Darwin-L Message Log 1:103 (September 1993)

Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences

This is one message from the Archives of Darwin-L (1993–1997), a professional discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences.

Note: Additional publications on evolution and the historical sciences by the Darwin-L list owner are available on SSRN.

<1:103>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu  Sat Sep 11 22:16:52 1993

Date: Sat, 11 Sep 1993 23:23:16 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: Trees of history bibliography (long)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS, AND STEMMATICS.  Version of February 1993. Compiled by
Robert J. O'Hara, Center for Critical Inquiry in the Liberal Arts and
Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro,
North Carolina 27412-5001, U.S.A.  (Email: RJOHARA@iris.uncg.edu.)  Suggestions
for additions, deletions, and corrections are very welcome; my own field is
systematics, so that is the area in which this list is most reliable.  My
object here is not to create an exhaustive bibliography, but rather a
bibliography that will help advanced students in any one of these fields get a
good sense of what has gone on and is going on in the other fields, with
special reference to theory.  Studies of particular biological taxa, language
families, or manuscript traditions that do not have a theoretical or historical
emphasis are generally excluded from this list.  Asterisks indicate works that
may be particularly useful to beginners.  This bibliography may be freely
distributed in print or electronically as long as the references and this
header remain intact.

1. Interdisciplinary Works
2. General and Theoretical Works - Systematics
3. General and Theoretical Works - Historical Linguistics
4. General and Theoretical Works - Stemmatics
5. Historical Works - Systematics
6. Historical Works - Historical Linguistics
7. Historical Works - Stemmatics
8. Trees of History Elsewhere
9. Miscellaneous Works on Evolution in Relation to Other Fields


Bateman, Richard, Ives Goddard, Richard T. O'Grady, Vicki A. Funk, Rich
Mooi, W. J. Kress, & Peter Cannell.  1990.  Speaking of forked tongues: the
feasibility of reconciling human phylogeny and the history of language.
Current Anthropology, 31:1-24.  [See also responses and commentary on pp.
177-183, 315-316, 420-426.]

Bender, M. L.  1976.  Genetic classification of languages: genotype vs.
phenotype.  Language Sciences, 43:4-6.

Flight, Colin.  1988.  Bantu trees and some wider ramifications.  African
Languages and Cultures, 1:25-43.  [Reanalyzes some linguistic data using
the distance Wagner procedure from systematics.]

Greenberg, Joseph H.  1957.  Language and evolutionary theory.  Pp. 56-65
in: Essays in Linguistics.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hoenigswald, Henry M.  1990.  Language families and subgroupings, tree
model and wave theory, and reconstruction of protolanguages.  Pp. 441-454
in: Research Guide on Language Change (Edgar C. Polome, ed.).  Trends in
Linguistics, Studies and Monographs, 48.  Berlin & New York: Mouton de
Gruyter.  [Short historical and theoretical discussion of the tree model
and the principle of shared innovation (apomorphy), and the discovery of
some of the limitations of trees in linguistics.]

*Hoenigswald, Henry M., & Linda F. Wiener, eds.  1987.  Biological Metaphor
and Cladistic Classification: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.  [The most important single
interdisciplinary collection, with papers on all three subjects.]

Koerner, E. F. Konrad.  1981.  Schleichers Einflus auf Haeckel:
Schlaglichter auf die wechselseitige Abhangigkeit zwischen linguistichen
und biologischen Theorien in 19. Jahrhundert.  Zeitschrift fur
vergleichende Sprachforschung, 95:1-21.  [Reprinted in Koerner, 1989,
Practicing Linguistic Historiography: Selected Essays, pp. 211-231.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins.]

Koerner, E. F. Konrad, ed.  1983.  Linguistics and Evolutionary Theory:
Three Essays by August Schleicher, Ernst Haeckel, and William Bleek, with
an Introduction by J. Peter Maher.  Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  [Contains:
(1) Schleicher, 1863, The Darwinian Theory and the Science of Language; (2)
Schleicher, 1865, On the Significance of Language for the Natural History
of Man; (3) Bleek, 1867, On the Origin of Language (with preface by
Haeckel); (4) W. D. Whitney, 1872, Dr. Bleek and the Simious Theory of

Lee, Arthur.  1989.  Numerical taxonomy revisited: John Griffith, cladistic
analysis and St. Augustine's Quaestiones in Heptateuchum.  Studia
Patristica, 20:24-32.  [Application of cladistic techniques to a stemmatic

Maher, John Peter.  1966.  More on the history of the comparative method:
the tradition of Darwinism in August Schleicher's work.  Anthropological
Linguistics, 8:1-12.

Picardi, Eva.  1977.  Some problems of classification in linguistics and
biology, 1800-1830.  Historiographia Linguistica, 4:31-57.

Platnick, Norman I., & H. Don Cameron.  1977.  Cladistic methods in
textual, linguistic, and phylogenetic analysis.  Systematic Zoology,

Robinson, Peter M. W., & Robert J. O'Hara.  1992.  Report on the Textual
Criticism Challenge 1991.  Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 3:331-337.
[Preliminary report on the application of cladistic analysis to a stemmatic

Robinson, Peter M. W., & Robert J. O'Hara.  In press.  Cladistic analysis
of an Old Norse Manuscript tradition.  Research in Humanities Computing.
Oxford: Clarendon Press.  [Application of systematic techniques to a
stemmatic problem.]

Shevoroshkin, Vitaly, & John Woodford.  1991.  Where linguistics,
archeology, and biology meet.  Pp. 173-197 in: Ways of Knowing (John
Brockman, ed.).  New York: Prentice Hall Press.

Stevick, Robert D.  1963.  The biological model and historical linguistics.
Language, 39:159-169.

Uschmann, Georg.  1972.  August Schleicher und Ernst Haeckel.  Spitzbardt,


*Brooks, Daniel R., & Deborah A. McLennan.  1991.  Phylogeny, Ecology, and
Behavior: A Research Program in Comparative Biology.  Chicago: University
of Chicago Press.  [Chapter 2 is an introduction to cladistic analysis.]

Camin, Joseph H., & Robert R. Sokal.  1965.  A method for deducing
branching sequences in phylogeny.  Evolution, 19:311-326.  [One of several
early influential papers in modern phylogenetic theory.]

Edwards, A. W. F., & Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi L.  1964.  Reconstruction of
evolutionary trees.  Pp. 67-76 in: Phenetic and Phylogenetic Classification
(V. H. Heywood & J. McNeill, eds.).  Systematics Association Publication 6.
[One of several early influential papers in modern phylogenetic theory.]

Farris, J. S.  1970.  Methods for computing Wagner trees.  Systematic
Zoology, 19:83-92.  [An early influential paper; now substantially

Farris, James S., Arnold G. Kluge, & M. J. Eckardt.  1970.  A numerical
approach to phylogenetic systematics.  Systematic Zoology, 19:172-189.
[One of several early influential papers in modern phylogenetic theory.]

Felsenstein, Joseph.  1982.  Numerical methods for inferring evolutionary
trees.  Quarterly Review of Biology, 57:379-404.

Fitch, Walter M., & Emmanuel Margoliash.  1967.  The construction of
phylogenetic trees.  Science, 155:279-284.  [One of several early
influential papers in modern phylogenetic theory.]

Hennig, Willi.  1965.  Phylogenetic systematics.  Annual Review of
Entomology, 10:97-116.  [A synopsis of Hennig 1966.]

Hennig, Willi.  1966.  Phylogenetic Systematics.  Urbana: University of
Illinois Press.

Kluge, Arnold G., & James S. Farris.  1969.  Quantitative phyletics and the
evolution of anurans.  Systematic Zoology, 18:1-32.  [One of several early
influential papers in modern phylogenetic theory.]

Maddison, Wayne P., Michael J. Donoghue, & David R. Maddison.  1984.
Outgroup analysis and parsimony.  Systematic Zoology, 33:83-103.  [A review
of outgroup comparison as a method of polarity determination.]

*Maddison, Wayne P., & David R. Maddison.  1989.  Interactive analysis of
phylogeny and character evolution using the computer program MacClade.
Folia Primatologica, 53:190-202.

*Maddison, Wayne P., & David R. Maddison.  1992.  MacClade, version 3.
Sunderland: Sinauer Associates.  [Computer program for interactive analysis
of evolutionary trees.  Comes with introductory text.]

Mayr, Ernst.  1974.  Cladistic analysis or cladistic classification.
Zeitschrift fur zoologische Systematik und Evolutions-forschung, 12:94-128.
[Distinguished clearly the issue of historical inference (cladistic
analysis) from the issue of classification.]

*Mayr, Ernst, & Peter D. Ashlock.  1991.  Principles of Systematic Zoology,
second edition.  New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.  [Pp. 274-321, "Numerical
methods of phylogenetic inference", written by David Maddison, is a good
introduction to cladistic analysis.  Much of the rest of the book is

O'Hara, Robert J.  1988.  Homage to Clio, or, toward an historical
philosophy for evolutionary biology.  Systematic Zoology, 37:142-155.  [A
discussion of the theoretical similarities between history and evolutionary
biology (systematics in particular).]

*Sober, Elliott.  1988.  Reconstructing the Past: Parsimony, Evolution, and
Inference.  Cambridge: MIT Press.

Stevens, Peter F.  1980.  Evolutionary polarity of character states.
Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11:333-358.

*Swofford, David L., & Gary J. Olsen.  1990.  Phylogenetic reconstruction.
Pp. 411-501 in: Molecular Systematics (D. M. Hillis & C. Moritz, eds.).
Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer.  [An advanced but comprehensive

Wagner, Warren H., Jr.  1961.  Problems in the classification of ferns.
Recent Advances in Botany, 1:841-844.  [One of several early influential
papers in modern phylogenetic theory.]

*Wiley, Edward O.  1981.  Phylogenetics.  New York: Wiley.  [A general
textbook on systematics.]

Zuckerkandl, E., & Linus Pauling.  1965.  Molecules as documents of
evolutionary history.  Journal of Theoretical Biology, 8:357-366.

[Journals: Systematic Zoology (now Systematic Biology), Cladistics,
Systematic Botany, Taxon, Zeitschrift fur zoologische Systematik und

[Software: MacClade, PAUP, PHYLIP, HENNIG-86, Clados, and others.  See
Maddison in Mayr & Ashlock, pp. 320-321 for a listing.]


Allen, W. S.  1953.  Relationship in comparative linguistics.  Transactions
of the Philological Society, 1953:52-108.

Anttila, Raimo.  1989.  Historical and Comparative Linguistics.  Amsterdam.
[A general textbook.]

Bynon, Theodora.  1977.  Historical Linguistics.  Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.  [A general textbook.]

Chretien, C. Douglas.  1963.  Shared innovation and subgrouping.
International Journal of American Linguistics, 29:66-68.

*Gamkrelidze, Thomas V., & V. V. Ivanov.  1990.  The early history of Indo-
European languages.  Scientific American, March, pp. 110-116.

Gleason, H. A.  1959.  Counting and calculating for historical
reconstruction.  Anthropological Linguistics, 1(2):22-32.

Grace, George W.  1965.  On the scientific status of genetic classification
in linguistics.  Oceanic Linguistics, 4:1-14.

Greenberg, Joseph H.  1987.  Language in the Americas.  Stanford: Stanford
University Press.

Hetzron, Robert.  1976.  Two principles of genetic reconstruction.  Lingua,

Hock, Hans Henrich.  1991.  Principles of Historical Linguistics, second
edition.  Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.  [A general textbook.]

Hoenigswald, Henry M.  1966.  Criteria for the subgrouping of languages.
Pp. 1-12 in: Ancient Indo-European Dialects (Henrik Brinbaum & Jaan Puhvel,
eds.).  Berkeley: University of California Press.

*Mallory, James P.  1989.  In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language,
Archeology, and Myth.  London: Thames and Hudson.

Nichols, Johanna.  1992.  Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time.  Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.

Pulgram, E.  1953.  Family tree, wave theory, and dialectology.  Orbis,

*Renfrew, Colin.  1989.  The origins of Indo-European languages.
Scientific American, October, pp. 106-114.

*Ruhlen, Merritt.  1991.  A Guide to the World's Languages.  Volume 1:
Classification.  Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Shevoroshkin, Vitaly, & T. L. Markey, eds.  1986.  Typology, Relationship,
and Time: A Collection of Papers on Language Change and Relationship by
Soviet Linguists.  Ann Arbor: Karoma Publishers.

Shevoroshkin, Vitaly, ed.  1989.  Reconstructing Languages and Cultures.
Studienverlag Dr. Norbert Brockmeier.

Shevoroshkin, Vitaly.  1989.  Methods in interphyletic comparisons.  Ural-
Altaische Jahrbucher, 61:1-26.

Shevoroshkin, Vitaly.  1990.  The mother tongue.  The Sciences, May-June.

*Wright, R.  1991.  Quest for the mother tongue.  Atlantic, 267(4):39-68.
[Popular magazine article.]

[Journals: Diachronica; Historische Sprachforschung/Historical


Clark, A. C.  1918.  The Descent of Manuscripts.  Oxford: Oxford University

Colwell, Ernest Cadman.  1947.  Genealogical method: its achievements and
limitations.  Journal of Biblical Literature, 66:109-133.

Dawe, R. D.  1964.  The Collation and Investigation of Manuscripts of
Aeschylus.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  [On the limitations of

Greg, W. W.  1927.  The Calculus of Variants: an Essay on Textual
Criticism.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Greg, W. W.  1930.  Recent theories of textual criticism.  Modern
Philology, 28:401-404.  [Reply to Shepard (1930).]

[Griesbach.  1796.  Prolegomena to his second edition of the New Testament.
(Establishes the principle of lectio difficilior, and other rules, fide
Shepard 1930.)]

Kleinlogel, Alexander.  1968.  Das Stemmaproblem.  Philologus, 112:63-82.

Maas, Paul.  1958.  Textual Criticism.  (Translated from the German by
Barbara Flower.)  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Quentin, Henri.  1926.  Essais de Critique Textuelle.  Paris: Picard.

Reeve, M. D.  1986.  Stemmatic method: 'qualcosa che non funziona'?  The
Role of the Book in Medieval Culture (Proceedings of the Oxford
International Symposium, 1982, edited by Peter Ganz), 1:57-69.
Bibliologia, vol. 3.  Brepols, Turnhout.

*Reynolds, Leighton D., ed.  1983.  Texts and Transmission: A Survey of the
Latin Classics.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

*Reynolds, Leighton D., & N. G. Wilson.  1991.  Scribes and Scholars: A
Guide to the Transmission of Greek and Latin Literature.  Third Edition.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.  [Reviews: Possanza, M.  1991.  Bryn Mawr
Classical Review, 2:431-438.]

Shepard, William P.  1930.  Recent theories of textual criticism.  Modern
Philology, 28:129-141.  [Critique of Quentin (1926) and Greg (1927); see
Greg (1930) for a response.]

Weitzman, Michael.  1985.  The analysis of open traditions.  Studies in
Bibliography, 38:82-120.  [A substantial discussion of how to reconstruct
the history of contaminated manuscript traditions.]

Weitzman, Michael.  1987.  The evolution of manuscript traditions.  Journal
of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, 150:287-308.  [Develops a
statistical model of the process of manuscript descent.]

West, M. L.  1973.  Textual Criticism and Editorial Technique.  Stuttgart.

Whitehead, F., & C. E. Pickford.  1951.  The two-branch stemma.  Bulletin
Bibliographique de la Societe Internationale Arthurienne\Bibliographical
Bulletin of the International Arthurian Society, 3:83-90.

Zuntz, G.  1965.  An Inquiry into the Transmission of the Plays of
Euripides.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Barsanti, Giulio.  1988.  Le immagini della natura: scale, mappe, alberi
1700-1800.  Nuncius, 3:55-125.  [History of scales, maps, and trees in 18th
century systematics.]

Craw, Robin.  1992.  Margins of cladistics: identity, difference and place
in the emergence of phylogenetic systematics, 1864-1975.  Pp. 65-107 in:
Trees of Life: Essays in Philosophy of Biology (Paul Griffiths, ed.).
Australasian Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 11.

Greene, John C.  1959.  The Death of Adam.  Ames: Iowa State University
Press.  [A general history of natural history, with some discussion of

Gruber, Howard E.  1972.  Darwin's 'tree of nature' and other images of
wider scope.  Pp. 121-140 in: On Aesthetics and Science (J. Wechsler, ed.).
Cambridge: MIT Press.

Hull, David L.  1988.  Science as a Process.  Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.  [Contains an account of the recent (post-1960) history of
systematics.  See Craw (1992) for criticism.]

Lam, H. J.  1936.  Phylogenetic symbols, past and present.  Acta
Biotheoretica, 2:152-194.

O'Hara, Robert J.  1988.  Diagrammatic classifications of birds, 1819-1901:
views of the natural system in 19th-century British ornithology.  Pp. 2746-
2759 in: Acta XIX Congressus Internationalis Ornithologici (H. Ouellet,
ed.).  Ottawa: National Museum of Natural Sciences.

O'Hara, Robert J.  1991.  Representations of the natural system in the
nineteenth century.  Biology and Philosophy, 6:255-274.

O'Hara, Robert J.  1992.  Telling the tree: narrative representation and
the study of evolutionary history.  Biology and Philosophy, 7:135-160.  [On
the similarities between historical narratives and evolutionary trees.]

Oppenheimer, Jane M.  1987.  Haeckel's variations on Darwin.  Hoenigswald &
Wiener, 1987:123-135.  [On the tree diagrams of the German evolutionist
Ernst Haeckel.]

de Queiroz, Kevin.  1988.  Systematics and the Darwinian revolution.
Philosophy of Science, 55:238-259.  [A good interpretation of the history
of recent systematics.]

Reif, Wolf-Ernst.  1983.  Hilgendorf's (1863) dissertation on the Steinheim
planorbids (Gastropoda; Miocene): the development of a phylogenetic
research program for paleontology.  Palaontologische Zeitschrift, 57:7-20.

Stevens, Peter F.  1982.  Augustin Augier's "Arbre Botanique" (1801), a
remarkable early botanical representation of the natural system.  Taxon,

Stevens, Peter F.  1984.  Metaphors and typology in the development of
botanical systematics 1690-1960, or the art of putting new wine in old
bottles.  Taxon, 33:169-211.

Voss, E. G.  1952.  The history of keys and phylogenetic trees in
systematic biology.  Journal of the Scientific Laboratory, Denison
University, 43:1-25.

Wagner, Warren H., Jr.  1980.  Origin and philosophy of the groundplan-
divergence method of cladistics.  Systematic Botany, 5:173-193.

Winsor, Mary P.  1976.  Starfish, Jellyfish, and the Order of Life.  New
Haven: Yale University Press.


Bonfante, Giuliano.  1954.  Ideas on the kinship of the European languages
from 1200 to 1800.  Journal of World History, 1:679-699.

De Mauro, T., & L. Formigari.  1990.  Leibniz, Humboldt, and the Origins of
Comparativism.  Amsterdam: John Benjamins.  [Amsterdam Studies in the
Theory and History of Linguistic Science, 49.]

Hoenigswald, Henry M.  1963.  On the history of the comparative method.
Anthropological Linguistics, 5(1):1-11.

Hoenigswald, Henry M.  1975.  Schleicher's tree and its trunk.  Pp. 157-160
in: Ut Videam: Contributions to an Understanding of Linguistics.  For
Pieter A. Verburg on the Occasion of his Seventieth Birthday...(Werner
Abraham et al., eds.).  Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press.

Hymes, Dell, ed.  1974.  Studies in the History of Linguistics: Traditions
and Paradigms.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Koerner, E. F. Konrad.  1978.  Toward a historiography of linguistics: 19th
and 20th century paradigms.  In: Toward a Historiography of Linguistics:
Selected Essays.  Amsterdam Studies in the Theory and History of Linguistic
Science, III.  Studies in the History of Linguistics, vol. 19.  Amsterdam:

Koerner, E. F. Konrad.  1982.  The Schleicherian paradigm in linguistics.
General Linguistics, 22:1-39.

Morpurgo Davies, Anna.  1975.  Language classification in the Nineteenth
Century.  Current Trends in Linguistics, 13:607-716.

Myers, L. F., & W. S.-Y. Wang.  1963.  Tree representations in linguistics.
In: Project on Linguistic Analysis, Report No. 3, Ohio State University
Research Foundation (N.S.F. Grant G-25055).  [fide H&W p256]

Pederson, Holger.  1931.  The Discovery of Language: Linguistic Science in
the Nineteenth Century.  Cambridge: Harvard University Press.  [Reprinted
1962, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.]

Priestly, Tom M. S.  1975.  Schleicher, Celakovsky, and the family-tree
diagram.  Historiographica Linguistica, 2:299-333.

Robins, Robert H.  1973.  The history of language classification.  Current
Trends in Linguistics, 11:3-41.

Robins, Robert H.  1979.  A Short History of Linguistics.  London.

Robins, Robert H.  1987.  The life and work of Sir William Jones.
Transactions of the Philological Society, 1987:1-23.  [Short biography of
an 18th century founder of historical linguistics.]

Southworth, Franklin C.  1964.  Family-tree diagrams.  Language, 40:557-

Stewart, Ann H.  1976.  Graphic Representation of Models in Linguistic
Theory.  Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press.

Uschmann, G.  1967.  Zur Geschichte der Stammbaumdarstellungen.  Gesammelte
Vortrage uber moderne Probleme der Abstammungslehre (M. Gersch, ed.), 2:9-
30.  Jena: Friedrich Schiller Universitat.

[Journals: Historiographica Linguistica.]


Holm, Gosta.  1972.  Carl Johan Schlyter and textual scholarship.  Saga och
Sed (Kungliga Gustav Adolf Akademiens Aarsbok), 1972:48-80.  [Reproduces
Schlyter's stemma of legal texts (earliest known) from 1827.]

Prete, Sesto.  1969.  Observations on the History of Textual Criticism in
the Medieval and Renaissance Periods.  Collegeville, Minnesota: St. John's
University Press.  [A lecture given in the servies "Medieval and
Renaissance Studies" at St. John's College.]

Timpanaro, Sebastiano.  1981.  La Genesi del Methodo del Lachmann, third
edition.  Padua.


Cook, Roger.  1974 [reprinted 1988].  The Tree of Life: Image for the
Cosmos.  New York: Thames and Hudson.  [An art historical study of tree
imagery.  Includes some historical and genealogical trees.]

Murdoch, John E.  1984.  Album of Science: Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.  [Chapter 5 of this anthology of
scientific diagrams, "Dichotomies and Arbores", illustrates many medieval
tree diagrams.  Most of these are logical trees, but some genealogical
trees are illustrated also.]

Toulmin, Stephen E.  1972.  Human Understanding.  Princeton: Princeton
University Press.  [Evolutionary epistemology: trees of disciplinary

Young, Gavin C.  1986.  Cladistic methods in paleozoic continental
reconstruction.  Journal of Geology, 94:523-537.


Bichakjian, B.  1987.  The evolution of word order: a paedomorphic
explanation.  Pp. 87-108 in: Papers from the 7th International Conference
on Historical Linguistics (A. G. Ramat et al., eds.).  Amsterdam: John

Bredeck, Elizabeth J.  1987.  Historical narrative or scientific
discipline?  Fritz Mauthner on the limits of linguistics.  Pp. 585-593 in:
Papers in the History of Linguistics (Hans Aarsleff, Louis G. Kelly, &
Hans-Josef Niederehe, eds.).  Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Durham, William H.  1990.  Advances in evolutionary culture theory.  Annual
Review of Anthropology, 19:187-210.

Kennedy, George A.  1992.  A hoot in the dark: the evolution of general
rhetoric.  Philosophy and Rhetoric, 25:1-21.

Lass, Roger.  1990.  How to do things with junk: exaptation in language
evolution.  Journal of Linguistics, 26:79-102.

Leroy, Maurice.  1949.  Sur le concept d'evolution en linguistique.  Revue
de l'Institut de Sociologie.  337-375.

Masters, R. D.  1990.  Evolutionary biology and political theory.  American
Political Science Review, 84:195-210.

Sereno, M. I.  1991.  Four analogies between biological and cultural
linguistic evolution.  Journal of Theoretical Biology, 151:467-507.

Smith, Donald T.  1993.  The new view of biological evolution:
organizational applications to higher education.  Review of Higher
Education, 16(2):141-156.  [Limited understanding of evolution.]

Terrell, John.  1981.  Linguistics and the peopling of the Pacific islands.
Journal of the Polynesian Society, 90:225-258.  [Biogeography and

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