Darwin-L Message Log 44: 1–16 — April 1997
Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences
Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.
This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during April 1997. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.
The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”
------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 44: 1-16 -- APRIL 1997 ------------------------------------------- DARWIN-L A Network Discussion Group on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu is an international network discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences. Darwin-L was established in September 1993 to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among academic professionals in these fields. Darwin-L is not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin but instead addresses the entire range of historical sciences from an interdisciplinary perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical anthropology, historical geography, and related "palaetiological" fields. This log contains the public messages posted to Darwin-L during April 1997. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and some administrative messages and personal messages posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster. The master copy of this log is maintained on the Darwin-L Web Server at http://rjohara.uncg.edu. For instructions on how to retrieve copies of this and other log files, and for additional information about Darwin-L and the historical sciences, connect to the Darwin-L Web Server or send the e-mail message INFO DARWIN-L to email@example.com. Darwin-L is administered by Robert J. O'Hara (firstname.lastname@example.org), Center for Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A., and it is supported by the Center for Critical Inquiry, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, and the Department of History and the Academic Computing Center, University of Kansas. _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:1>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Apr 1 01:02:33 1997 Date: Tue, 01 Apr 1997 01:02:28 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: List owner's monthly greeting To: email@example.com Organization: University of NC at Greensboro Greetings to all Darwin-L subscribers. On the first of every month I send out a short note on the status of our group, along with a reminder of basic commands. For additional information about the group please visit the Darwin-L Web Server <http://rjohara.uncg.edu>. Darwin-L is an international discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences. The group is not devoted to any particular discipline, such as evolutionary biology, but rather seeks to promote interdisciplinary comparisons across the entire range of fields concerned with historical reconstruction, including evolution, historical linguistics, archeology, geology, cosmology, historical geography, textual transmission, and history proper. Darwin-L is not an amateur chat forum, nor a forum for discussion of creationism and evolution. Darwin-L currently has about 700 members from more than 35 countries. Because Darwin-L does have a large membership and is sometimes a high-volume discussion group it is important for all participants to try to keep their postings as substantive as possible so that we can maintain a favorable "signal-to-noise" ratio. Because Darwin-L is not a chat-oriented group, personal messages should be sent by private e-mail rather than to the group as a whole. The list owner does lightly moderate the group in order to filter out error messages, commercial advertising, and occasional off-topic postings. Subscribers who feel burdened from time to time by the volume of their Darwin-L mail may wish to take advantage of the "digest" option described below. Because different mail systems work differently, not all subscribers see the e-mail address of the original sender of each message in the message header (some people only see "Darwin-L" as the source). It is therefore very important to include your name and e-mail address at the end of every message you post so that everyone can identify you and reply privately if appropriate. Remember also that in most cases when you type "reply" in response to a message from Darwin-L your reply is sent to the group as a whole, rather than to the original sender. The following are the most frequently used listserv commands that Darwin-L members may wish to know. All of these commands should be sent as regular e-mail messages to the listserv address (firstname.lastname@example.org), not to the address of the group as a whole (Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu). In each case leave the subject line of the message blank and include no extraneous text, as the command will be read and processed by the listserv program rather than by a person. To join the group send the message: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L Your Name For example: SUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L John Smith To cancel your subscription send the message: UNSUBSCRIBE DARWIN-L If you feel burdened by the volume of mail you receive from Darwin-L you may instruct the listserv program to deliver mail to you in digest format (one message per day consisting of the whole day's posts bundled together). To receive your mail in digest format send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL DIGEST To change your subscription from digest format back to one-at-a-time delivery send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL ACK To temporarily suspend mail delivery (when you go on vacation, for example) send the message: SET DARWIN-L MAIL POSTPONE To resume regular delivery send either the DIGEST or ACK messages above. For a comprehensive introduction to Darwin-L with notes on our scope and on network etiquette, and a summary of all available commands, send the message: INFO DARWIN-L To post a public message to the group as a whole simply send it as regular e-mail to the group's address (Darwin-L@raven.cc.ukans.edu). I thank you all for your continuing interest in Darwin-L and in the interdisciplinary study of the historical sciences. Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner Dr. Robert J. O'Hara (email@example.com) | Darwin-L Server Cornelia Strong College, 100 Foust Building | http://rjohara.uncg.edu University of North Carolina at Greensboro | Strong College Server Greensboro, North Carolina 27412 U.S.A. | http://strong.uncg.edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:2>From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue Apr 1 09:47:14 1997 Date: Tue, 1 Apr 1997 10:47:03 -0500 (EST) To: email@example.com From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Nick Nicastro) Subject: Re: Neanderthal Music Apologies to those who wanted to believe it, but the "tusk tuba" in April's DISCOVER is an April-fool's joke. It is inspired, no doubt, by the Middle Paleolithic flute recently uncovered in Slovenia-- but the existence of Neanderthal tubas, French horns, recorders, and trombones remain (at least temporarily) unproven. P.S. The paleontologist's name "Todkopf" ("Dead Head") should have been a giveaway... -- N. Nicastro Dept. of Anthropology Cornell University email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:3>From firstname.lastname@example.org Tue Apr 1 05:27:59 1997 Date: Tue, 1 Apr 1997 06:27:26 -0500 (EST) From: Bayla Singer <email@example.com> Subject: Re: Neanderthal Music To: firstname.lastname@example.org Suzanne K Langer, in her -Philosophy in a New Key- suggests inter alia that music preceded language. The <new key> in the title does not refer to music, by the way, but to the perspective she brings to bear on philosophical issues. I read the book quite a number of years ago, and frequently find her insights informing my own as I approach new material. --Bayla email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:4>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Apr 1 13:19:41 1997 Date: Tue, 01 Apr 1997 14:19:10 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Geology of Greece (long) (fwd from BMCR-L) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- Higgins, Michael Denis, and Reynold Higgins, <i>A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean</i>, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996. Pp. xvi, 240. $55.00 ISBN 0-8014-3337-1. Reviewed by Robert Lamberton, Classics email@example.com Washington University St. Louis MO 63130 For those of us accustomed to trouble ourselves over how many years Plutarch might have lived on into the reign of Hadrian, or even over the time of the arrival of Indo-European speakers in the southern Balkans, the notion of a book about the past 190 million years of the history of the Greek landscape offers an imaginatively liberating shift of scale. Even this limit -- the Mid-Jurassic -- is somewhat arbitrarily chosen, but, as our authors explain, the earlier and vastly longer geological history of the earth's crust is obscured because "we are uncertain of the position of the continents in earlier times and cannot reconstruct the earlier history of plate tectonics" (16). Now, as far as plates and their faults (normal, thrust, or otherwise) are concerned, I can bring no expertise to this review. My marginal capacity to remember which is the graben and which is the horst owes more to the study of German than that of geology. As a result, I owe both the reader and the authors under review some explanation for my pretense in snatching the opportunity to review this book -- a pretense that does, in fact, rest on something more than a dilletante's delight in the geological sublime. Quite simply, I have been wishing for such a volume for years. I think of myself as highly representative of at least one of its targeted audiences, and if I must defer to others in the assessment of its geological accuracy, I can at least identify myself as one of those for whom this book aspires to serve as a "companion". It will certainly be a welcome one -- and not just for me, but for the sorts of groups I have led and hope to lead again in Greece and Turkey, those fascinated by the natural and the human history of the region, and who share a passion for "reading" the Greek landscape and discovering the past expressed in its surface. The book is the product of the collaboration of the late Reynold Higgins of the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities of the British Museum -- whose voluminous and widely known and respected scholarship ranged from minor arts (<i>Greek and Roman Jewellery</i> [1961,1980]) and terracotta figurines (most recently <i>Tanagra and the Figurines</i> ) to the Bronze Age (<i>Minoan and Mycenean Art</i> [1967, 1981]) -- and his son, geologist Michael Denis Higgins, who completed the book after his father's death in 1993. Most readers of BMCR will have had less occasion to consult Michael Denis Higgins' impressive list of contributions, though a few minutes spent with "GeoRef" will give an idea of their range. He seems to have included none of his many papers in the 293-item bibliography that is one of the most valuable assets of the <i>Companion</i>, and indeed most would not be relevant, ranging as they do from the chemical analysis of meteorites to the igneous petrology of Quebec (the subject of his 1980 doctoral work -- he now teaches at the Universite du Quebec, Chicoutimi). Still, some of his recent papers, in particular, have dealt with volcanism in Greece, including comparative studies of crystals found in lavas from Thera and from the North Island of New Zealand. Father and son planned the book, and though its final realization was left to the geologist, both were able to work together to shape it and to establish its balance of styles and priorities (xi). It was a fruitful collaboration, and one for which we may all be very grateful. The <i>Companion</i> does not fit comfortably into any familiar genre, and had the collaboration been based on any less intimate a relationship of mutual respect and understanding, this juxtaposition of descriptive and historical geology with (largely historical) archaeology might well have failed to achieve any synthesis at all. The result participates in two distinct popularizing genres at once: first, the local geology book. Those of us who like to travel with Unklesbay and Vineyard's <i>Missouri Geology</i> in the car as a map of the "Missouri column" as exposed in bluffs and roadcuts, or to explore the outcroppings and even the building stone of Manhattan armed with Schuberth's classic <i>Geology of New York and Environs</i> will want this book with us in Greece and Turkey, independent of our archaeological interests. But the <i>Companion</i> is simultaneously an archaeological guidebook -- not a competitor with the <i>Blue Guide</i>, of course, but it includes enough historical and archaeological information on a wide range of relevant sites to satisfy the traveler whose concerns are <i>not</i> primarily archaeological. Rockhounds and ecotourists may well find all they want to know about the sites right here. Finally, though, it is along the interface between these two genres that the <i>Companion</i> makes its unique contribution -- still a task of popularization, but pointing beyond and providing access to a wealth of geological bibliography relevant to Greek archaeology that has remained inaccessible to most of us. What father and son give us amounts to a simultaneously intimate and public dialogue: here, says the geologist, is what is geologically interesting about this landscape and this site, and here, echoes the archaeologist, is what is archaeologically interesting about this exceptionally crumpled and geologically active patch of the earth's crust. The <i>Companion</i> begins with a lucid, succinct, nicely illustrated textbook presentation of plate and local tectonics, the types of rocks and their origins, and the interactions of land with fresh and salt water, with special attention to features of particular relevance to the southern Balkans (e.g., the karst landscape, beach-rock). This provides the basis for a similarly succinct "Geological History of the Mediterranean" (16-25), at the end of which the area under discussion -- roughly, the modern state of Greece and the coasts of western Anatolia from the Sea of Marmara to Caria -- is divided into fourteen regions, clearly represented in what amounts to an index-map (Fig. 2.7, p. 25). Each region is the subject of a chapter of roughly ten pages, beginning with a summary of the geology of the region, and completed by a series of sub-chapters on local features. Most of those selected have both archaeological and geological interest, though these concerns are always maintained in a sort of equilibrium, and outstanding geological features of no particular archaeological or historical interest are included (e.g. the White Mountains and Samaria Gorge in Crete [200-202], the wonderful petrified forest of western Lesbos , and the Springs of Kaiapha near Olympia ). The fit between the archaeologically interesting and the geologically interesting is, of course, not perfect. In the discussion of some sites, we get little more than a juxtaposition of the two sorts of information. But it will be no surprise that in the presentation of the many sites where archaeology and historical reconstruction are inseparable from geology, those of us more actively concerned with the former are treated to the sort of succinct and geologically informed discussion we have long wished for, along with invaluable bibliographical references. The two columns and map devoted to lake Copais (76-78) and the discussion of Thermopylae (81-83) are striking examples, and the book throws a clearer light on observable evidence of natural cataclysms of historical importance than we have had available in the past (e.g. the eruptions of Thera [187-95] and the massive earthquake that leveled Sparta in 464 BCE and left a still visible fault-scarp "10-12 m high that runs for 20 km along the base of the Taygetos mountains" [53-54]). Other features that receive exceptionally good treatment here, reflecting the interests of both authors, are the quarries from which came the marbles and other stone used in building and sculpture in antiquity, as well as the clay beds associated with the ancient centers of pottery production (though the actual deposits exploited can rarely be located with precision). The abundant and excellent maps and plans in many cases make it possible to walk or drive to such features. All the plans show us aspects of the sites that no other guidebook reveals. One could raise quibbles, both on small scale and large. Proofreading, particularly of maps and charts, was clearly neglected. I noted more than a handful of typos; most conspicuously, the chart of Geological periods (Fig. 1.1) was not properly proofread and the chart of "Archaeological time in the Aegean region" (xv) was surely intended to draw the line between Classical and Hellenistic at the death of Alexander in 323, not "232". Diacriticals on Turkish toponyms are occasionally included but more often omitted. The map of Thrace (Fig. 12.1) includes the innovative toponyms Kavella and Alexandropoulos (the latter particularly remarkable, with three mistakes in one word). These and other confusions -- e.g. "Skyros must have been rich in the early Bronze Age, as much gold jewellery has been found in tombs of 1000-700 BC" (93) -- could, and should, have been caught by an archaeologically informed and alert editor or proofreader. A larger matter relates to the high level of generalization of the historical and archaeological summaries, resulting in an inevitable risk of oversimplification and distortion, compounded by the tendency of such high-level generalizations to be superseded and become outdated and misleading. (I suspect that the necessary compression and simplification of the geological descriptions may incur some of the same risks, but I am less able to assess them.) But these difficulties are inherent in the plan of the book, and we should be very grateful to have what we have -- it is doubtful that anyone else could have done it better. Who should buy it? It should certainly be in every academic library, and in particular in every collection intended primarily to serve undergraduates. It will be a valuable resource for students of Greek archaeology, both beginners and those more advanced. Beyond that, all of us who aspire to read the Greek landscape and to become more sensitive to its past and its present will want to carry it in the field -- reading it in wintry St. Louis has brought me a rich wave of anticipation of the pleasures of doing so myself. --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:5>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Tue Apr 1 14:04:02 1997 Date: Tue, 01 Apr 1997 15:03:37 -0500 (EST) From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu Subject: Romanian archeology list (fwd) To: firstname.lastname@example.org Organization: University of NC at Greensboro --begin forwarded message-------------- Date: Wed, 19 Mar 1997 00:36:34 +0000 From: email@example.com (Mircea Angelescu) Subject: Romanian archaeology list To: firstname.lastname@example.org 18.03.1997 Dear colleagues, As part of the effort to open the archaeological scholar community of my country to international cooperation I am officially announcing you that today came into being the first archaeology discussion list of Romania. Feel free to ask on this list all the queries you have on Romanian archaeology and/or personal contacts. A). SUBSCRIPTION 1.- To subscribe send mail to the list owner: email@example.com or to firstname.lastname@example.org with a message containing SUBSCRIBE ARHEOLOGIE-L FIRST_NAME LAST_NAME 2. - To unsubscribe send mail to the list owner: email@example.com or to firstname.lastname@example.org with a message containing UNSUBSCRIBE ARHEOLOGIE-L Instructions for the listserver, such as those to change your subscription options, must be emailed to LISTSERV@PCNET.PCNET.RO in the body of the message. Only send what is required and do not enclose or attach any additional text such as a signature. NO SUBJECT: line is required and case is insensitive. B). Posting Messages Send all messages to ARHEOLOGIE-L@PCNET.PCNET.RO Please include an informative SUBJECT: line. Please enjoy! Mircea Angelescu Mircea Angelescu Romanian Archaeological Institute Dep.of Greek and Roman Archaeology E-mail: email@example.com Tel./Fax/Modem: (40-1) 6661065 --end forwarded message---------------- _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:6>From Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com Thu Apr 3 02:06:19 1997 From: "Izzy (Israel) Cohen (req-telaviv)" <Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com> To: DARWIN-L list <DARWIN-L@RAVEN.CC.UKANS.EDU> Subject: Colin Renfrew Lectures Date: Thu, 3 Apr 1997 11:03:00 +0300 forwarded by Israel Cohen firstname.lastname@example.org ---------- From: Mark Hall To: email@example.com Date: Thursday, 3 April 1997 12:09AM Professor Lord Renfrew of Kaimsthron FBA is the Director of The McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge University. He will be delivering public lectures on Tuesday, April 15, entitled "Archaeology, Genetics and Linguistic Diversity: Towards a New Synthesis", and on Thursday, April 17, entitled "The Sapiens Paradox, Or Why Did People Get Smart So Late?" Both lectures will begin at 4:10 p.m. in the International House Auditorium and are free and open to the public. Please contact Teresa Malango at the number below if you would like biographical materials on Professor Renfrew. The ARF, in conjunction with the Hitchcock Lectures will sponsor a reception immediately following the Thursday lecture, to be held in the Atrium of the 2251 College Bldg. Prof. Renfrew will be visiting the campus April 13-23, 1997; if you or any of your colleagues would like to meet with him or invite him to attend a class or seminar, please call Teresa Malango at extension 3-7413 or by email at teresam@uclink to schedule a time. This messages is forwarded to you from Teresa Malango, Hitchcock Lectures Coordinator, Office of the Dean, Graduate Division. Mark Hall firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:7>From Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com Thu Apr 3 02:27:13 1997 From: "Izzy (Israel) Cohen (req-telaviv)" <Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com> To: DARWIN-L list <DARWIN-L@RAVEN.CC.UKANS.EDU>, HISTLING list <HISTLING@VM.SC.EDU> Cc: "'email@example.com'" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Nostratic: the state of the question Date: Thu, 3 Apr 1997 11:21:00 +0300 forwarded by Israel Cohen email@example.com ---------- From: firstname.lastname@example.org To: email@example.com Subject: Nostratic: the state of the question Date: Thursday, 3 April 1997 12:52AM Rick Mc Callister's question on "Indo-Uralic" and Kevin Tuite's question on the possible implications for the Nostratic theory of the suggested reconstruction of PIE as a Klimovian "jazyk aktivnogo stroja", raise a couple of interesting questions. What is the current state of Nostratic linguistics? Where is there still work to be done, which questions need to be settled, and what, if anything, is required to "prove" the validity of the Nostratic hypothesis? I will discuss a number of issues separately, although all is intertwined in practice: no lexical cognates can be generally accepted, as long as no consensus exists on the phonology of Nostratic. Nostratic will not be accepted as a unit, as long as there is no clarity on the question of which languages belong in it and which don't. 1. LEXICON This is the area where most work has been done. Allan Bomhard's 601 etymologies in "The Nostratic Macrofamily" and the 378 published etymologies of Illich-Svitych, despite differences in the treatment if sound correspondences, have 139 roots in common, if I have not miscounted. That constitutes a solid basis for further work, and should give us a degree of confidence in the validity of the Nostratic hypothesis. What are the odds that the reconstructed proto-languages of the AA, IE, Kartvelian, Dravidian, Uralic and Altaic families should share 139 basic vocabulary roots, with regular sound correspondences, *exclusively* due to borrowing or chance resemblance? 2. PHONOLOGY The biggest problem remains the interpretation of the PN stop system. Illich-Svitych had reconstructed PN *t' *t *d =3D> PIE *t *d *dh. Allan Bomhard, following the "glottalic theory" of Gamqrelidze et al. for PIE, reconstructs PN *t' *t *d =3D> PIE *d *t *dh (/t'/, /t/, /d/) instead. The most curious fact about all of this is that results could be obtained using both correspondence sets. As a matter of fact, back in 1911, Hermann Moeller had obtained a sizeable amount of IE ~ Semitic cognates using yet another set of sound correspondences. Are the critics right that at this level of long range comparison, a number of "cognates" (i.e. chance resemblances) can be found, no matter what set of sound correspondences one uses? I don't think so. In the first place, Illich-Svitych and Bomhard have not done "mass comparison". Their work is based mainly on reconstructed proto-forms for the families involved, and the choice of possible words is no greater than what one has in IE linguistics (which is not to say that one cannot dip into a family and pick a word that is present in one language only, just as, say, Pokorny can dip into Greek and use an obscure dialect word from Hesyochios (sp?)). In my view, the body of solid etymologies that are common to both "systems" cannot be dismissed by pointing to these apparent irregularities in the stop system. If so, Indo-European should have been dismissed because of the irregularities in Grimm's law (solved by Verner) or cases like Lat. <habere> ~ E. "to have" (to be solved), and many others like it (I wish I had a list of them). We know at least that PIE had dissimilated roots that contained more than one glottalic. Similar assimilations and dissimilations will have occurred in other branches of Nostratic, even at the proto-language level itself (e.g. I am convinced that Bomhard's #92 *tap, and #134 *t'ab, both "warm, hot" are in fact the same word, but until some Nostratic Verner comes along to prove the fact, it remains an act of faith -- or common sense -- as in the case of <habere> ~ <hebban>). 3. GRAMMAR Too little is known about Nostratic grammar. In Historical Linguistics, lexicon is nice, but morphology is nicer. =20 John Kerns' chapter on Grammar in "The Nostratic Macrofamily", while concentrating on "Northern Nostratic" (Eurasiatic), gives a fair view of nominal and pronominal morphology (genitive *-n, locative *-nV, accusative *-m, an ablative involving a dental, etc.), but the absence of any kind of verbal morphology is disappointing. I myself recently suggested here that a case can be made for reconstructing the the Nostratic stative verb paradigm (*-kV, *-tkV, *-V, *-wenV, *-tkwenV, (?)), based on Ancient Egyptian, Berber, Semitic, Indo-European and Elamite, with possible traces of the same paradigm in at least Uralic (Ugric), and the Kartvelian 2pl.p.p. *tkwen as additional supporting evidence. There is a problem with the correspondence PAA *k ~ PIE *H, wich neither Illich-Svitych nor Bomhard envisages, but then neither system is concerned with Auslautgesetze. As far as I know, no proposal had been previously made to reconstruct this, or any other bit of Nostratic verbal morphology (but I may be wrong). In any case, I would have loved to hear some comments... 4. MEMBERSHIP AND SUBGROUPING One of the most important questions is: which languages belong in Nostratic? Illich-Svitych's publications made use of materials from AA, Kartvelian, IE, Dravidian, Uralic and Altaic (incl. Korean). Bomhard/Kerns' book uses AA, Kartvelian, IE, Elamo-Dravidian, Uralic-Yukaghir, Altaic and Sumerian, with occasional references to Etruscan. In the Grammar section, Kerns uses Korean and Japanese examples, while in the preliminary chapters Chukchi-Kamchtakan, Gilyak and Eskimo-Aleut are explicitly mentioned as members of Nostratic (which is also in accordance with Dologopol'skij's and Greenberg's views). [I have just seen Allan's reply. A question to Allan: compared with the tree on p. 36 of the "Nostratic Macrofamily", would your current views be accurately described by the following diagram? Nostratic | ________|_______ | | Afrasiatic ________|________ | | Elamo-Dravidian ______|_______ | | Kartvelian Eurasiatic (i.e. Kartvelian and Elamo-Dravidian "switch places", and Sumerian moves to a level above Nostratic?)] Greenberg's definition of Eurasiatic not only includes Nivkh, but also Ainu, which in view of recent discussion (here or on HISTLING?) would appear to be controversial. Controversial also remains the position of Sumerian, mainly due to our imperfect knowledge of both the phonology and the semantics of the Sumerian lexicon. I will simply note that the Sumerian sound correspondences on pp. 125-131 correspond almost exactly with the ones I independently derived last year from a comparison of IE and Sumerian. The position of Basque, which I recently tried to link with Nostratic on this very forum, is of course controversial as well. In "Postscript 1991" to the Classification of the World's Languages, Ruhlen quotes Starostin's views that Afro-Asiatic should be considered coordinate to, not included in Nostratic, and his assertion that Elamo-Dravidian is the most divergent branch of Nostratic. Coupled with Greenberg's views on Eurasiatic [and Allan's comments here], this seems to indicate some kind of preliminary consensus on the subgrouping of Nostratic [something like the tree I drew above]. Since Uralic, Altaic and "Chukchi-Eskimo" are beyond my level of expertise, I cannot judge whether IE is indeed closer to those languages than it is to AA, Kartvelian or Dravidian (again, not my specialisms). I see enough parallels between IE and AA, however (sound system, the stative verb endings which I outlined above), to consider the possibility that IE might actually have close ties both ways and act like a kind of "bridge" between South (AA, Kartv, Drav) and North (EA, CK, Alt), like Uralic probably does from the other side. Which sort of answers Rick's question. Another issue discussed by Starostin in the same article quoted by Ruhlen (1989 "Nostratic and Sino-Caucasian", in Shevoroshkin "Explorations in Language Macrofamilies") is the relationship of Nostratic as a whole with other macrofamilies. Unfortunately, I have not read Starostin's article, but while studying John Bengtson's materials on Basque and Caucasian, which the author was kind enough to send me, I could not help but notice some striking parallels between Proto-North-(East-)Caucasian and Nostratic (*Hwir-i "lake, pond" [*Haw-, *Hw-er- "rain"]; *tl'a:npV "lip" [PAA *tlip-at- "lip", etc.]; *tl_w-irV "horn" [*tlir- "highest point/rank"]; *dzwhari: "star" [PSem *?iTtar-, PIE *ster- etc.]; *X~wejrV "dog" [PIE *k(u)on- "dog", PU *ku"jna" "wolf"]; *swerho "old" [*dzwer- "old" or *syiny- "old" ?]; *s'u"no "year" [*syiny- "old, year" if this is not a loan from Semitic]; *=3Da":sA "to sit" [*?asy- "to sit"]; *s_e:HmV "vein, muscle" [*sin- "sinew, tendon, vein"]; *b~ak'V "(palm of the) hand" [PIE *bha:ghu- "elbow, lower arm"]; *?iman "to stay" [*man- "to stay"], to quote the most obvious ones). The above suggest some kind of relationship between Nostratic (however defined) and (Macro-)Caucasian (however defined). One area which I for one would very much like to see investigated would be that of possible relations of Nostratic with the African language groups (Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Kordofanian, Macro-Khoisan). Which brings me to: 5 PREHISTORIC FRAMEWORK Another issue that is closely intertwined with the others. Determining linguistically which languages are part of Nostratic could shed some light on interpreting the archaeological data. Conversely, knowing the archaeological data can guide our thoughts on linguistic relationships and time depths. It is funny that Allan has just said: "Afrasian stands apart as an extremely ancient, independent branch -- it was the first branch of Nostratic to separate from the rest of the Nostratic speech community", as this is the exact opposite of how I would put it. I would regard the speakers of Afro-Asiatic as the "stay behinds", while the rest of Nostratic wandered out into North Africa, the Near East and Europe. The linguist effect (at least as it affects AA versus the rest) is of course the same. Suffice it to quote something that I wrote some time ago on the Basque-L, in the course of a speculative discussion on historico-linguistic matters with Miguel Aguirre Martinez, who is also Spanish and also lives in the Netherlands... [I wrote on the BASQUE-L:] In my view, the history of Homo displays a remarkably stable pattern=20 from its inception in Africa more than a million years ago to about=20 10,000 years BP. Africa, and in particular the upper Nile valley=20 (Sudan) has acted as a population "pump", injecting new populations=20 into the rest of the world at regular intervals. We cannot trace=20 every single episode, but some of the major ones are clear: 1,000,000 BP: expansion of Homo Erectus (Lower Paleolithic). Java man and Peking man show that Erectus migrated from Africa to=20 Asia early on. =20 150,000 BP: expansion of Homo Sapiens (Middle Paleolithic). This is where I would put "Proto-World". This stage marks the origin=20 of the Neanderthal populations of North Africa, the Near East, Europe=20 and Central Asia. I haven't got much information on the physical=20 characteristics of the populations of India, SE Asia and China in=20 this period ("Solo man"?), but at the risk of not being politically=20 correct, I'd suggest a link with the modern "Australoid" populations=20 (Vedda, Negrito, Papuan and Australian). This simply means that=20 Neanderthal man was fully a member of our own species, as is=20 the current palaeoanthropological consensus. =20 50,000 BP: expansion of "H.S.Sapiens" (Upper Paleolithic). This is in fact the expansion of the Aurignacian culture, which=20 developed in Africa and the Near East 50 or 60,000 years ago, and=20 subsequently spread to Europe (40,000 BP), Central Asia, and=20 presumably India as well. In SE Asia and Europe, the Aurignacian=20 penetration was only partial, and we have several cultures that seem=20 to continue Middle Paleolithic traditions (pebble-tool cultures in SE=20 Asia and China, the Lower Perigordian (Ch=D7telperronian) in Western=20 Europe, the Uluzzian in Italy and the Szeletian in Eastern Europe. Linguistically, Austric, Macro-Caucasian, Sino-Tibetan, Na-Dene and=20 the various Amerind groups may be traced back to this wave. 30,000 BP: Gravettian. The Gravettian absorbed the Aurignacian, Chatelperronian, Uluzzian,=20 and Szeletian cultures in North Africa, the Near East and Europe. Apart from the post-glacial expansions into Siberia [and the Neolithic expansions], there is a perfect geographical match with the "Nostratic" macro-family. 15,000 BP?: Afro-Asiatic. Sometime between the Gravettian expansion and the Neolithic,=20 the Egyptian, Berber-Chadic and Semitic populations must have=20 expanded from the Sudan to Northern Africa and the Near East=20 (Palestine), leaving Cushitic and Omotic in the Sudanese homeland. By the time of the Neolithic, the stage was set for yet another=20 African wave, as Nilo-Saharans had pushed the Omotians-Cushites out=20 of the Sudan (Nubia). However, the Neolithic population explosion in=20 Egypt and the Near East effectively blocked the way for any new=20 migrations out of Africa, and with the modern advance of Arabic=20 southwards into the Sudan, the pattern seems to have been partially=20 reversed, for the first time in human history. [end quote] I must repeat that the above is highly speculative. But what it suggests in linguistical terms is a kind of "onion like" structure of the Nostratic macrofamily, with Omotic at the core [and that's where possible links with African families would be most interesting to examine], Cushitic and Beja the inner ring, then "Northern Afrasiatic" (Ancient Egyptian, Semitic, Berber-Chadic). The next layer(s) would be Basque [N.Africa=3D>W.Europe], Etruscan and IE [S.Europe], Eurasiatic [E.Europe=3D>Siberia], Kartvelian, Elamo- Dravidian and Sumerian [N.East]. Then, no longer "Nostratic", but distantly related, come the layers consisting of Caucasian/Yeniseian/ Sino-Tibetan [C.Asia], Burushaski and Nahali [S.Asia], "Austric" [SE.Asia], with Na-Dene and the various Amerind groups as offshoots of these groups into the New World. Miguel Carrasquer Vidal ~ ~ Amsterdam _____________ ~ ~ firstname.lastname@example.org |_____________||| _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:8>From Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com Tue Apr 8 05:50:59 1997 From: "Izzy (Israel) Cohen (req-telaviv)" <Izzy@telaviv.ndsoft.com> To: Euralex list <'email@example.com'.ndsoft.com>, BILINGUAL list <firstname.lastname@example.org>, SNUNIT Educational Info System <email@example.com>, DARWIN-L list <DARWIN-L@RAVEN.CC.UKANS.EDU>, E-LEX list <firstname.lastname@example.org>, heblang list <email@example.com> Hist of Eng Lang - list <firstname.lastname@example.org>, HISTLING list <HISTLING@VM.SC.EDU>, Lang-Culture list <email@example.com>, LINGANTH <firstname.lastname@example.org>, NOSTRATIC list <email@example.com>, "'PSY306-L@LISTSERV.ACSU.BUFFALO'" <PSY306-L@LISTSERV.ACSU.BUFFALO.EDU> SLART-L list <SLART-L@CUNYVM.CUNY.EDU> Subject: Language Conferences/Seminars web site Date: Tue, 8 Apr 1997 13:47:00 +0300 Appologies for multiple postings: The language conference list located on the WWW at URL http://www.clark.net/pub/royfc/confer.html has been updated with over 80 new conferences and about 2 dozen other changes since the February 1997 edition. Conference Schedule for Linguists, Translators, Interpreters and Teachers of Languages. (Clicking on the applicable link will provide additional conference information). 1997 1998 1999 2000 - 2003! Quarterly events for which the exact date is not known. Annual events for which the exact date is not known. Biennial events for which the exact date is not known. A special "continuing" event. Your chance to publish your scholarly work on language. Links for linguists I've run across while searching for conferences. I've even found some job opportunities for linguists. Past schedules will remain on the list for several months after the date of the function for those who may wish to plan for next year. For maintenance convenience, this list is divided into several pages. They are: confer.html The conference list home page. confer7.html for conferences in 1997. confer8.html for conferences in 1998 and beyond. conf_pub.html for miscellaneously scheduled conferences and other links for linguists. confer_x.html for past conference schedules. con_links.html for useful conference-related links. Searching for Conferences Conferences are listed chronologically. No attempt has been made at this time to provide a means to search the list for a particular type of conference. Perhaps this capability will be available in the future. One may, of course, search the list using the "find" or "search" function of the WWW browser being used. I have moved the links where one may search for additional conferences to its own page because the number is growing so large and beginning to clutter this page even more. There also are links to other related sites which Linguists, Translators, Inter- preters and Teachers of Languages should find of value. As all information pasted to the list is cut from the original source (hypertexted with each schedule) I cannot be held responsible for errors. Check the provided source, first. Otherwise, please send corrections, additions, and updates to firstname.lastname@example.org (Roy F. Cochrun) Return to Roy's Russian Resource home page Last update 5 April 1997. * * * * Information forwarded by: Israel Cohen email@example.com _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:9>From GBRansom@aol.com Mon Apr 14 02:43:55 1997 Date: Mon, 14 Apr 1997 03:43:53 -0400 (EDT) From: GBRansom@aol.com To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: The History of Linguistics as an Historical Inquiry I'd like to get some good leads from Darwin-L specialists before I hit the stacks looking for books and articles documenting the history of linguistics as an historical discipline. I am particularly interested in the pre-Darwin period before 1859. I am looking for research that lays out the role of 'evolutionary thinking' (_not_ selective thinking) in the work of folks looking at the evolution of language, ancient documents, or Roman grammar textbooks from the ancient period. As an aspect of this I would also like to get a good historical account of the history of the word 'evolution' -- especially in regard to the used of the word in _non- biological_ contexts prior to 1859. Are there any particularly recommended articles or books on these topics known to specialists on Darwin-L? Greg Ransom Dept. of Philosophy UC-Riverside email@example.com http://members.aol.com/gregransom/ransom.htm _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:10>From firstname.lastname@example.org Mon Apr 14 14:52:41 1997 Date: Mon, 14 Apr 1997 09:48:42 -1000 From: Ron Amundson <email@example.com> To: firstname.lastname@example.org Subject: Re: The History of Linguistics as an Historical Inquiry On Sun, 13 Apr 1997 GBRansom@aol.com wrote: > I'd like to get some good leads from Darwin-L specialists > before I hit the stacks looking for books and articles documenting > the history of linguistics as an historical discipline. I am > particularly interested in the pre-Darwin period before 1859. I'd like to get these, too. (Ain't I helpful?) > As an aspect of this I would > also like to get a good historical account of the history of the word > 'evolution' -- especially in regard to the used of the word in _non- > biological_ contexts prior to 1859. Are there any particularly recommended > articles or books on these topics known to specialists on Darwin-L? Robert Richards's _The Meaning of Evolution_. A short version was published in a collection called _Keywords in Evolution_ (?). Some of Richards's conclusions about Darwin are overstated, IMHO. There were no significant non-biological uses of the term prior to Darwin, to my knowledge. So I doubt that the etymology of "evolution" will be helpful or appropriate to the pre-Darwinian era you're discussing. Even Darwin didn't use it in the modern sense of "descent with modification," which is part of Richards's point. __ Ron Amundson University of Hawaii at Hilo ronald@Hawaii.Edu _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:11>From YTL@vms.huji.ac.il Tue Apr 15 07:56:14 1997 Date: Tue, 15 Apr 97 15:52 +0300 From: <YTL@vms.huji.ac.il> To: email@example.com Subject: History of Linguistics Two back-to-back articles in the Dictionary of the History of Ideas should be a good place to get started. They are "Linguistics" and "Linguistic Theories in British Seventeenth Century Philosophy." Tzvi Langermann firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:12>From email@example.com Mon Apr 21 10:33:53 1997 Date: Mon, 21 Apr 1997 10:39:00 +0500 To: firstname.lastname@example.org From: email@example.com (Stephen Noe) Subject: Re: The History of Linguistics as an Historical Inquiry >Ron Amundson wrote: >[snip of useful references] >There were no significant non-biological uses of the term [evolution] prior >to Darwin, to my knowledge. In 17th and 18th century military context, "evolutions" were those maneuvers conducted by large infantry and naval formations in order to place opposing formations at a tactical disadvantage, and thereby defeat them. They were very precisely calculated, very complex, and were constrained by the pre-existing conditions of weather, terrain, time of encounter, etc. It has been my understanding that biology, pre-Darwin, appropriated the word because it described an unfolding of pre-existing potentiality, such as the Scala Naturae. _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:13>From firstname.lastname@example.org Wed Apr 23 07:56:40 1997 Date: Wed, 23 Apr 1997 08:55:23 -0400 To: email@example.com (Darwin List) From: "Jeremy C. Ahouse" <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: You shall know them DarwinList, I have just been reading Vercors (1953) "You shall know them" (trans. Rita Barisse, French version was entitled, "Les Animaux Denatures"). This is well worth digging up, some of you would enjoy it. It is a short novel describing the finding of a *new* species that is ambiguously close to humans. As no one is sure of its status there is the immediate move of a ruthless businessman to use them as cheap/free workers (on the cattle model). The main character has a child with one, kills it, and presents himself to the police as a murderer. Along the way a number to systematic issues are aired. I wish it were still in print it would make for good discussions among students. - Jeremy -=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- Jeremy C. Ahouse Biology Department Brandeis University Waltham, MA 02254-9110 ph: (617) 736-4954 fax: (617) 736-2405 email: email@example.com web: http://www.rose.brandeis.edu/users/simister/pages/Ahouse _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:14>From smithkel@TCNJ.EDU Fri Apr 25 12:32:22 1997 Date: Fri, 25 Apr 1997 13:26:00 -0400 (EDT) From: Kelly C Smith <smithkel@TCNJ.EDU> To: Darwin-L list <firstname.lastname@example.org> Subject: Down House Folks, I just heard that the British government is trying to raise 5 million pounds to restore Down house, which is said to be in a shocking state of disrepair. I am spreading the word so that people can donate and/or help spread the word if they like. Checks can be sent to: The Down House Appeal ATTN: Nancy Giles The Natural History Museum Cromwell Road London SW17 5BD Telephone: (0) 171-973-3092 Thanks, Kelly Kelly C. Smith "Teaching is not a lost art, but the regard Philosophy Department for it is a lost tradition" - Jaques Barzun The College of New Jersey* Hillwood Lakes CN 4700 "For every complex problem there is a simple, Trenton, NJ 08650-4700 easy to understand, incorrect answer." (609) 771-2524 Office - Szent-Gyo'rgyi (215) 702-7008 Home (609) 771-3385 Fax "One should always keep an open mind, but not Smithkel@trenton.edu so open that one's brains fall out." - Bertrand Russell "Others apart sat on a Hill retir'd In thoughts more elevate, and reason'd high Of Providence, Foreknowledge, Will and Fate, Fixt Fate, free will, foreknowledge absolute, And found no end, in wandering mazes lost." - (punishment of fallen angels, Paradise Lost) *formerly Trenton State College _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:15>From John@attach.edu.ar Fri Apr 25 09:40:05 1997 From: Juan Carlos Garelli <John@attach.edu.ar> To: email@example.com Date: Fri, 25 Apr 1997 11:27:11 -0300 Subject: Chomsky Organization: Attachment Research Center Hello everybody, I would like you to know that a new list by the name of Chomsky has been launched on the Internet. Chomsky mainly deals with his political ideals and activism, although contributions on his linguistic work is also welcome. To subscribe, send mail to LISTSERV@MAELSTROM.STJOHNS.EDU with the message: SUBSCRIBE CHOMSKY yourfullname For example: SUBSCRIBE CHOMSKY John Perez Chomsky list has been set up at the server of the University of St John's which manages its lists by means of Lsoft 1.8c. Lsoft 1.8c supports a WWW interface whereby all archived messages can be read. You can find Chomsky WWW interface at: http://maelstrom.stjohns.edu/archives/chomsky.html Thank you for your attention, JC Garelli, CHOMSKY listowner Juan Carlos Garelli, M.D., Ph.D. Department of Early Development University of Buenos Aires Email: firstname.lastname@example.org _______________________________________________________________________________ <44:16>From email@example.com Tue Apr 29 15:29:28 1997 From: "Neil Haave" <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Date: Tue, 29 Apr 1997 14:25:05 +0000 Subject: CFP: Generating Surprises -- The Post/Disciplinary University +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ CIRLA '98 Conference Announcement and Call for Papers GENERATING SURPRISES: THE POST/DISCIPLINARY UNIVERSITY 3rd International Conference Sponsored by the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in the Liberal Arts (CIRLA) at Augustana University College Thursday evening, May 7 through Sunday noon, May 10, 1998 at The Banff Centre for Conferences, Banff, Alberta, Canada Conference Web Site: http://www.augustana.ab.ca/cirla/cirla98/ ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ -------------------------------------------------------------------------- post- / pref. 1 the afterthought, the afterword. 2 what depends on the already existing. 3 what looks back, what looks forward. 4 what is refined from the old, what is reconstructed from the ruins. 5 the space that is cleared for new possibilities. 6 that which is defined in terms of another. discipline / n. 1 a branch of instruction or learning. 2 research programs. 3 regimes of truth. 4 methods leading to reliable knowledge. 5 curricula. 6 tradition. 7 privileged forms of knowledge. 8 home. post-disciplinary / adj. ? (To be Investigated, May 1998, Banff) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ The third CIRLA conference, to be held at the Banff Centre for Conferences, will investigate the encounters, connections, reproductions, and surprises that occur both within the university and between the university and the community which it serves. Are surprises possible anymore in the university? The three-day-long conversation will address questions of post- disciplinarity through keynote speakers, panel discussions, paper presentations, and informal contact. A reception is planned for the Thursday evening, with a dinner on Saturday evening, and many surprises in between. The program will be planned so that participants will have time to explore all that Banff has to offer. Papers or abstracts may be submitted on any of the following topics (NOTE: this list is not exhaustive, but is meant to give an idea of some relevant issues. If you have an idea for a paper or session that is not included here, please contact the director of CIRLA): ENCOUNTERS What is society's responsibility toward the university? What is the university's responsibility toward its communities? What's the point?: Has liberal education been taken over by other interests? The university and/as business Media(tion): The public face of the university Encounters between the university and government The public intellectual: Romantic ideal, necessary evil, or...? CONNECTIONS Is there anything beyond the discipline? beyond the "inter-discipline"? Does interdisciplinarity become its own discipline? Beyond suspicion: (How) Can the sciences and the humanities get along? Who's in and who's out when it comes to interdisciplinarity? Whose tradition?: The place of diverse traditions and ways of knowing REPRODUCTIONS In defense of the discipline, or of interdisciplinarity Colonization 1: Disciplines in relation to other disciplines Colonization 2: Disciplines in relation to non-Western forms of knowledge Colonization 3: The feminist challenge to traditional ways of thinking Is the internet better than the classroom? Is the tradition of liberal education viable today? What kind of students do disciplines produce? SURPRISES Pedagogy: Beyond formulas and trends Implications of research into disciplinarity Administrative and structural innovations Cooperative ventures discipline, community, nation If you are willing to submit a paper or organize a symposium on one of the above topics or on another one, please contact us. For more information, please contact: Bruce Janz, Director Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in the Liberal Arts c/o Chris Jensen McCloy Augustana University College 4901-46 Ave., Camrose, Alberta CANADA T4V 2R3 TEL: (403)679-1130; FAX: (403)679-1161 email: CIRLA@AUGUSTANA.AB.CA WWW Site: http://www.augustana.ab.ca/cirla Information on submissions: Deadline for abstracts, draft papers, or session proposals: November 15, 1997. Notification of acceptance: February 1, 1998. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ The Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in the Liberal Arts The Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in the Liberal Arts (CIRLA) was founded in 1990 to promote dialogue about liberal arts university education and interdisciplinary research and teaching. Based at Augustana University College in Camrose, Alberta, CIRLA sponsors a number of initiatives: _DIANOIA: A LIBERAL ARTS INTERDISCIPLINARY JOURNAL_. _Dianoia_ seeks to develop an understanding of what a liberal arts education is in its own terms and in light of what liberal arts means for society as a whole through discursive thinking. We begin with the assumption that the separate disciplines do not have to look for a common ground: insofar as they are part of education, they already share this common ground. _Dianoia_ is thus a forum for this already-shared and public aspect of our separate disciplines. Papers from this conference will be considered for publication in _Dianoia_. _Dianoia_ website: http://www.augustana.ab.ca/cirla/dianoia/. COLLOQUIUM SERIES. CIRLA sponsors a colloquium series at Augustana University College, designed to foster interdisciplinary dialogue. CONFERENCES. CIRLA'S previous conference, "Liberal Arts and the Future of University Education," was held in May 1996 at the Banff Centre. Over 100 people attended; keynote speakers were Dr. Peter Emberley and Dr. Ursula Franklin. "Fragmentation and the Desire for Order/Unity" was held in April 1993 at Augustana. It brought together scholars from across Canada and the United States. Several of the conference papers were published in _Dianoia_. VISITING SCHOLARS. CIRLA hosts visiting scholars for short visits at Augustana University College each year. Past scholars have been: Dr. Gwynne Dyer (Public Affairs), 1994; Dr. Michael McDonald (Ethics), 1996; Dr. Julie Lutz (Astronomy), 1996; Dr. Steven Ward (Journalism), 1997. PUBLIC CONVERSATION. CIRLA runs a weekly column ("Educated Guesses") in the _Camrose Canadian_ newspaper. It is designed to raise issues relevant to the university and society. ELECTRONIC RESOURCES. WWW Site: http://www.augustana.ab.ca/cirla/. This site contains resources and links to issues relevant to university education, liberal education, and interdisciplinarity. Discussion list: CIRLA-L is an e-mail discussion group designed to discuss issues of higher education, liberal arts, and interdisciplinarity, and also to announce upcoming conferences, calls for papers, information on the CIRLA conference, and other relevant events. To sign on, send the message "Subscribe" to CIRLA-L-Request@augustana.ab.ca. CIRLA is supported by PanCanadian Oil and Augustana University College. _______________________________________________________________________________ Darwin-L Message Log 44: 1-16 -- April 1997 End
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