.html for a description of W. Noble & I. Davidson 1996 Human evolution, language and mind. Cambridge University Press. ##################################### _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:18>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sun Oct 6 12:15:46 1996 Date: Sun, 06 Oct 1996 13:06:43 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: October 2 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro OCTOBER 6 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1892: ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON, poet laureate of England, dies at 1:35 a.m. He will be buried in Westminster Abbey. Tennyson's life had spanned much of the nineteenth century, and he will be remembered by historical scientists for producing one of the greatest literary expressions of the collapse of the static and providential world-view of natural theology under the weight of the new historical geology, with its emphasis on the succession of types, extinction, and the "struggle for existence": Are God and Nature then at strife, That Nature lends such evil dreams? So careful of the type she seems, So careless of the single life; That I, considering everywhere Her secret meaning in her deeds, And finding that of fifty seeds She often brings but one to bear, I falter where I firmly trod, And falling with my weight of cares Upon the great world's altar-stairs That slope thro' darkness up to God, I stretch lame hands of faith, and grope, And gather dust and chaff, and call To what I feel is Lord of all, And faintly trust the larger hope. 'So careful of the type?' but no. From scarped cliff and quarried stone She cries, 'A thousand types are gone: I care for nothing: all shall go. 'Thou makest thine appeal to me: I bring to life, I bring to death: The spirit does but mean the breath: I know no more.' And he, shall he, Man, her last work, who seem'd so fair, Such splendid purpose in his eyes, Who roll'd the psalm to wintry skies, Who built him fanes of fruitless prayer, Who trusted God was love indeed And love Creation's final law -- Tho' Nature, red in tooth and claw With ravine, shriek'd against his creed -- Who loved, who suffer'd countless ills, Who battled for the True, the Just, Be blown about the desert dust, Or seal'd within the iron hills? No more? A monster then, a dream, A discord. Dragons of the prime, That tare each other in their slime, Were mellow music match'd with him. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server (http://rjohara.uncg.edu) for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:19>From firstname.lastname@example.org Sun Oct 6 12:00:52 1996 Date: Sun, 06 Oct 1996 19:04:11 +0200 From: Paul Sammut <email@example.com> Organization: Video On Line - Malta To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: Charles Darwin - The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals Patti H. Smith wrote: > > Looking for information regarding Charles Darwin's book, "The Expression > of Emotions in Man and Animals." Any recent book reviews, comments, etc. > > Can anyone help? > > Patti H. Smith (email@example.com) Hello Patti, I'm not sure this is what you want. While in London, from Foyles in Tottenham Court Road, I bought I copy of the work in question. It is a facsimile reprint with an introduction by Konrad Lorenz by the University of Chicago Press. The ISBN number is 0-226-13656-6. I am looking for photocopies of the minor writings of Darwin, like articles which appeared in the Amateur gardener, Journal of Geology etc. Any idea from where I can attempt to get these? Regards Paul M.Sammut firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <38:20>From email@example.com Mon Oct 7 09:46:13 1996 Date: Mon, 7 Oct 1996 10:45:45 -0400 To: firstname.lastname@example.org (Darwin List) From: email@example.com (Jeremy C. Ahouse) Subject: re: monkeys, humans and art To follow on to the monkeys, humans and art thread... There is, of course, the wonderful illustration from Punch's Almanack for 1882, December 6, 1881, "Man is but a worm". If you haven't seen it there is a version at; http://icg.harvard.edu/~bio17/general/index.html - Jeremy _______________________________________________________________________________ Darwin-L Message Log 38: 1-20 -- October 1996 End
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