Darwin-L Message Log 43: 1–33 — March 1997
Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences
Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.
This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during March 1997. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”
------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 43: 1-33 -- MARCH 1997 ------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L A Network Discussion Group on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu is an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Darwin-L was established in September 1993 to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among academic professionals in these fields. Darwin-L is not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin but instead addresses the entire range of historical sciences from an interdisciplinary perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical anthropology, historical geography, and related "palaetiological" fields. This log contains the public messages posted to Darwin-L during March 1997. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and some administrative messages and personal messages posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster. The master copy of this log is maintained on the Darwin-L Web Server at http://rjohara.uncg.edu. For instructions on how to retrieve copies of this and other log files, and for additional information about Darwin-L and the historical sciences, connect to the Darwin-L Web Server or send the e-mail message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com. Darwin-L is administered by Robert J. O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org), Center for Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A., and it is supported by the Center for Critical Inquiry, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and the Department of History and the Academic Computing Center, University of Kansas. _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:1>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sat Mar 1 12:23:33 1997 Date: Sat, 01 Mar 1997 13:23:28 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: List owner's monthly greeting To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Greetings to all Darwin-L subscribers. On the first of every month I send out a short note on the status of our group, along with a reminder of basic commands. For additional information about the group please visit the Darwin-L Web Server <http://rjohara.uncg.edu>. Darwin-L is an international discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences. The group is not devoted to any particular discipline, such as evolutionary biology, but rather seeks to promote interdisciplinary comparisons across the entire range of fields concerned with historical reconstruction, including evolution, historical linguistics, archeology, geology, cosmology, historical geography, textual transmission, and history proper. Darwin-L is not an amateur chat forum, nor a forum for discussion of creationism and evolution. Darwin-L currently has about 700 members from more than 35 countries. Because Darwin-L does have a large membership and is sometimes a high-volume discussion group it is important for all participants to try to keep their postings as substantive as possible so that we can maintain a favorable "signal-to-noise" ratio. Because Darwin-L is not a chat-oriented group, personal messages should be sent by private e-mail rather than to the group as a whole. The list owner does lightly moderate the group in order to filter out error messages, commercial advertising, and occasional off-topic postings. Subscribers who feel burdened from time to time by the volume of their Darwin-L mail may wish to take advantage of the "digest" option described below. Because different mail systems work differently, not all subscribers see the e-mail address of the original sender of each message in the message header (some people only see "Darwin-L" as the source). It is therefore very important to include your name and e-mail address at the end of every message you post so that everyone can identify you and reply privately if appropriate. Remember also that in most cases when you type "reply" in response to a message from Darwin-L your reply is sent to the group as a whole, rather than to the original sender. The following are the most frequently used listserv commands that Darwin-L members may wish to know. All of these commands should be sent as regular e-mail messages to the listserv address (firstname.lastname@example.org), not to the address of the group as a whole (Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu). In each case leave the subject line of the message blank and include no extraneous text, as the command will be read and processed by the listserv program rather than by a person. To join the group send the message: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L Your Name For example: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L John Smith To cancel your subscription send the message: UNSUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L If you feel burdened by the volume of mail you receive from Darwin-L you may instruct the listserv program to deliver mail to you in digest format (one message per day consisting of the whole day's posts bundled together). To receive your mail in digest format send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL DIGEST To change your subscription from digest format back to one-at-a-time delivery send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL ACK To temporarily suspend mail delivery (when you go on vacation, for example) send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL POSTPONE To resume regular delivery send either the DIGEST or ACK messages above. For a comprehensive introduction to Darwin-L with notes on our scope and on network etiquette, and a summary of all available commands, send the message: INFO DARWIN-L To post a public message to the group as a whole simply send it as regular e-mail to the group's address (Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu). I thank you all for your continuing interest in Darwin-L and in the interdisciplinary study of the historical sciences. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Dr. Robert J. O'Hara (email@example.com) | Darwin-L Server Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building | http://rjohara.uncg.edu University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Strong College Server Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. | http://strong.uncg.edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:2>From Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com Sat Mar 1 13:32:44 1997 From: "Izzy (Israel) Cohen" <Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com> To: DARWIN-L list <DARWIN-L@RAVEN.CC.UKANS.EDU> Cc: Jeffrey Henning - model lang <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: FW: Intro of new subscriber Date: Sat, 01 Mar 97 21:33:00 PST > I am a biology prof at Kennesaw State University in Georgia. > Have become interested in the well-known and oft-cited parallels between > biological and linguistic evolution. Would like to learn more about the > linguistic equivalents of biological "mutation" and "selection". In other > words, what causes linguistic change and then what causes these changes to > become established in a population? http://members.aol.com/JAHenning/index.htm is an interesting WEB site. Altho it purports to be about creating "model" languages, primarily for use in literary scripts, a la J.R.R.Tolkien, it is actually about the mechanisms of change in the development of real languages. Most of the examples are drawn from IndoEuropean languages. This site contains many fascinating examples which illustrate how English words have evolved to become the words we know today. Israel Cohen email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:3>From Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com Sat Mar 1 13:33:59 1997 From: "Izzy (Israel) Cohen" <Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com> To: DARWIN-L list <DARWIN-L@RAVEN.CC.UKANS.EDU> Subject: FW: Journal of Human Evolution Date: Sat, 01 Mar 97 21:35:00 PST forwarded by Israel Cohen firstname.lastname@example.org ---------- Subject: Journal of Human Evolution Date: Saturday, 1 March 1997 01:35AM From: james <email@example.com> http://www.hbuk.co.uk/ap/journals/hu/ This online version of the print journal of the same name is published by Academic Press, Inc. through a program titled IDEAL (International Digital Electronic Access Library). The Journal of Human Evolution concentrates on publishing papers covering all aspects of human evolution. The central focus is aimed jointly at palaeoanthropological work, covering human and primate fossils, and at comparative studies of living species, including both morphological and molecular evidence. These include descriptions of new discoveries, interpretative analyses of new and previously described material, and assessments of the phylogeny and palaeobiology of primate species. In addition to original research papers, space is allocated for the rapid publication of short communications on new discoveries, such as exciting new fossils, or on matters of topical interest, such as reports on meetings. The journal also publishes longer review papers solicited from workers active in particular fields of research. All manuscripts are subjected to review by three referees of whom two will be associate editors. Research Areas Include: Palaeoanthropological work, covering human and primate fossils Comparative studies of living species, including both morphological and molecular evidence Primate systematics, behaviour, and ecology in the context of the evolution of the group involved Functional studies, particularly relating to diet and locomotion Body size and allometric studies Studies in palaeolithic archaeology Taphonomic and stratigraphical studies supporting fossil evidence for primate and human evolution Palaeoecological and palaeogeographical models for primate and human evolution Some articles appearing in the December 1996 issue of the Journal include: 'Dental variation of Proconsul from the Tinderet region, Kenya', 'New Late-Pleistocene uranium-thorium and ESR dates for the Singa hominid (Sudan)', and 'Randomization procedures and sexual dimorphism in Australopithecus afarensis'. Subscription to this electronic journal involves licensing agreements with academic and industrial networks or consortia of libraries and can not be done on a personal or even title by title basis. However, the table of contents and article abstracts for each issue are available online free-of-charge. Articles are provided to members of subscriber institutions in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format. ISSN 0047-2484 Editors: L. Aiello and T. Harrison Email: firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:4>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Mar 3 16:45:27 1997 Date: Mon, 03 Mar 1997 17:45:17 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Darwin-L Web Server and new subscribers (from the list owner) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro A number of new subscribers have joined Darwin-L in the past week or two, and I thought it might be helpful for me to mention some of the things that are available on the Darwin-L Web Server <http://rjohara.uncg.edu>. The long introductory message that all members receive when they first join the group is available on the server under the ABOUT DARWIN-L heading, and the collection of irregularly-posted "Today in the Historical Sciences" messages are available by following the CALENDAR link. The FILES section of the server includes a number of miscellaneous files and working bibliographies on various topics in the historical sciences, including "trees of history", narrative in science, and the history of systematics. Some of these are a bit out of date, but they should still serve as useful starting points for further investigation. Also included in the FILES section is a complete list of all subscribers (about 660), and this list is updated monthly. For several weeks now all new subscribers have been asked to submit a statement of their interests in the historical sciences to the list owner. I have compiled all of these and they are also available now on the FILES page. They show what a remarkable range of interesting scholars we have here on Darwin-L. Long-time subscribers who would like to have their interests added to this list are invited to send them (following the existing format closely) to the list owner by private e-mail. The LOGS section of the Darwin-L Web Server contains cleanly-formatted copies of past Darwin-L discussions (mostly up to date); the raw logs are always available directly from the listserv itself (see About Darwin-L for instructions on how to retrieve them). The RESOURCES page contains links to a number of other web resources in the historical sciences. The web grows and changes so fast that it is impossible to make such a list comprehensive, but it should serve as an interesting starting point for subscribers in a browsing mood. A number of people have sent me e-mail saying that they were once members of the group but were dropped somehow and now wish to rejoin. Everyone should remember that the listserv software will automatically delete from the list anyone whose mail repeatedly bounces -- this is an essential feature from the point of view of a list manager, because with more than 600 people on the list almost any message posted to Darwin-L will bounce back from several addresses that are no longer valid. I'm grateful to all our subscribers for their continuing contributions to the group and to the comparative study of the historical sciences. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Robert J. O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) | Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building | http://rjohara.uncg.edu University of North Carolina at Greensboro | http://strong.uncg.edu Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. | _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:5>From Kim.Sterelny@vuw.ac.nz Mon Mar 3 18:56:51 1997 Date: Tue, 4 Mar 1997 14:03:45 +1300 To: email@example.com From: Kim.Sterelny@vuw.ac.nz (Kim Sterelny) Subject: a question on Owen Dear All, I seem to recall Owen as having once proposed that the human species be recognised as a separate phylum in recognition of our cognitive distance from all the other animals. But I have not been able to track a reference to this down. Does anyone know it off hand, or know whether I am conffusing Owen with someone else? Noone should go to any trouble over this, as this is only an example and I can substitute another if need be. I doubt whether this is of any interest to the list as a whole, so if anyone list member has this information, and a free minute to send it to: firstname.lastname@example.org i'd be grateful Kim Kim Sterelny Philosophy Victoria University of Wellington PO Box 600, Wellington New Zealand phone: 64/(0)4/4721-000 Fax: 64/(0)4/495-5130 _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:6>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Mar 3 21:20:42 1997 Date: Mon, 03 Mar 1997 22:17:57 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: NESTOR bibliography on the ancient Aegean (fwd) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- We here at NESTOR would like to announce the existence of NESTOR's new Home Page and the new online searchable NESTOR database (1957-1995), now available on the Web. Please type: http://ucaswww.mcm.uc.edu/classics/nestor/nestor.html for the Home Page or type: http://stream.blg.uc.edu/nestor/nsearch.html to go directly to the searchable database. There is a Help Page available. Cheers, -- Eric ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- | Eric H. Cline, Ph.D. | | | | Visiting Assistant Professor Adjunct Research Assistant Professor | | Dept of History, Xavier University Dept of Classics, Univ of Cincinnati | | Cincinnati, OH 45207 Cincinnati, OH 45219 | | (Cline@xavier.xu.edu; 513-745-3279) (Clinee@ucbeh.san.uc.edu) | | | | Editor, NESTOR | | Dept of Classics | | University of Cincinnati | | Cincinnati, OH 45219 | | (Nestor@ucbeh.san.uc.edu) | ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:7>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Mar 3 21:20:54 1997 Date: Mon, 03 Mar 1997 22:19:10 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: "Teaching Archaeometry" web site (fwd) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Sun, 02 Mar 1997 14:31:42 -0600 From: Sarah Wisseman <email@example.com> The new web site "TEACHING ARCHAEOMETRY" is finally available at: http://www.grad.uiuc.edu/departments/ATAM/teach-arch.html The purpose of the site is to provide resources for the teaching of archaeometry/archaeological science. It includes background on the field, course syllabi from several universities, a "Forum" for postings on curriculum and training issues, and other web links. Feedback is welcome. --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:8>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Mar 3 21:30:48 1997 Date: Mon, 03 Mar 1997 22:20:44 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Conservation of geological sites (fwd) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Mon, 24 Feb 1997 07:42:57 -0800 (PST) From: San Diego Natural History Museum <libsdnhm@CLASS.ORG> To: NHCOLL-L <NHCOLL-L@ucmp1.berkeley.edu>, ARCH-L <ARCH-L@TAMVM1.TAMU.EDU>, Subject: conservation of geological sites *Conservation of Geological Sites: March 24-27 Utah Field House of Natural History, Vernal, Utah, and Dinosaur National Monument, Jensen, Utah Geological-origin specimens and objects in museums are subject to a wide range of problems causing damage and deterioration. These courses provide an integrated overview of the nature, prevention and treatment of deterioration of geological materials, including collections in archaeology, paleontology, petrology, mineralogy, meteoritics, architecture, and sculpture. *Conservation of Geological Sites* surveys the unique problems faced when geological materials are managed or exhibited in situ. This course is designed for all museum and conservation professionals managing scientific or interpretive sites, as well as those managing outdoor exhibits or structures of geological-origin materials with no protection from weathering. This course lasts for four days and includes both lecture and practical sessions. Course handouts, manuals, and recommended reading lists will be provided on the first day. Fees include the costs of all lab chemicals and supplies. Information on lodging, transportation, and meals wills be sent to registrants. These costs are not included in the registration fee. Instructors: Sally Shelton, Director, Collections Care and Conservation, San Diego Natural History Museum. Ms. Shelton specializes in natural history conservation and is a graduate of the Cambridge course in geological consevation. She is the president-elect of the Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections. Each course will also feature regional experts as co-instructors. Course fees are $300 for one course; $575 for two; $850 for three; and $1100 for four. International Academic Projects is committed to providing high-level professional short courses to the museum and conservation communities. For a complete catalogue, please contact: Jim Black, International Academic Projects 31-34 Gordon Square London WC1H 0PY UK phone (171) 387 9651; FAX (171) 388 0283 email email@example.com web site http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~tcfa313 For more information on the geological conservation courses, please contact Sally Shelton at the address below. ------------------------------------------------------------------------- | San Diego Natural History Museum | | P. O. Box 1390 | | San Diego, California 92112 USA | | phone (619) 232-3821, x226; FAX (619) 232-0248 | | email LIBSDNHM@CLASS.ORG | ------------------------------------------------------------------------- --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:9>From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue Mar 4 02:27:14 1997 Date: Mon, 3 Mar 1997 22:26:50 -1000 From: Ron Amundson <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: a question on Owen On Mon, 3 Mar 1997, Kim Sterelny wrote: > Dear All, > I seem to recall Owen as having once proposed that the human > species be recognised as a separate phylum in recognition of our cognitive > distance from all the other animals. But I have not been able to track a > reference to this down. Does anyone know it off hand, or know whether I am > conffusing Owen with someone else? Noone should go to any trouble over > this, as this is only an example and I can substitute another if need be. Accd. to Nikolaas Rupke, in _Richard Owen Victorian Naturalist_, Owen place humans in a separate sub-class. (p. 268 ff.) Rupke thinks he had fairly direct religious/strategic reasons, partly because the work in which he said this contains Owen's strongest religious peroration (Rupke's vocabulary, not mine), and a footnote even describes how hard it is to separate humans from orangs on anatomical grounds alone. Paper was in J. Proc. Linnean Soc. 1858, and was given in a modified version as a public lecture. What might please you more, Kim, compliments of Rupke, is Isadore Geoffroy's classification of humans as a separate _kingdom_ (plants, animals, and us). "... it is by his faculties, so incomparably higher, by the addition of _intellectual_ and _moral faculties_ to the _faculty of sensation_ and the _faculty of motion_, that Man in his turn separates himself from the animal kingdom and consitutes above it, the supreme division of nature, the Human Kingdom." (from v. 2 of his Histoire naturell generale des regnes organiques, published 1854-1862, translation taken from a review in _Natural History Review_ 1862, p. 8) Anyone want to go for a separate state of matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas, and Man? Ron (in a sub-class of my own) __ Ron Amundson University of Hawaii at Hilo ronald@Hawaii.Edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:10>From John@attach.edu.ar Tue Mar 4 00:19:12 1997 From: Juan Carlos Garelli <John@attach.edu.ar> To: email@example.com Date: Tue, 4 Mar 1997 02:53:35 -0300 Subject: Re: a question on Owen Organization: Attachment Research Center In a message dated 4 Mar 97 at 14:03, a propos of: a question on Owen , Kim Sterelny says: > I seem to recall Owen as having once proposed that the human > species be recognised as a separate phylum in recognition of our > cognitive distance from all the other animals. But I have not been > able to track a reference to this down. Yes, Sir Richard Owen (1804-1892) wrote something along those lines in his very long anonymous review (The Edinburgh Review, 1860) of Darwin's Origin of Species, on which Darwin commented: It is extremely malignant, clever, and I fear will be very damaging... It requires much study to appreciate all the bitter spite of many of the remarks against me... He misquotes some passages, altering words within inverted commas... As Darwin's thesis began to become more widely known and accepted; it seems that Owen shifted his position somewhat. The London Review (1866) published a "communication" from him in which, although he denied the Darwinian doctrine, he admitted the accuracy of its basis, claiming to have been the first to have pointed out the truth of the principle on which it was founded. HTH, Juan Carlos Garelli, M.D., Ph.D. Department of Early Development University of Buenos Aires The Atachment Research Center Home Page URL is: http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Acropolis/3041 _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:11>From WirtAtmar@aol.com Mon Mar 3 23:32:55 1997 Date: Tue, 4 Mar 1997 00:32:31 -0500 (EST) From: WirtAtmar@aol.com To: firstname.lastname@example.org, Kim.Sterelny@vuw.ac.nz Subject: Re: a question on Owen Kim Sterelny writes: >I seem to recall Owen as having once proposed that the human >species be recognised as a separate phylum in recognition of our cognitive >distance from all the other animals. I do not know if Owen ever proposed such an idea, but Julian Huxley certainly did. My only reservation in answering your question more authoritatively is that I am no longer sure whether Huxley proposed that man be placed in a new kingdom, to be named Psychozoa, or whether he merely proposed Psychozoa as a grade level, a concept that is currently out of fashion in systematics. Mayr commonly refers to Huxley's proposal in his various writings (e.g., in "The Growth of Biological Thought", 1988, p. 240 and in "Toward a New Philosophy of Biology", 1988, p. 281) as that of placing man in the Kingdom Psychozoa. While I have access to most of Huxley's writings, there is one essay that I have unfortunately never seen (and which remains on my "to do" list). If Mayr is correct, I would strongly suspect that Huxley's proposal, as Mayr reports it, would appear in "The Uniqueness of Man," an essay Huxley published in 1940. It is important to understand Huxley's place in evolutionary biology in order to understand his motivations. Mayr has credited Huxley with being the primary motivating force in the change from the typological (essentialist) thinking to the populational views that are characteristic of the modern synthesis. Huxley saw virtually all species populations as being polytypic -- and introduced words such as "cline" and "isophene" into population biology. But perhaps more importantly, Huxley was unabashed in his view of evolution as a creative, progressive process -- a view he shared to some significant degree with all of the other primary architects of the modern synthesis (Mayr, Rensch, Simpson, Haldane, and Dobzansky), although he was more outspoken on this subject than most. Rensch, Simpson and especially Huxley wanted to see anagenesis (evolutionary progressions in design) represented in whatever systematic classificatory system that was to be adopted -- in contrast to a more simple cladogenetic (grouped by commonality of descent) systematics. I've enclosed a bit of Huxley's text at the end of this posting, and his views on such a systematics are quite evident. Clearly, Psychozoa, as a separate kingdom, does not exist in anyone's textbooks. Undoubtedly, a portion of the reason for its absence is simply political, political in the sense of public relations. On one hand, no biologist takes lightly his or her responsibility to insure that the lay public accurately understand the historical, evolutionary relationship that places man in the natural world. But on the other, most of us could quite easily and eloquently argue the appropriateness of the classification, on mere technical grounds alone. While the differences between humanity and all other Metazoa can be characterized as differences only of degree, especially if each difference is taken separately and analyzed piecemeal, the collective differences that exist between humanity and the remainder of Animalia are clearly profound. No other species exchanges so much information with such complex utterances, or possesses a memory so long, or so dominates and so transforms its environs. Nor does any other species see the world in so an extremely elaborate and subtle manner as humanity has come to see it, with so conscious an awareness of self, with such deep sense of spirituality and religion, or with such a sense of impending mortality. Nor has any other naturally evolved species ever "sensed" the extraordinary intracacies of nature, "felt" a subatomic particle, or abstracted the natural history of the world into a mathematics. Sentience is a quality not to be lightly dismissed. As of now, as far as we know, we are its sole representative in all of the universe. Of the three qualities of nature that characterize life (mass, energy, and information), information is the attribute most characteristic of life. Indeed, Manfred Eigen has argued that information does not exist in the inanimate universe, absent of life. Rather, information is a quality that defines life, and is itself defined by life. In that regard, the evolution of cooperative, task-partitioning multicellularity, as an informational schema, was a qualitative change in grade so great that the creation of three new kingdoms (Animalia, Plantae, and Fungi) is warranted in anyone's taxonomy. The obvious fact that one of these kingdoms has now fostered the evolution of a sentience so complete that as S. J. Gould likes to say, "Humanity is evolution contemplating itself," is sufficient to potentially demand the establishment of a new kingdom: Psychozoa. Human evolution no longer proceeds primarily through organic modification, but culturally, as the "evolution of the superorganic," as Alfred Kroeber, the early 20th Century anthropologist, has termed the process, and is more indicative yet of the nature of the profound change in informational grade that has occurred. Having been decoupled from the demands of organic evolution, human evolution is proceeding at an extraordinary pace. We are not the same organism we were 10,000 years ago -- or even a 100 years ago. Julian Huxley was wont to measure "evolutionary progress" as a measure of the disconnectance of the phyletic lineage from its environment. In that regard, a homeothermic mammal is a reptile wrapped in warm space-suit, self-heated, and far better isolated from the vagaries of its environment than any ancestral reptile, and is thus allowed to exploit novel adaptive zones that would be otherwise forbidden. Simpson, Rensch and Huxley visualized evolutionary anagenesis as a series of plateaus, plateaus with the tracks of cladogenesis written across them. Cladogenetic branching does not stop once evolution has settled on a flat plateau; cladogenesis (branches that form due to a lack of genetic communication) is actually more a function of mere time than progress. But every once and a while, some progress is made in some clade and some part of the cladogenetic tracks rise to another level -- and presumably more isolates yet again that phyletic lineage from its environment. By that measure of Huxley's alone, humanity stands unique. Three primary schools of thought have arisen on how best to approach the classificatory process: phenetics, cladistics, and evolutionary taxonomy. Clearly, cladistics now dominates, and for a very straightforward set of reasons: it is a simple procedure, one that is only marginally subjective, and is practicable for both extant and extinct taxa. But cladistics -- by itself -- is relatively informationally sterile. Indeed, the features chosen by the cladist must, by necessity, be selectively unimportant. If they were not, the cladistic process would be greatly confused by the recurrent convergent evolution of a feature or its selective elimination from successor lineages. Mayr writes: "As Rensch, Huxley, and others have emphasized, the anagenetic component of evolution often leads to the development of definite 'grades,' or levels of evolutionary change, which must receive recognition in classification. The objection raised by the cladists that this would introduce subjectivity into classification has been rejected by the evolutionary taxonomist with two arguments. The first is that cladistic method likewise is replete with subjectivity owing to decision making as to the polarity of evolutionary change, owing to mosaic evolution, and owing to decisions concerning evolutionary parallelism (Hull, 1979). The second counterargument is that in most cases it is not too difficult to calculate an approximate ratio between autapomorphies and synapomorphies of two sister groups. Whenever a clade (a phyletic lineage) has entered a new adaptive zone, resulting in a drastic reorganization, the transformation may have to be given greater taxonomic weight than the proximity of joint ancestry. The particular importance of the autapomorphies is that they reflect the occupation of new niches and new adaptive zones, which often are of far greater biological significance than the cladistic synapomorphies" (Mayr, 1982, "Growth of Biological Thought" p. 234). In the text immediately below however, Huxley recapitulates all of the arguments above but only suggests the name, Psychozoa, not as a kingdom, but as a grade label: ================================== "Biological classification aims at reflecting the facts of biological evolution. It is often assumed by zoologists that it does so by distinguishing groups accroding to their ancestry. Each taxonomic group, according to this view, is distinguishable because it is descended from one ancestral lineage. Thus, all species of weasels and stoats are pigenholed together in the genus >Mustela< because they are all descended from a single weasel-like ancestor; all families of carnivores are pigeon-holed in the order Carnivora because even such divergent creatures as seals, tigers, bears, and weasels are all descended from a single proto-carnivore lineage; all orders of mammals in the class Mammalia because their universal possession of hair, milk, and warm-blood is only comprehensible if they are all descended from a single proto-mammalian lineage with those properties. "Recently, however, it is becoming apparent that these taxonomic assumptions are fully valid only for a classification concerned with evolutionary divergence. Others are needed for a classification which also takes account of evolutionary advance. Thus G. G. Simpson in his >Meaning of Evolution< states that the latest and dominant group of bony fish 'called Teleostei in formal classification', is 'apparently a structural (and functional) grade' independently evolved by several lines; and this parallel evolution of improvements appears to be a common feature in smaller-scale deployments, like that of the horse family (Equidae). "Actually, the idea of a common grade of improvement in place or in addition to that of a common ancestry is implicit in much taxonomic practice. Thus from the strict common-ancestry point of view, birds and mammals are parts of the great reptilian radiation, and should be classed as orders on a par with other reptilian orders like Crocodiles or Dinosaurs. However, they both developed such outstanding improvements in general organization that they became new dominant groups more varied and more abundant than any reptilian order -- the birds primarily in the air and the mammals primarily on the land. For this reason, they are called classes, with new orders as their major subdivisions. Both are actually monophyletic groups; but whereas this fact of common ancestry is the basis of our classification of other products of reptilian radiation, in their case the decisive factor is advance to a new level of organization. >Aves< and >Mammalia< are grade labels as well as ancestry labels. "Sometimes, indeed, our taxonomy designates only grades. This would be so for teleost fish is Simpson's views are confirmed. It was once so for the subkingdom Metazoa, originally intended to cover all multicellular animals. Later, however, when it became clear that sponges had evolved independently to the multicellular level, the zealots for ancestry classification placed them in a new subkingdom, the Parazoa, leaving Metazoa as a combined grade and ancestry label for the rest of the multicellular animals. "I personally would like to see a new, evolutionary classification, which would combine the advance and ancestry principles. We would then have >groups< (Note 1) of common ancestry -- classes, orders, and other familiar designations, and >grades< of advance (advance sometimes independently achieved, sometimes in common), for which new designations would be needed. Thus, Birds and Mammals would continue to rank as two classes, but would be included in a single grade, which might be call >Homotherma<, since temperature regulation is their diagnostic improvement. Other obvious grade lables for Vertebrates would include terms already in use, such as >Gnathostomata< for forms with jaws, >Tetrapoda< for those with walking limbs, and >Amniota< for those with a protective 'private pond' for the embryo. I would hope that Metazoa would be restored to its original use as a grade label, and that Man would be placed in a new major grade, which might be called >Psychozoa< (J. S. Huxley, 1955. "Evolution, cultural and biological," Yearbook of Anthropology, reprinted in Huxley, 1957, "New bottles for New Wine," pp. 61-92). (Note 1) >Clades<, from the Greek for branches, is perhaps preferable, as more precise. =================================== Wirt Atmar email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:12>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri Mar 7 21:23:10 1997 Date: Fri, 07 Mar 1997 22:22:59 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Course on conservation of collections (fwd) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS COURSE Conservation of Natural Science Materials 5 week course 7th July - 8th August Certificate in the Care and Conservation of Natural Science Materials Venue: The Conservation Unit, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge Natural Science Collections contain a wide variety of materials of both inorganic and organic origin which are of educational, scientific and economic value. The management and conservation of natural science collections is vitally important to the safe-guarding of this important resource. Natural Science Materials are also found in other areas. These include ethnography, stone, or textiles collections. This courses will therefore appeal to conservators working with similar materials in other collections, such as ethnographic and archaeological conservators. to people responsible for the care of natural science collections, as well as existing natural science conservators. This 5 week course will cover natural science materials from a modern conservation perspective. It will discuss their treatments in light of approaches to similar materials in other areas of conservation and will also look at traditional methods of preparing and conserving this material. The course will cover the chemistry of these materials, control of deterioration (from both a passive and an active perspective) and collections maintenance. People who complete the course will have a solid overview of the factors which cause the deterioration of natural science materials and how these collections are maintained and conservation problems can be resolved. The course will include a large element of hands-on conservation relating to natural science materials. It is possible to arrange for individuals to take portions of the course. If you are interested in this then please contact Chris Collins at the address below. Course Details: Number of places on course: 10 - 12 Costs will cover all tuition fees, the course manual, site visits, tea and coffee. Lunch will be provided at a small extra cost if desired. Course Cost GBP 1100 Accommodation will be arranged separately depending on participants requirements. It is hoped that college accommodation will be available at a reduced rate. Course Structure Week 1 Preventive Conservation for Natural History Collections Introduction to Course Introduction to materials Inorganic Organic Agents of deterioration Value and Understanding of Materials Ethics and Documentation Legal problems Site Conservation and Collecting Surveying Collections Environmental Monitoring and Control Pest control and Monitoring Environmental Control Micro-environments Storage Techniques storage materials practical problems and solutions Anoxic Storage standards in the care of collections Week 2 - 3 Material Science Starting with whole object status and information of object material science of object preparation of material (and affects on original object) deterioration mechanisms Investigative techniques Chemistry and physics of Colour Oxygen in the environment Water in the environment Identification of deterioration organic inorganic Week 4-5 Conservation and Preparation Methodology Conservation Methodology Taking Practical Examples Traditional Techniques of Preparation Taxidermy, preparation and display of skins geological preparation entomological preparation botanical preparation techniques casting and moulding techniques Conservation Project Paper chemistry Techniques in conservation of paper Problems. treatments and solutions de-acidification mineral oxidation and hydration cleaning Resins and Adhesives ============= Chris Collins Geological Conservation Unit Dept. of Earth Sciences University of Cambridge Madingley Rise, Madingley Road Cambridge. CB3 OEZ tel: +44 1223 362522 fax: +44 1223 366860 --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:13>From firstname.lastname@example.org Fri Mar 7 12:50:14 1997 From: Ray Jennings <email@example.com> Subject: Re: Intro of new subscriber To: firstname.lastname@example.org Date: Fri, 7 Mar 1997 10:49:24 -0800 (PST) Hi: I am just finishing a book manuscript called "The Descent of Logic" which attempts to explain how connective meanings evolve from physical meanings, and how distinct logical meanings proliferate. The explanations depend upon the application of the vocabulary of species, mutation and so on, and seem to explain the data. I'd be happy to supply more details if it would be of any interest to you. R. E. Jennings, Department of Philosophy, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada V5A 1S6 (email@example.com) _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:14>From firstname.lastname@example.org Wed Mar 5 12:42:53 1997 Date: Wed, 05 Mar 1997 18:42:33 +0000 From: Jeremy Henty <email@example.com> Organization: The Olivetti and Oracle Research Laboratory To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: a question on Owen Juan Carlos Garelli <John@attach.edu.ar> wrote: > As Darwin's thesis began to become more widely known and accepted; > it seems that Owen shifted his position somewhat. The London Review > (1866) published a "communication" from him in which, although he > denied the Darwinian doctrine, he admitted the accuracy of its > basis, claiming to have been the first to have pointed out the truth > of the principle on which it was founded. Can you, or someone else, clarify this a little? What distinction did Owen draw between "the Darwinian doctrine", "its basis" and "the truth of the principle on which it was founded"? Jeremy Henty (mailto:email@example.com) _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:15>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sat Mar 8 00:40:16 1997 Date: Sat, 08 Mar 1997 01:40:10 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: March 8 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MARCH 8 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1841: OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES, JR., born at Boston, Massachusetts. In his college years at Harvard he will join the circle of Chauncey Wright, Charles Sanders Peirce, and William James, and under the influence of Darwinian thought this group will give birth to the school of philosophy that will come to be known as Pragmatism. Later, Holmes will become an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, and will author many influential texts on jurisprudence that reflect his historical perspective, including _The Common Law_ (1881): "The life of the law has not been logic: it has been experience. The felt necessities of the time, the prevalent moral and political theories, intuitions of public policy, avowed or unconscious, even the prejudices which judges share with their fellow-men, have had a good deal more to do than the syllogism in determining the rules by which men should be governed. The law embodies the story of a nation's development through many centuries, and it cannot be dealt with as if it contained only the axioms and corollaries of a book of mathematics. In order to know what it is, we must know what it has been, and what it tends to become. We must alternately consult history and existing theories of legislation....In Massachusetts to-day, while, on the one hand, there are a great many rules which are quite sufficiently accounted for by their manifest good sense, on the other, there are some which can only be understood by reference to the infancy of procedure among German tribes, or to the social condition of Rome under the Decemvirs." Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server <http://rjohara.uncg.edu> for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:16>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Mar 10 00:10:15 1997 Date: Mon, 10 Mar 1997 01:10:07 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: March 10 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MARCH 10 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1748: JOHN PLAYFAIR, mathematician and geologist, is born at Benvie, Scotland. Playfair will serve for several years in the ministry as a young man, and will later become professor of mathematics at the University of Edinburgh. For many years he will edit the _Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh_, where his friend James Hutton will first publish his cyclical theory of the earth in 1785. After Hutton's death in 1797, Playfair will devote himself to the extension and clarification of Hutton's work, and his _Illustrations of the Huttonian Theory of the Earth_ (Edinburgh, 1802) will deeply influence the later work of Charles Lyell. Like Hutton, Playfair will give great weight to the existence of stratigraphic unconformities as indicators of the great age of the earth, and in his biographical sketch of Hutton he will describe an expedition the two of them made with Sir James Hall to Siccar Point on the coast of Scotland, where deformed and uplifted Silurian slates are overlain by nearly horizontal beds of Devonian Old Red Sandstone. Playfair's account of the trip will go down as one of the most famous field reports in the history of geology: "On us who saw these phenomena for the first time, the impression made will not easily be forgotten. The palpable evidence presented to us, of one of the most extraordinary and important facts in the natural history of the earth, gave a reality and substance to those theoretical speculations which, however probable, had never till now been directly authenticated by the testimony of the senses. We often said to ourselves, what clearer evidence could we have had of the different formation of these rocks, and of the long interval which separated their formation, had we actually seen them emerging from the bosom of the deep? We felt ourselves necessarily carried back to the time when the schistus on which we stood was yet at the bottom of the sea, and when the sandstone before us was only beginning to be deposited (in the shape of sand or mud) from the waters of a superincumbent ocean. An epocha still more remote presented itself, when even the most ancient of these rocks, instead of standing upright in vertical beds, lay in horizontal planes at the bottom of the sea and was not yet disturbed by that immeasurable force which has burst asunder the solid pavement of the globe. Revolutions still more remote appeared in the distance of this extraordinary perspective. The mind seemed to grow giddy by looking so far into the abyss of time; and while we listened with earnestness and admiration to the philosopher who was now unfolding to us the order and series of these wonderful events, we became sensible how much farther reason may sometimes go than imagination can venture to follow." Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server <http://rjohara.uncg.edu> for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:17>From firstname.lastname@example.org Sat Mar 8 03:59:36 1997 Date: Fri, 7 Mar 1997 23:59:19 -1000 From: Ron Amundson <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: a question on Owen On Wed, 5 Mar 1997, Jeremy Henty wrote: > Juan Carlos Garelli <John@attach.edu.ar> wrote: > > > > As Darwin's thesis began to become more widely known and accepted; > > it seems that Owen shifted his position somewhat. The London Review > > (1866) published a "communication" from him in which, although he > > denied the Darwinian doctrine, he admitted the accuracy of its > > basis, claiming to have been the first to have pointed out the truth > > of the principle on which it was founded. > > Can you, or someone else, clarify this a little? What distinction did > Owen draw between "the Darwinian doctrine", "its basis" and "the truth > of the principle on which it was founded"? > > Jeremy Henty (mailto:email@example.com) I'm not sure what Juan intended by the distinction between the doctrine and its basis, but I think the allusion to "claiming to be the first to have pointed out the truth of the principle" refers to the very widespread mythology that Owen had claimed priority of discovery of the principle of natural selection. Here's the (revealing) story, taken from Rupke (previously cited) p. 246-7. 1) A popular journal reported about an earlier Owen paper that it had partially assented to the principle of nat. sel. 2) Owen wrote a letter to the London Review (the one Juan cites) in which he pointed out that the opinions (about extinctions) which had made the popular journal think he was an advocate of natural selection were actually _not_ advocating any such thing, and moreover those opinions (about extinctions) had been expressed by him (Owen) as early as 1850. So (ironically) if he _did_ concur with nat. sel. on the basis of those opinions (which he had not) then he would have held the theory of nat. sel. in 1850, and Darwin himself would have "adopted" his (Owens) views. This, of course, was all a somewhat obscurely jokey way of saying that Owen had _not_ assented to nat. sel. at all, and that the statement that he _had_ done so did not understand what the differences were between his and Darwin's theories. 3) Darwin, no friend of Owen's (any more, anyhow), misinterpreted this pompous wisecrack, and stated in the 4th ed. of the Origin that Owen had claimed priority. (I think this is the same edition in which he finally conceded that Owen had not been a creationist, as Darwin had implied in ithe 1st ed.) Such historians as MacLeod, Moore, and Ruse have attributed the priority claim to Owen, and no one up until Rupke (accd. to Rupke) had checked the original sources to discover the misunderstanding. This is not the only example of Darwin's mistaken interpretations of Owen being carried into the 20th century -- Darwin's opinion that Owen had been a creationist survived until fairly recently, and was the basis of Hoyle's ridiculous charge that Archeaeopterus was faked. There are plenty of other reports of Owen's smallmindedness (e.g. his claim of priority to von Baer's laws of embryogenesis), and I do not doubt that he was not warm and cuddly. But he was not Bishop "Soapy Sam" Wilberforce, as many of our histories would depict him. Nor, for that matter, was Bishop Wilberforce. It's the winners who write the histories. Ron __ Ron Amundson University of Hawaii at Hilo ronald@Hawaii.Edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:18>From firstname.lastname@example.org Sat Mar 8 23:54:43 1997 To: email@example.com Subject: Re: a question on Owen ; "Man is a man-made species!" -- Date: Sun, 09 Mar 1997 00:54:37 EST From: Joshua Lederberg <firstname.lastname@example.org> <<< Anyone want to go for a separate state of matter: Solid, Liquid, Gas, and Man? Date: Mon, 3 Mar 1997 22:26:50 -1000 From: Ron Amundson <email@example.com> >>>> Theilhard de Chardin and Julian Huxley more or less did do that in their classification of chemosphere biosphere noo"sphere I heard this from Huxley at: Wolstenholme G. (Ed.) Man and His Future Ciba Found. Sym. 1962, 263-273. London publ: J. A. Churchill Ltd. London; Little Brown Co. Boston (1963) While I'm on the topic, can anyone fill me in on the provenience of the aphorism that "Man is a man-made species!" -- perhaps Marx, Kroeber, or Whyte?? cf: 214. Lederberg, J., 1973. The genetics of human nature. Social Res. 40:375-406. Reply-to: (J. Lederberg)firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:19>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Mar 10 21:45:18 1997 Date: Mon, 10 Mar 1997 22:45:05 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Conjecture about Owen To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro I've long had a conjecture about Owen's supposed crankiness. If you look at photographs of him in his later years he seems very clearly to have protruding eyeballs, a common symptom of hyperthyroidism which often makes people somewhat irritable and jumpy. I wouldn't be surprised if Owen was hyperthyroid later in life and that that contributed to his difficult personality. Bob O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:20>From VISLYONS@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu Mon Mar 10 19:54:16 1997 Date: Mon, 10 Mar 1997 20:54:00 -0500 (EST) From: VISLYONS@ubvms.cc.buffalo.edu Subject: Re: a question on Owen To: email@example.com Organization: University at Buffalo A bit more on Owen and on classification Thomas Huxley has a nice overview of the history of the classification of humans in the first chapter of Man's Place in Nature Ron is right that history is written by the winners, but in the case of Owen it is partly his own fault. According to Jacob Gruber who worked extensively on the Owen correspoondence, crucial letterts around the time of the publication of The Origin to people such as the Duke of Argyl and Wilberforce are missing. Gruber thinks they were pulled either by Owen or his grandson. This guaranteed that history would in fact be written by the pro Darwinian forces since other evidence has been destroyed. How ironic. Sherrie Lyons firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:21>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Wed Mar 12 00:16:27 1997 Date: Wed, 12 Mar 1997 01:16:11 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: March 12 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MARCH 12 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1626: JOHN AUBREY is born at Easton Pierse, Wiltshire, England. Following study at Trinity College, Oxford, where his interest in antiquities will be kindled, Aubrey will inherit a considerable fortune from his father, but he will manage his affairs poorly and live extravagantly, and will be reduced to poverty within a few years. His cheerful disposition will win him many patrons, however, and his continuing and ever expanding interest in British antiquities will earn him a patent from the Crown giving him the right to make antiquarian surveys anywhere in Britain. His careful studies of the ancient monuments of Stonehenge and Avebury will serve as exemplars for future antiquarian investigators, and although he will formally publish almost nothing during his lifetime, he will leave behind a great quantity of influential manuscript material, including _Monumenta Britannica_, _Remains of Gentilism and Judaism_, and also the _Essay Towards the Description of the North Division of Wiltshire_ (1659): "Let us imagine then what kind of countrie this was in the time of the ancient Britons. By the nature of the soil, which is a sour woodsere land, very natural for the production of oakes especially, one may conclude that this North Division was a shady dismal wood: and the inhabitants almost as savage as the beasts whose skins were their only rayment. The language British, which for the honour of it was in those dayes spoken from the Orcades to Italie and Spain. The boats on the Avon (which signifies River) were basketts of twigges covered with an oxe skin: which the poore people in Wales use to this day. They call them _curricles_. Within this shire I believe that there were several _Reguli_ which often made war upon another: and the great ditches which run on in the plaines and elsewhere so many miles (not unlikely) their boundaries: and withall served for defence against the incursions of their enemies, as the Pict's wall, Offa's ditch: and that in China, to compare things small to great. Their religion is at large described by Caesar. Their priests were druids. Some of their temples I pretend to have restored, as Avebury, Stonehenge, &c., as also British sepulchres. Their waie of fighting is lively sett down by Caesar. Their camps with their way of meeting their antagonists I have sett down in another place. They knew the use of iron. They were two or three degrees, I suppose, less savage than the Americans." 1784: WILLIAM BUCKLAND is born at Axminster in Devonshire, England. Buckland will study at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, and will eventually become Oxford's first Professor of Geology, the Dean of Westminster, and twice the president of the Geological Society of London. Among his many publications will be _Reliquiae diluvianae; or, observations on the organic remains contined in caves, fissures, and diluvial gravel, and on other geological phenomena, attesting to the action of an universal deluge_ (London, 1823). Visitors to his Oxford rooms will often remember the scene long after: Here see the wrecks of beasts and fishes With broken saucers, cups and dishes; The prae-Adamic systems jumbled, With Sublapsaria brecchia tumbled, And post-Noachian bears and flounders, With heads of crocodiles and flounders; Skins wanting bones, bones wanting skins, And various blocks to break your shins... The sage amidst the chaos stands Contemplative, with laden hands, This, grasping tight his bread and butter, And that a flint, whilst he doth utter Strange sentences that seem to say; -- 'I see it all as clear as day....' His eye in a fine frenzy rolling, He thus around the fragments strolling, Still entertains a fond illusion That all the strata's strange confusion He shall explain beyond conjecture, And clear in the ensuing lecture. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server <http://rjohara.uncg.edu> for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:22>From HANSS@sepa.tudelft.nl Tue Mar 11 07:15:49 1997 From: "Hans-Cees Speel" <HANSS@sepa.tudelft.nl> Organization: TU Delft To: email@example.com Date: Tue, 11 Mar 1997 14:16:15 MET Subject: who is Jean Rostand? Dear Darwinners, in Francois Jacob's 'The Possible and the Actual', my signature 'theories come and go, the frog remains', is stated. However, Jacob gives the origin as Jean Rostand's 'Notes of a Biologist', but then he doesn't put it in the reference list. Who was Jean Rostand? Was the phrase original to him? Who knows this? greetings, Hans-Cees Theories come and go, the frog stays [F. Jacob] ------------------------------------------------------- MY WWW ADRESS HAS CHANGED WITH ALL MY PAGES TO: http://www.sepa.tudelft.nl/webstaf/hanss/hanss.htm evolution and memetics! |Hans-Cees Speel School of Systems Engineering, Policy Analysis and management |Technical Univ. Delft, Jaffalaan 5 2600 GA Delft PO Box 5015 The Netherlands |telephone +3115785776 telefax +3115783422 E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:23>From sarich@qal.Berkeley.EDU Tue Mar 11 17:12:38 1997 From: Prof Vince Sarich <sarich@qal.Berkeley.EDU> Date: Tue, 11 Mar 1997 15:12:33 -0800 (PST) To: email@example.com Subject: Lederberg request With respect to Dr Lederberg's request, I don't have a source for the exact quote he provided, but I do have a more contemporary example in the same vein, and from someone with the same ideology. Barry Schwartz, who is, I believe, a psych professor at Swarthmore, wrote in his The Battle for Human Nature: Science, Morality, and Modern Life: But it is just as important to understand that the modern world is this way because we, not God or Darwin, have made it this way. -------- If anyone wants the page, I need to scrounge through my disorganized electro- nic notes to find it. Vincent Sarich _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:24>From Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com Tue Mar 11 11:35:39 1997 From: "Izzy (Israel) Cohen" <Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com> To: DARWIN-L list <DARWIN-L@RAVEN.CC.UKANS.EDU> Subject: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society Date: Tue, 11 Mar 97 19:35:00 PST forwarded by Israel Cohen firstname.lastname@example.org ---------- From: newjour-owner To: ;@ccat.sas.upenn.edu Subject: Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society Date: Tuesday, 11 March 1997 03:03AM From: james <email@example.com> Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society http://www.hbuk.co.uk/ap/journals/zj/ This online version of the print journal of the same name is published by Academic Press, Inc. through a program titled IDEAL (International Digital Electronic Access Library). The Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society publishes original papers on zoology with an emphasis on the diversity, systematics, diversity, interrelationships, and evolution of animals both living and extinct. However, papers in other areas of zoology with implications for systematics and evolution are also welcome. It is intended to publish occassional invitedrevies and, within the areas covered by the journal, the submission of reviews and review-type articles are encouraged. This important, long-established, and respected forum has a wide circulation among zoologists, and while narrowly specialized papers are not automatically excluded, the editor fosters submissions that bear this broad readership in mind. Research Areas Include: Systematics Comparative anatomy Functional zoology Ecology Behavior Zoogeography Some articles appearing in the October 1996 issue of the Journal include: 'Evidence of brain-warming in the mobulid rays, Mobula tarapacana and Manta birostris (Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii: Batoidea: Myliobatiformes)', 'A phylogenetic reanalysis of allozyme variation among populations of Galapagos finches', and 'Origin of the inland Acari of Continental Antarctica, with particular reference to Dronning Maud Land'. Subscription to this electronic journal involves licensing agreements with academic and industrial networks or consortia of libraries and can not be done on a personal or even title by title basis. However, the table of contents and article abstracts for each issue are available online free-of-charge. Articles are provided to members of subscriber institutions in Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format. ISSN 0024-4082 Editor: J.P. Thorpe Email: firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:25>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Fri Mar 14 12:16:33 1997 Date: Fri, 14 Mar 1997 13:14:45 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: March 14 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MARCH 14 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1793: KARL (KONRAD FRIEDRICH WILHELM) LACHMANN is born at Braunschweig, Germany. Lachmann will serve for most of his career as professor of philology at Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin, where he will codify the principles of modern textual criticism. From study of the many extant manuscripts of Lucretius's _De Rerum Natura_, Lachmann will publish in 1850 a reconstruction of the state of the ancestral manuscript from which they all had been copied, calculating even the number of pages in the lost ancestor and how many lines it had on each page. His work will establish a school of historical text criticism that will profoundly influence Classical scholarship for the remainder of the nineteenth century. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server <http://rjohara.uncg.edu> for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:26>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sun Mar 16 16:29:18 1997 Date: Sun, 16 Mar 1997 17:29:09 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Museums and the Web papers (fwd) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Tue, 11 Mar 1997 15:13:56 -0500 From: "J. Trant" <jtrant@ARCHIMUSE.COM> To: MUSEUM-L@HOME.EASE.LSOFT.COM Apologies for cross-posting; please forward as appropriate. *** Museums and the Web: Conference Pre-Prints Available *** Preprints of submitted papers for the Museums and the Web Conference, Los Angeles, California, March 16-19, 1997 are now available on the conference web site: www.archimuse.com/mw97 Selected papers will be published by Archives & Museum Informatics, in a monograph to be released May 1 1997. A special prepublication price is being offered: use the order form accessible from www.archimuse.com/pub.html *** Conference Reminder *** Wednesday March 12, 1997 is the last date for advance registration. Save your self some time at the registration desk by faxing your registration form to +1 412 683 7366. After Wednesday, new registrations will be taken on-site. See you in Los Angeles! jennifer -------- J. Trant firstname.lastname@example.org Partner and Principal Consultant www.archimuse.com Archives & Museums Informatics 5501 Walnut St., Suite 203 ph. + 1-412-683-9775 Pittsburgh, PA USA 15232-1455 fax + 1-412-683-7366 -------- --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:27>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sun Mar 16 16:40:10 1997 Date: Sun, 16 Mar 1997 17:32:21 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: "Iter <something>" -- "Journey to where we are" To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro I have a typical scholar's problem that I hope a Darwin-L colleague might be able to help me with. Several months ago I came across an interesting paper in the library and said to myself, "Hmm, I'll have to come back and copy this sometime. No need to write it down; I'll remember the citation." And of course I did not. I don't really expect anyone to actually come up with the citation, so fragmentary is my recollection, but perhaps someone can identify the concept that was being discussed. The paper was about a narrative genre which was termed, in Latin, "Iter <something>", meaning "Journey to where we are", or "How we got to where we are now." The concept wasn't necessarily construed geographically; it might refer to a history that tells how "we" got to where we are at this point in time. The important point was that the narrative wasn't a comprehensive history or geography, but rather just a point-to-point story from where we were to where we are. Does this particular concept ring any bells with anyone? Is the particular term "Iter <something>" known as a distinctive label for this genre? I will welcome any suggestions. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Robert J. O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org) | Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building | http://rjohara.uncg.edu University of North Carolina at Greensboro | http://strong.uncg.edu Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. | _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:28>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Sun Mar 16 16:40:20 1997 Date: Sun, 16 Mar 1997 17:23:34 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: March 16 -- Today in the Historical Sciences To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro MARCH 16 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES 1794: AMI BOUE is born at Hamburg, Germany. The son of a shipbuilder, Boue will be orphaned at the age of eleven and will be raised by relatives in France and Switzerland. After receiving an inheritance at the age of twenty, he will emigrate to Scotland where he will study medicine at the University of Edinburgh. Under the influence of Robert Jamieson, Boue's interests will turn to botany and especially geology, and after returning to the Continent he will travel extensively making geological observations. His _Essai geologique sur l'Ecosse_ will appear in 1820, and his _Geognotisches Gemalde von Deutschland_ will follow several years later. In 1830 he will join with a group of French geologists to found the Societe Geologique de France, and Boue will serve as president of that society in 1835. His comprehensive _Essai de carte geologique du globe terrestre_ will appear in 1845, and he will retire to Austria, where he will die, at Voslau, in 1881. Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Send the message INFO DARWIN-L to firstname.lastname@example.org or connect to the Darwin-L Web Server <http://rjohara.uncg.edu> for more information. _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:29>From PRSDRHS@UCHIMVS1.UCHICAGO.EDU Sun Mar 16 19:31:56 1997 Date: Sun, 16 Mar 97 19:17 CST To: darwin-l@RAVEN.CC.UKANS.EDU From: Dick Schmitt 708-848-4932 <PRSDRHS@UCHIMVS1.UCHICAGO.EDU> Subject: Re: "Iter <something>" -- "Journey to where we are" Perhaps the author of your article meant something more by this Latinate terminology, but the OED admits "iter" as a word in English meaning "journey, way, road," equivalent to "itinera" -- neither of which is part of my daily vocabulary. In any case, doesn't this convey the notion that history is "just one damned thing after another," meaning a sequence. This certainly describes one mode of narrative, indeed one that we encounter daily. _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:30>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Mon Mar 17 22:19:56 1997 Date: Mon, 17 Mar 1997 23:19:44 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: CFP: "Casualties of History" (fwd) To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- CALL FOR ABSTRACTS The Department of History and the Program in the History of Science Princeton University Graduate Student Conference _CASUALTIES OF HISTORY: LOSERS, THE LOST, AND THE PROBLEM OF DEFEAT_ October 4-5, 1997 Keynote Speakers: Joan Wallach Scott, Author of _Gender and the Politics of History_, (1988) and Gerald L. Geison, Author of _The Private Science of Louis Pasteur_, (1995) All graduate students are invited to submit abstracts for papers. Proposals are welcome from all fields of historical inquiry. Papers will be arranged into panel discussions with commentators. Possible topics for papers might include, but are not limited to: -lost arts and discoveries -historiographical sympathies -memory, forgetting and the unconscious -political, economic, and military defeat -people on the margins -victims of progress -hidden transcripts -wrong turns, missed opportunities, failed gods -dissenting opinions -silences, secrets, and interstices Please send abstracts of 1-2 pages no later than 1 May 1997 to: Graduate Conference Dept of History 207 Dickinson Hall Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544. Direct e-mail inquiries to: ghaconf@Princeton.EDU --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:31>From Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com Sat Mar 29 09:44:51 1997 From: "Izzy (Israel) Cohen" <Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com> To: DARWIN-L list <DARWIN-L@RAVEN.CC.UKANS.EDU>, owner-nostratic <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Re: Is Basque Nostratic? Date: Sat, 29 Mar 97 18:44:00 PST Excerpt from NOSTRATIC posting: > In fact you might be talking to a half-Neanderthal here :)I'm curious, > with the new techniques of replication and all that, has any genetic > Neanderthal material ever been recovered from Neanderthal remains? > studied? compared with the genetics of various modern populations? Coexistence of multiple "human" species and DNA comparisons between ancient and modern man are hot topics on the following "popular science" web site. http://www.dealsonline.com/origins/ I don't recommend this site for professional anthropologists or linguists, but if you want to see what the man-in-the-street is reading on these topics, you can visit this site. Israel Cohen email@example.com * * * * * Human Origins Enews * Sign Guestbook Welcome to the Origins of Humankind Web Site! The Origins of Humankind is a comprehensive internet resource for the human evolution community. This site gives you a one stop place to efficiently locate, research, interact, and share information. March 8, 1997 DNA links teacher to 9,000-year-old skeleton February 1997 New Encyclopedia Covers the History of Physical Anthropology January 1997 Earliest Chinese Hominid Mandible Is An Ape Oldest Stone Tools Found No "Homo erectus" at Ngandong December 1996 Missing Link to First Writing May Lie in Stones Primitive and Modern Humans May have been Neighbors Mary Leakey Dies at Age 83 New French Neanderthal Finds New E-Mail Address: firstname.lastname@example.org New Web Sites: Physical Anthropology Newsletter Human Prehistory: An Exhibition _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:32>From YTL@vms.huji.ac.il Sun Mar 30 22:46:08 1997 Date: Mon, 31 Mar 97 7:44 +0300 From: <YTL@vms.huji.ac.il> To: email@example.com Subject: Neanderthal Music I have just read an interesting story in the April issue of *Discover*. (As a medievalist, I must rely on magazines such as Discover and Scientific American in my effort to keep informed.) The story relates the discovery by a German paleontologist, Oscar Todkopf, of a mastodon tusk with carefully aligned holes, leading him to conclude that it served as a musical instrument. Other instruments were also found, as well as a cave painting which is said to depict Neanderthal musicians and even display what may be musical notation. The story reports as well that a pre-human flute has recently been found in SLovenia as well. My intuitive reaction is that this must somehow impinge on notions of evolution, especially the evolution of language. Is musical expression a language? What are the implications of the possibility that proto-humans developed musical expression and even notation before humans developed a written language? This story has stimulated some of my irrepressible Pythagorean tendencies. Tzvi Langermann firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <43:33>From GBRansom@aol.com Mon Mar 31 23:13:51 1997 Date: Tue, 1 Apr 1997 00:13:47 -0500 (EST) From: GBRansom@aol.com To: email@example.com Subject: ANNOUNCING -- A New E-List on the Writing of Friedrich A. Hayek ANNOUNCING -- Hayek-L on firstname.lastname@example.org HAYEK-L@MAELSTROM.STJOHNS.EDU is an international network for the discussion of the ideas of Friedrich A. Hayek. Hayek-L is intended as a resource for scholars and others doing research connected to the contributions of Friedrich Hayek. Hayek's work on the problems of the relations between theory and history in the social sciences is among the most frequently cited on this topic in this century. Hayek is also well known for producing some of the most reliable and sophisticated interdisciplinary writings in the literature on the difficult problems of the relations of neuroscience to social theory, and on the history of evolutionary thinking in the social sciences. Hayek's own controversial work on the historical nature of social institutions and the selective elements which shape their evolution has in recent years become the topic of an extensive debate in social science circles. Among Hayek's well know works on these topics are his _Law, Legislation, and Liberty_, and his _The Counter-Revolution of Science_, along with a number of the essays collected in his _Individualism and Economic Order_, and in his _Studies in Philosophy (etc.) and his _New Studied in Philosophy (etc). The basic purpose of the list is to serve as a forum for scholarly discussions and as a clearing house the distribution of information on academic conferences, publication opportunities, fellowship information, academic grants, and job openings of interest to Hayek scholars. Subscribers are encouraged to post questions, comments, or announcements of interest to individuals working on topics related to Hayek's writings. Appropriate postings might pertain to work currently in progress, the development of course materials, bibliographical material of interest to Hayek scholars, useful internet resources, etc. The list is for scholars and others interested the ideas of Friedrich A. Hayek without restriction according to interest or professional affiliation. Hayek-L is not devoted to any particular niche within the scope of Hayek's oeurvre, but instead welcomes contributions on any aspect of the full range of Hayek's contribution to contemporary scholarship. Discussions of the scholarly contributions of other important thinkers who have developed or criticized aspects of Hayek's work are also welcomed. E.g. discussions of the work of Gerald Edelman, Karl Popper, Israel Kirzner, Ronald Dworkin, Walter Weimer, Robert Nozick and others related to the work of Friedrich Hayek are also welcome. To subscribe to Hayek-L, send mail to email@example.com with the message (body): SUBSCRIBE HAYEK-L your full name For example: SUBSCRIBE HAYEK-L Max Doe Owner: Greg Ransom <Gregransom@aol.com> Juan Carlos Garelli <firstname.lastname@example.org> HAYEK-L list coordinators See also the Hayek Scholars Page at: http://members.aol.com/gregransom/hayekpage.htm _______________________________________________________________________________ Darwin-L Message Log 43: 1-33 -- March 1997 End
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