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Darwin-L Message Log 15: 76–104 — November 1994

Academic Discussion on the History and Theory of the Historical Sciences

Darwin-L was an international discussion group on the history and theory of the historical sciences, active from 1993–1997. Darwin-L was established to promote the reintegration of a range of fields all of which are concerned with reconstructing the past from evidence in the present, and to encourage communication among scholars, scientists, and researchers in these fields. The group had more than 600 members from 35 countries, and produced a consistently high level of discussion over its several years of operation. Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.

This log contains public messages posted to the Darwin-L discussion group during November 1994. It has been lightly edited for format: message numbers have been added for ease of reference, message headers have been trimmed, some irregular lines have been reformatted, and error messages and personal messages accidentally posted to the group as a whole have been deleted. No genuine editorial changes have been made to the content of any of the posts. This log is provided for personal reference and research purposes only, and none of the material contained herein should be published or quoted without the permission of the original poster.

The master copy of this log is maintained in the Darwin-L Archives (rjohara.net/darwin) by Dr. Robert J. O’Hara. The Darwin-L Archives also contain additional information about the Darwin-L discussion group, the complete Today in the Historical Sciences calendar for every month of the year, a collection of recommended readings on the historical sciences, and an account of William Whewell’s concept of “palaetiology.”


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DARWIN-L MESSAGE LOG 15: 76-104 -- NOVEMBER 1994
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_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:76>From arkeo4@uniwa.uwa.edu.au  Thu Nov 17 20:08:21 1994

Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 10:08:12 +0800 (WST)
From: Dave Rindos <arkeo4@uniwa.uwa.edu.au>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: more on catchup/catsup/ketchup

On Thu, 17 Nov 1994, MARC PICARD wrote:

> 	According to my sources, catchup/catsup/ketchup derives ultimately
> from Chinese (Amoy) KE-TSIAP 'pickled fish-brine or sauce' which became the
> Malay KECHAP. The original condiment that Dutch traders imported from the
> Orient appears to have been either a fish sauce or one made from special
> mushrooms salted for preservation. It wasn't until American seamen added
> tomatoes that catchup/catsup/ketchup as we know it was born.

To follow up briefly on my last . . . if this is true, it gets even MORE
fascinating!

Of course (as you can see by pulling out your copy of Apicius), the
fundmental "catchup" of Classical Roman cuisine was "liquamen" or "garum"
-- a salty sauce made by fermentation of fish entrails and small fish such
as anchovies which is used in the recipes of the first century in almost
each and every savoury dish.  Garum is basically Thai Fish Sauce or the
myriad other south-east asian equivalents.  The residue of its
manufacture, "allec", was likely the equivalent of Shrimp Paste.  Garum,
of the better grades, was apparently also found in a spiced form, and was
also prepared in other mixtures, as (with water) hyrdrogarum, (wine)
oenogarum, (vinegar), oxygarum.

All of this gives one pause for thought....

Dave
--
	Dave Rindos		  arkeo4@uniwa.uwa.edu.au
    20 Herdsmans Parade    Wembley   WA    6014    AUSTRALIA
    Ph:+61 9 387 6281 (GMT+8)  FAX:+61 9 386 2760 (USEST+13)
      [you may also reach me on rindos@perth.dialix.oz.au]

  Rabbits exist, hence we may speak meaningfully to the evolution of
     the rabbit.  Some people attempt to study the evolution of
      human intelligence. We may well have a real problem here.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:77>From chefboy@violet.berkeley.edu  Fri Nov 18 01:33:51 1994

Date: Thu, 17 Nov 1994 23:33:21 -0800
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: chefboy@violet.berkeley.edu (Jason D. Patent)
Subject: U.S. World History Standards (fwd)

Without comment, I invite all of you to read the following, which I've
forwarded from the Chinese Studies list:

>Date: Tue, 15 Nov 1994 08:19:28 PST
>From: "Ross E. Dunn" <rdunn@SCIENCES.SDSU.EDU>
>Subject: Attack on National World History Standards
>To: Multiple recipients of list WORLD-L
><WORLD-L@UBVM.cc.buffalo.edu>
>
>To: World History and All History Colleagues
>
>From: Ross Dunn
>       San Diego State University
>
>Lynne Cheney and a few conservative allies have launched a
>massive campaign of disinformation regarding WORLD HISTORY:
>EXPLORING PATHS TO THE PRESENT, the national standards developed
>by the National Center for History in the Schools at UCLA.
>Indeed, these critics are attacking the entire enterprise of
>world history and its teaching practitioners.
>
>We might all welcome a reasoned national debate on world history
>teaching.  This attack aims, however, to discredit the standards
>as the work of "politically correct" operatives who "hijacked"
>the project after President Clinton was elected and Cheney's term
>as chair of the NEH came to an end.  Since these critics have not
>been able to find much in EXPLORING PATHS TO THE PRESENT to
>substantiate their claims that the standards represent radical
>revisionist history, they have resorted to flagrant
>misrepresentation of the contents of the book.  They would like
>teachers and education officials to accept their erroneous
>accusations and never read the standards for themselves.
>
>These attacks are being made by Cheney, various conservative
>columnists or talk show hosts (including Rush Limbaugh), one or
>two conservative members of the National Council on History
>Standards (individuals who largely remained silent when the
>council had its final major discussion on the drafting of the
>standards), and a scattering of conservative academics.
>Virtually none of these critics is a classroom teacher.
>
>I would like to address a number of specific charges.
>
>1)  Mrs. Cheney has laid out her general position in a Washington
>Post article (Nov. 11):  "If you look over history for the last
>500 or 600 years, the rise of the West is the organizing
>principle, and the key to the rise of democratic standards."
>
>Expressed this way, she is reiterating the well-known,
>essentialist notion that Western civilization, particularly the
>history of certain political institutions, is the Big Story to
>which all developments in other parts of the world may be linked
>or subordinated.  She is urging American schools to return to the
>days when the rise of Western civilization and world history were
>regarded as largely the same thing.  Such an intellectual
>position is no longer tenable among the vast majority of either
>K-12 or college educators and could never be the basis for
>development of national history standards.
>
>The standards are designed to serve as flexible guidelines for
>developing or improving courses, not as a prescribed curriculum
>for all schools to adopt.  They do not present any single idea as
>the organizing principle other than a commitment to genuine
>globe-encircling history.  They do offer a number of primary
>organizing ideas for eight chronological eras of world history.
>The standards presented under each of these eras emphasize study
>of large-scale developments in history (including those that cut
>across national or cultural boundaries) rather than study of
>"civilizations" as autonomous, self-perpetuating units.
>
>2)  Cheney has characterized EXPLORING as "incoherent . . . just
>a welter of details without priorities."  She charges that
>"everything is the same as everything else--gender relations
>under India's Gupta Empire, political and cultural achievements
>under Shah Abbas in Persia, and oh yes, the Magna Carta."  (USA
>Today, Nov. 11).
>
>In fact the standards follow a lucid organizational plan, they
>are easy to read, and they include graphic presentations that can
>help teachers and curriculum specialists set subject matter
>priorities.  Moreover, everything is not the same as everything
>else.  The standards clearly guide teachers in periodizing world
>history, in identifying unifying themes, and in making
>distinctions between large-scale developments and those of
>regional or national significance.  Cheney would have to explain
>how she would rank order the study of classical India, Islamic
>Persia, the Magna Carta, and other developments of altogether
>different character that occurred in completely different parts
>of the world at entirely different periods of time.
>
>3)  In their effort to discredit EXPLORING PATHS TO THE PRESENT
>Cheney and Co. have made the bizarre charge that they fail "to
>give any emphasis to Western civilization" (Washington Post, Nov.
>11).  Gilbert Sewall (head of a small, conservatively funded
>textbook reviewing organization) has asserted that the standards
>are "imbalanced by diminishing the place of Western civilization
>in human history" (Wall Street Journal, Nov. 11).
>
>The teacher task forces that drafted the standards were asked to
>identify what they thought were the most important events,
>trends, and developments that occurred within each of eight
>designated eras of world history.  The focus was on identifying
>the most consequential patterns of change, not on allotting so
>much space to "civilization A" and so much to "civilization B."
>The standards are not primarily organized around the study of
>"cultures" as such, whether Western or otherwise.  Rather they
>encourage critical inquiry into the question of how the world
>came to be the way it is.  As the first chapter of EXPLORING
>makes clear, this world-scale approach aims "to encourage
>students to ask large and searching questions about the human
>past, to compare patterns of continuity and change in different
>parts of the world, and to examine the histories and achievements
>of particular peoples or civilizations with an eye to wider
>social, cultural, or economic contexts" (p. 4).
>
>Building on these premises, EXPLORING gives a great deal of
>attention to European history but places it in world context.
>Therefore ancient Greece and its achievements are presented in
>the context of Mediterranean and Middle Eastern history.
>Medieval Europe figures prominently in the standards but in
>relationship to contemporaneous developments in the Islamic
>world, China, and other regions.  The standards are emphatic
>about the global importance of developments in Europe in the
>modern centuries.  For the unit focusing on 1450-1750 AD more
>than half the specific standard statements are concerned either
>with Europe or Europeans abroad.  The 1750-1914 era suggests
>three major guiding themes: Political Revolutions and New
>Ideologies, the Industrial Revolution, and the Age of European
>Dominance.  These themes are all explored in global terms, but
>European history figures large.  How could it not?
>
>One can only conclude that when Cheney, Sewall, and others claim
>that the standards diminish "the importance of the West"
>(Newsweek, Nov. 14), they mean that world history is not defined
>largely as the history of the United States and western and
>central Europe.  On the contrary, EXPLORING is arguing that
>students are likely to gain a far better understanding of the
>importance of European ideas and action in history if the
>framework for their studies is the human community as a whole.
>
>If, for example, the ideals of popular sovereignty,
>constitutionalism, and inalienable rights that were given
>expression in Europe and North America in the 18th century had
>such power that they attracted intense public debate and
>experimentation among peoples of Latin America, Asia, and Africa
>in the 19th and 20th centuries, shouldn't students know this?
>
>4)  Cheney states that "there's nothing wrong with studying the
>rest of the world, but not through this massive amount of detail"
>(Washington Post, Nov. 11).  Sewall complains that the standards
>stress the "arcana" of the past (Wall Street Journal, Nov. 11).
>
>EXPLORING PATHS TO THE PRESENT is a treasury of recommendations,
>ideas, and classroom strategies for world history.  (The content
>standards take up 249 pages of a 341 page document.  There are 18
>pages of critical thinking standards.)  The teacher-scholar task
>forces that developed the book spent a great deal of time
>deciding what to exclude from it, recognizing that there is a
>great deal of world history that should not be part of the K-12
>curriculum.  Their work involved much sifting and boiling down.
>Their aim, however, was not to produce a list of 100 or 200
>things that every child "needs to know."  Could one even imagine
>history teachers reaching national consensus on such an
>enterprise?  Rather, in producing this book educators are saying:
>"Here's what we mean by guidelines for a rich, solid, world-class
>education in history."  It is now the prerogatives of states,
>school districts, schools, and publishers to draw on them and
>select from them to develop courses, curricula, and textbooks--
>preferably within the framework of three years of world history
>studies between 5th and 12th grades.
>
>When Cheney speaks of "massive detail" and Sewall of "arcana,"
>they are likely referring to events and ideas that were not part
>of their own traditional education.  One or two other media
>critics have implied that any subject matter dealing with Africa
>south of the Sahara before the 20th century should be
>automatically classified as "arcane."  However, teachers and
>scholars of today who are conversant with the history of Africa,
>Asia, and Latin America are likely to find very little in these
>standards that they would characterize as recondite.  Some of the
>suggested exemplary activities for students are challenging
>(which is to be expected in "world-class" standards), and many of
>them offer students opportunities to be introduced to new
>historical figures, new places on the map, and new concepts.  But
>how could anyone suppose that the experienced, pragmatic teachers
>who developed this document would be interested in cramming it
>with historical obscurities?
>
>Cheney and a few others have combed through the standards to find
>passages that they think the public is likely to find "arcane."
>Then they have declared that American kids are going to have to
>learn  "all this stuff" as the new "official history."  This
>charge is outrageously deceptive since both the Bush and Clinton
>Departments of Education have made it perfectly clear that
>standards documents in all disciplines are to be regarded as
>voluntary.  Moreover, the hundreds of student projects and
>activities included in EXPLORING PATHS TO THE PRESENT are
>presented as "examples of student achievement," not mandated
>elements in a rigid course of study.
>
>5)  Gilbert Sewall asserts that "significant issues are pushed
>aside to please interest groups" (Newsweek, Nov. 14).
>
>Who are these presumably "politically correct" groups?  What are
>their interests?  Do they include organizations that participated
>in the standards process such as the Lutheran Church (Missouri
>Synod), the National Catholic Education Association, the American
>Association of School Librarians, or the NEA?  Mr. Sewall should
>be asked to identify the "groups" he has in mind.
>
>6)  Cheney has repeated over and over in the media that the U.S.
>history standards fail to "mention" such important figures as
>Thomas Edison and Albert Einstein.  She is alleging of course
>that radical revisionists are trying deliberately to strike
>Edison and Einstein from American history education.
>
>Read Examples of Student Achievement on page 262 of EXPLORING
>PATHS TO THE PRESENT: "Investigate the life of a scientist or
>inventor such as Thomas Alva Edison, Marie Sklodowska Curie,
>Albert Einstein, or Guglielmo Marconi.  How did the work of the
>person you selected change society?"  Why would the authors
>"suppress" Edison and Einstein in the U.S. history standards but
>include them in the world history book?
>
>7)  Sewall alleges that in the standards "the Industrial
>Revolution is given short shrift."
>
>The Industrial Revolution (in both European and world context) is
>one of three major guiding themes for study of the 1750-1914 era.
>One of six primary standards recommends student understanding of
>"The causes and consequences of the agricultural and industrial
>revolutions."  Several other standards in this era recommend
>study of industrialization and its economic, social, and cultural
>consequences in Europe and around the world.  These themes are
>also treated prominently in the 20th century era.  The first of
>six standards calls for student understanding of "Global and
>economic trends in the high period of Western dominance."
>
>8)  In her effort to present evidence of radical revisionism in
>EXPLORING, Cheney has completely misrepresented at least one
>passage to make it support her charges.  According to the
>Washington Post (Nov. 11), "she cited the guidelines' suggestion
>that students study Michelangelo to learn about "oppression and
>conflict in Europe" during the Renaissance.  'What about beauty,'
>she asked?"
>
>The passage (p. 177) actually reads:  "Use books such as Irving
>Stone's The Agony and the Ecstacy, Claudia Van Canon's The
>Inheritance, and Barbara Willard's A Cold Wind Blowing to discuss
>social oppression and conflict in Europe during the Renaissance.
>How did such conditions conflict with prevailing humanist
>principles?"
>
>Moreover, a student exemplar on page 43 of the U.S. standards
>reads:  "Analyze examples of Renaissance art, such as
>Michelangelo's painting of the Sistine Chapel or the sculpture of
>David for what it says about the relationship between man and God
>and the position and power of the individual."
>
>Cheney's method of making blatant, condemnatory generalizations
>from bits of language and scattered omissions suggests that the
>true p.c. fanatics (if they are out there somewhere) might use
>the same tactics to denounce the standards as monstrously
>Eurocentric!
>
>9)  Many teachers have been grieved to see Al Shanker, president
>of the AFT, weighing in on the side of the ultra conservative
>critics with an utterly unsupportable attack on the standards.
>He is quoted in the Wall Street Journal (Nov. 11):  "[EXPLORING
>PATHS TO THE PRESENT] is a travesty, a caricature of what these
>things should be--sort of a cheapshot, leftist point-of-view of
>history. . . .  Everything that is European or American, or that
>has to do with white people is evil and oppressive, while Genghis
>Khan is a nice sweet guy just bringing his culture to other
>places."
>
>This statement is an offense to the dedicated and distinguished
>teacher-scholars who wrote the standards, and it is completely
>without foundation.  To be specific, what does EXPLORING actually
>say about Genghis Khan [Chinggis Khan] and the Mongol empire?
>
>". . . the Mongol warlords intruded in one way or another on the
>lives of almost all peoples of Eurasia.  The conquests were
>terrifying, but the stabilizing of Mongol rule led to a century
>of fertile commercial and cultural interchange across the
>continent" (p. 128).
>
>"Describe the destructive Mongol conquests of 1206-1279. . . ."
>(p. 146).
>
>"Write a short story as told by someone your age about the siege
>of their home city in Persia by a Mongol army" (p. 146).
>
>"Use the reported remarks of Chinggis Khan--'Man's highest joy is
>in victory: to conquer one's enemies, to pursue them, to deprive
>them of their possessions, to make their beloved weep . . .'--to
>examine the record of Mongol conquests."
>
>"Construct a historical argument explaining the relationship
>between military success and Mongol army organization, weapons,
>tactics, and policies of terror."
>
>Gary Nash has challenged Shanker to retract his statement in the
>Wall Street Journal.
>
>                    *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *
>
>Under Lynne Cheney's chairmanship at NEH the National Council on
>History Standards charged the National Center for History to
>develop standards in world, not European history.  They took the
>charge seriously, affirming along with the dozens of teachers and
>scholars who contributed to this project that high school
>graduates who are going to live their lives in an intricately
>interconnected world and pursue careers and vocations in the
>global marketplace require a fundamental understanding of the
>forces that have over the long span of time shaped our
>contemporary world.  That means a solid world history education--
>not a tour of every culture and society but critical inquiry into
>the movements, trends, conflicts, transformations, and cultural
>flowerings of greatest import and most enduring significance.
>
>
>A closing anecdote:  The other day I spoke to my brother-in-law,
>a southern Wisconsin dairy farmer with children in 8th and 10th
>grades.  "Of course we need world history in the curriculum," he
>told me.  "On a dairy farm you have to deal with the global
>economy every day.  It isn't the Wisconsin market or the national
>market that sets the price of the commodities I produce.  It's
>the global market.  To understand the global market, you have to
>know a lot about the world."  Amen.
>
>
>I would like to urge all of you who feel as I do about the
>injustice of these fierce attacks and on the importance of world
>history in the schools to take active steps:
>
>     Order the standards from the National Center for History in
>     the Schools and read them for yourselves.  (National Center
>     for History, UCLA, 10880 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 761, Los
>     Angeles, CA 90024-4108).
>
>     Forward this message to colleagues and other lists.
>
>     Write letters to the press and op-ed pieces.
>
>     Organize departmental, school, or community discussions of
>     the National History Standards.
>
>I will be happy to hear from any of you.
>
>Ross Dunn
>San Diego State University
>rdunn@sciences.sdsu.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:78>From GGALE@VAX1.UMKC.EDU  Fri Nov 18 09:18:53 1994

Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 09:18:26 -0600 (CST)
From: GGALE@VAX1.UMKC.EDU
Subject: Re: DARWIN-L digest 336
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

If we-all are having fun with kechap, wait until you take a look at
the ingreedyments in Worchestershire ["wooster" to us Yanks!] Sauce.
See "anchovies" on the list of contents? What do you think that is a
descendent of?  Fermented S.E. Asian fish, from what I know of the history
of this.
"Garam" as in India's legendary "garam masala" sure sounds like the Roman
"garum". PIE again?

And what ABOUT pipi? :)
g

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:79>From GA5123@SIUCVMB.SIU.EDU  Fri Nov 18 13:30:28 1994

Date: Fri, 18 Nov 94 12:49:41 CST
From: GA5123@SIUCVMB.SIU.EDU
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: More on ketchup (can there be?)

  Of course what matters about ketchup in the end
is how you make it and what foods you put it on, as Dave Rindos has shown.
But I think a small linguistic problem remains.
I wonder if there is a Malay/Indonesian linguist who can clarify.
(First of all, the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
agrees with the view that Malay received the word from Amoy
_koe_ 'minced seafood' + _tsiap_ 'brine, sauce, juice'.)
But my Indonesian dictionary has two entries for (old orthography) _ketjap_.
One is a verb:  ketjap/mengetjap 'to taste' (phrase _mengetjap_kenikmatan_
'to enjoy pleasures' -- but _kenikmatan_ is not listed separately).
The other is a noun:  'soy'.  (Bean?  Sauce?  It doesn't say.)
Here is the quibble:
Indonesian orthographic _e_ has two possible sounds:
one is indeed a vowel like the ceY of the IPA, and may be stressed.
The other is a schwa, never stressed.
So far as I know, the two sounds have no special relationship in the
phonological system, just the coincidence of spelling.
My dictionary marks the noun as having the stressed ceY,
and leaves the verb unmarked, implying unstressed schwa.
This difference of vowels suggests we are dealing with two differnt words.
Which one of them is the source of Eng. ketchup?
Although 'taste' has a strong semantic link with 'sauce',
all things being equal it is more plausible to derive a noun from a noun,
and 'soy' is, after all, a foodstuff that evidently figures in some
recipes of ketchup.
But now the problem:  Merriam-Webster's etymology marks the _e_ of
Malay "kechap" with a breve sign -- which to me suggests the unstressed
schwa vowel, and thus would correspond more to the verb than to the noun.
  I'm about at the limit of my "expertise" on Malay/Indonesian.
Can anyone take over here?  How likely is it that Malay would take
an imported noun, use it as a verb,
and use this verb figuratively in a set phrase?
  Or am I misreading Merriam-Webster's breve sign?
  Someone please answer and save us all from sleepless nights of
wondering about it!
-----------------------------------
Lee Hartman                         ga5123@siucvmb.siu.edu
Department of Foreign Languages
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, IL  62901-4521  U.S.A.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:80>From jacobsk@ERE.UMontreal.CA  Sat Nov 19 12:36:59 1994

From: jacobsk@ERE.UMontreal.CA (Ken JACOBS)
Subject: 1st Call: Northeastern Anthro Assoc congress
To: ANTHRO-L@UBVM.BITNET
Date: Sat, 19 Nov 1994 13:35:07 -0500 (EST)
Cc: ARCH-L@TAMVM1.TAMU.EDU, HUMBIO-L@ACC.FAU.EDU,
        DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Greetings,
	The following is the first call for those who wish to participate in
the 35th Annual Meeting of the Northeastern Anthropological Association (NEAA).
The NEAA is a large regionally based association, uniting anthropologists of
all varieties, as well as kindred spirits.  The meetings are professionally
run, but informal.  Student participation is *highly* valued  --whether as
observers or (preferably) as presenters of papers and/or organizers of
symposia.  Inter-(sub)disciplinary efforts are encouraged.  For more about
the meetings, read on!!
	-Ken Jacobs
	Anthropologie & Pres.-Elect NEAA (whence my bias!)
	U de Montreal
	jacobsk@ere.umontreal.ca

Forwarded message:
> From omohunjt@potsdam.edu  Thu Nov 17 09:59:44 1994
>
> Northeastern Anthropological Association Meeting in Lake Placid, April 2-5,
> 1995
>
> The 1995 meeting of the Northeastern Anthropological Association will
> celebrate the Association's 35th anniversary in a convivial and scenic
> location, the Lake Placid Holiday Inn Sportspree, amidst the High Peaks of
> the Adirondacks.  As last year, the NEAA meetings will be held in
> conjunction with the Undergraduate Anthropology meetings. Therefore,
> undergraduate students should be encouraged to attend and participate as
> well.
>
> The conference will provide housing and all accommodations in a single
> facility and at low cost, thus assuring that the participants will have the
> maximum opportunity to meet and talk, and that faculty, graduate and
> undergraduate students can afford to attend.
>
> The 1995 meetings are co-hosted by six northern institutions: SUNY Potsdam,
> SUNY Plattsburgh, St. Lawrence University, Clarkson University, SUNY
> Canton, and North Country Community College. The first four co-hosted the
> successful 1985 meetings in Lake Placid.
>
> The meetings will begin on Sunday evening with the first of several special
> events: an careers advice panel discussion aimed at undergraduates and
> their advisors. Monday evening features an Adirondack theme banquet
> followed by the keynote address. This year's address will be by two
> cultural anthropologists, Frederick Errington (Trinity College) and Deborah
> Gewertz (Amherst College), in a presentation entitled, "Toward an
> Ethnographically Grounded Study of Modernity in Papua-New Guinea."
>
> Scheduled for Tuesday noon is the Presidential Luncheon followed by the
> Presidential Lecture. Archaeologist and NEAA President Barbara Calogero
> will deliver a talk entitled, "How Do We Squeeze the Venus of Willendorf
> into Our Hunter-Gatherer Models?"
>
> Later, Tuesday afternoon's business meeting takes up the crucial
> question--much reported in recent issues of this column-- of whether or not
> to become an independent tax-exempt organization.
>
> The business meeting will be followed by a wine tasting workshop. After the
> workshop we present a special plenary panel session on "Multiculturalism on
> Campus: Is Anthropology in the Game?" A well-stocked book exhibit and
> continuous film viewings will complement the week's program.
>
> A CALL FOR PAPERS
>
> The organizers invite panels, workshops, programs, symposia, discussion
> groups, caucuses, papers and poster sessions on a variety of topics from
> any of the four subdisciplines of anthropology. Session, paper or poster
> session abstracts up to 150 words in length, with titles, accompanied by
> several terms specifying major topics dealt with (to assist the program
> organizers) must be received by February 15, with any needs for
> audio-visual equipment noted.  Posters shall be no larger than 4 feet by 4
> feet. All proposers must pre-register.
>
> Further information on organized sessions and volunteered presentations can
> be obtained from Dr. James Armstrong, Program Chair, Department of
> Anthropology, SUNY College at Plattsburgh, Plattsburgh, New York 12901,
> Phone: (518) 564-3003, E-Mail: armstrjd@splava.cc.plattsburgh.edu.
>
> A required information form to accompany proposals is attached to the Call
> for Papers mailed to NEAA members and many others in November; additional
> copies of that form are available from Steven Marqusee, Chair, Department
> of Anthropology, SUNY College at Potsdam, Potsdam, New York 13676, Phone:
> (315) 267-2049, E-Mail: marqussj@potsdam.edu.
>
> STUDENT PAPER PRIZE
>
> The organizers this year are especially eager to encourage student
> participation, and we invite students to propose papers and panels.
> Special sessions devoted to student contributions, in conjunction with the
> Undergraduate Anthropology meetings, are planned.
>
> The annual NEAA student paper prize competition is also concluded at this
> time. The competition offers a $200 prize to papers selected by members of
> the NEAA executive committee. The competition has categories for both
> undergraduate and graduate authors. Authors need not be NEAA members nor
> attend the meetings to be eligible. In addition to receiving the cash prize,
> winning papers will also be published as abstracts in this column of the
> Anthropology Newsletter.
>
> Submissions for the student paper prize in grad or undergrad categories
> must be from students currently in that category. Two copies of the paper
> must be received by February 15, 1995 by John Omohundro, Anthropology, SUNY
> Potsdam, Potsdam NY 13676; internet: omohunjt@potsdam.edu. Attach a cover
> sheet with author's name, affiliation, mailing address, and student
> category.
>
> REGISTRATION
>
> Advanced registration fees have been set at $20 for professionals and $10
> for students and unemployed professionals.  Registration at the conference
> will be $25 for professionals and $15 for students and unemployed
> professionals.  Advanced Registration fees must accompany proposals for
> presentations.
>
> Further information about registration can be obtained from Dr. Steven
> Marqusee, Chair, Department of Anthropology, SUNY College at Potsdam,
> Potsdam, New York 13676, Phone: (315) 267-2049, E-Mail:
> marqussj@potsdam.edu.
>
> HOUSING INFORMATION
>
> The conference organizers have selected the Holiday Inn SunSpree Resort,
> Lake Placid, New York,  as the host hotel for the 35th Northeastern
> Anthropological Association Meetings.  The hotel overlooks Mirror Lake and
> the Adirondack Mountains.  Room rates on a per room, per night basis are as
> follows:
>
>             STANDARD ROOM  MINI-SUITES
> SINGLE:       $ 49.00          $ 98.00
> DOUBLE:      $ 49.00          $ 98.00
> TRIPLE:       $ 59.00          $108.00
> QUAD:         $ 69.00           $118.00
> TAX:           7% additional, unless exempt
>
> In other words, two people can share a room with two double beds for about
> $25 each per night. All guest rooms will have a refrigerator, microwave
> oven and coffee maker.  The hotel facilities include an indoor pool, sauna,
> Jacuzzi, and health club.  Children 19 years and younger stay free in the
> guest rooms with one or two adults.
>
> To encourage registrants to bring the whole family, the hotel will provide
> an activities coordinator for children, at no additional cost, who will
> customize a daily program that includes activities such as cross country
> skiing, ice skating, tobogganing, snow sculptures, broom hockey, board
> games, water activities in the hotel's indoor pool, and videos.
>
> The hotel will also provide activities for adults who accompany you,
> including a cross country skiing clinic, water aerobics, walking around
> Mirror Lake, shopping on Main Street, and a visit to the U.S. Olympic
> Training Center and the new indoor refrigerated luge start track.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:81>From ronald@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu  Sat Nov 19 20:13:05 1994

Date: 	Sat, 19 Nov 1994 16:12:20 -1000
From: Ron Amundson <ronald@uhunix.uhcc.Hawaii.Edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Higglety-pigglety

I would like to interrupt the discussion of condiments for a
question of equal importance about Darwin.

Who referred to natural selection as "the law of
higglety-pigglety"?  I'd appreciate a citation if you have one.

I'd offer an award of macadamia nuts, but when I offered them for
Minerva's owl the only thing they inspired was Oyama's
already-too-vivid imagination.

Thanks for any help.

Cheers,

Ron Amundson

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:82>From NEIMANF@YALEVM.CIS.YALE.EDU  Sun Nov 20 07:32:11 1994

Date: Sun, 20 Nov 94 08:31:45 EST
From: Fraser Neiman <NEIMANF@YaleVM.CIS.Yale.Edu>
Organization: Yale University C&IS
Subject: higgledy-piggledy
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

Greetings All,

In answer to Ron's question on origin of "the law of higgledy-piggledy:" This
characterization of Darwin's theory is from English astromoner and philosopher
of science John Herschel (1792-1871). David Hull has a typically insightful
discussion of this and other contemporary reactions to the notion of natural
selection in his essay "Darwin and the Nature of Science". In _Evolution from
Molecules to Men_, edited by D.S. Bendall, pp.63-80. Cambridge University
Press (1983). In a (macademia?) nutshell, he argues that the puzzlement
expressed here by Herschel was widely shared among philosophically inclined
scientists of the day and is best seen as a consequence of a metaphysical
divide between Darwin's theory and everyone's model of science which was
based on the success of Newtonian mechanics.

That model suggested that BOTH empirical generalizations about the
contemporary world (e.g. Kepler's description of planetary motion) and the
deductive casual theories that were invented to explain them (e.g. Newton's
laws) were ahistorical, universal truths. As a result folks waiting for the
Newton of biology to appear in their midst expected that the same relationship
would characterize generalizations about contemporary biological reality (e.g.
the set of abstract desciptions of morphological correlations that went under
the name "unity of type") and the laws that would eventually be invented to
explain them. In this scheme, Darwin's theory was a failure because it
revealed that empirical generalizations about biological form in any chunk of
of the geneological nexus were simply contingent historical facts that
resulted from the operation of a universal mechanism. If species have
contingent histories, then it starts to look like the laws of nature evolve.

The Herschel quote is on p. 67 of Hull's piece.

Cheers,

Fraser Neiman

fraser.neiman@yale.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:83>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu  Sun Nov 20 15:50:30 1994

Date: Sun, 20 Nov 1994 16:50:22 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: Linnaeus
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

The following news item just appeared in the 11 Nov 94 issue of _Science_
(226:969), and I thought it might be of interest to some Darwin-L members.

Can any of our historians comment on what the best available biographies
of Linnaeus are?  (Perhaps until the one mentioned below appears, at least.)

Bob O'Hara (darwin@iris.uncg.edu)
Darwin-L list owner

---------------------------------------

What's in a Binomial?

When the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus introduced his binomial system
of scientific names for plants in 1753, it quickly caught on as the best
approach to nomenclature since, well, Adam.  But how did Linnaeus latch on
to the idea?  A Harvard historian of science thinks his system, like many
science innovations, originated in a graduate student project.

Before Linnaeus, plants and animals were known by lengthy and cumbersome
descriptions.  The spearmint, for example, was called _Mentha floribus
spicatis, foliis oblongis serratis_ (mint with flowers in a spike, leaves
oblong serrated).  Linnaeus reduced that to a single specific name
(_spicata_), and a generic name (_Mentha_).  In wading through the archives
of the Linnean Society of London for her dissertation, Lisbet Koerner found
where the idea probably took root: in a project Linnaeus describes in a short
work on Swedish animals published in 1749 called _Pan Svecicus_.  In it
Professor Linnaeus and his graduate students tackle a very practical problem:
what's the best fodder for farm animals.  Each student was assigned a cow,
pig, or goat.  "Clutching goose-feathers, scrap papers, and ink pots, each
student then tracked their animal...around the meadows as it foraged or
grazed, writing down throughout the day the plant species it ate," Koerner
writes in a piece to appear in a forthcoming book, _Cultures of Natural
History_.  Under these conditions, the elaborate names gave way to a two-part
shorthand for the 850 fodder plants the group identified.  Four years later,
Linnaeus's scholarly _Species Plantarum_ gave binomial Latin names to 5900
plant species, and the system took hold.  Linnaeus eventually coined names
for 7700 plant species and 4400 animal species, including _Homo sapiens_.

Koerner's own graduate student project launched her career, and she is now
at work on a biography of the botanist.  Although he is best known for his
taxonomic work, 95% of his work concerned economic issues.  "The whole vast
output of Linnaeus has not been closely looked at," she says.  Despite his
influence, "he's a very underresearched scientist."

---------------------------------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:84>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu  Sun Nov 20 15:59:30 1994

Date: Sun, 20 Nov 1994 16:59:25 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: Conference announcement: Frontiers in Late Antiquity
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

--begin forwarded message--------------

Date: Fri, 18 Nov 1994 07:09:25 EST
From: Ralph Mathise <N330009@UNIVSCVM.CSD.SCAROLINA.EDU>
Subject: Frontiers Conference

                      Conference Announcement

               SHIFTING FRONTIERS IN LATE ANTIQUITY

Final arrangements are now underway for the conference on "Shifting
Frontiers in Late Antiquity", sponsored by The Department of History
and the Program in Late Antiquity and Medieval Studies at the Univer-
sity of Kansas, to be held in Lawrence, Kansas, March 23-26, 1995.
The conference will examine topical and methodological aspects of the
ways in which Late Antiquity (c. A.D. 260-640) serves as a frontier in
the Mediterranean, European, and Near Eastern worlds.  There will be
sessions on geographical, ethnic, spiritual, religious, intellectual,
psychological, social, ethnic, gender, and cultural frontiers.  Over
25 presentations by specialists in various aspects of frontier studies
are scheduled.  The conference is designed to allow for the greatest
possible degree of personal interaction among the registrants, and a
number of special events also are scheduled.  Those interested in at-
tending should contact Ralph W. Mathisen (EMAIL: N330009@UNIVSCVM.
CSD.SCAROLINA.EDU) for the conference schedule, local arrangements in-
formation, and registration materials.

P.S.  This announcement has been posted on several Discussion Lists
dealing with Ancient and Medieval topics.  Apologies to those of you
in cyberspaceland who subscribe to multiple lists.

--end forwarded message----------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:85>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu  Sun Nov 20 22:14:52 1994

Date: Sun, 20 Nov 1994 23:14:46 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: CFP: Mephistos graduate student conference
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

Charles Twardy requested that I post this announcement for graduate
student members of Darwin-L.  I know we have quite a few, so I am happy
to do so.

Bob O'Hara, Darwin-L list owner
darwin@iris.uncg.edu

--begin forwarded message--------------

                         ************************
                         *    MePHiSToS  1995   *
                         ************************
            <<<< GRADUATE STUDENT CONFERENCE ANNOUNCEMENT >>>>
                        <<<<  CALL for PAPERS  >>>>

        MEPHISTOS 1995,  the 14th Annual Graduate Student Conference in
 the Philosophy, History, and Sociology of Science, Technology, and
 Medicine, and related fields, welcomes your abstracts and registrations.

    +---[ VITAL INFORMATION: ]------------------------------------+
    |  * April 1 & 2,  1995                                       |
    |  * Indiana University at Bloomington, IN                    |
    |  * $10 Registration fee; make check out to Mephistos        |
    |  * 1-page Abstracts due January 15, 1995 (20 minute papers) |
    |  * Contact: mephisto@indiana.edu   (Charles Twardy)         |
    +-------------------------------------------------------------+

        MEPHISTOS is created for and designed by graduate students in
 order to provide a forum for linking grad students at different
 universities, and to offer a chance for lively interchange between those
 involved in the fields of Science Studies, broadly construed.  In
 particular, the forum offers a non-stressful environment in which to
 present research and discuss topics and trends in the field.  We
 encourage students not necessarily working in History or Philosophy of
 Science departments, etc., but whose work touches on areas in science
 studies to come and discuss their work in this context.

        Since we want to make this event ACCESSIBLE to graduate students
 on limited budgets, we will provide as many people as possible with
 FREE lodging on the couches, etc., of area graduate students.  This limited
 space is on a first-come, first-served basis.  There are inexpensive
 rooms reserved in graduate housing ($20 a night) and we will offer a list
 of area lodging upon request.  Travel information is available upon
 request, and we will also attempt to provide coordinated carpool contacts
 to those driving along the same route, if registrations are received
 early enough.  Limited shuttle ability will be available on Friday and
 Sunday from and to the air station (in Indianapolis) and train port.
        Any subsidies which may become available will be issued on the
 basis of the order in which we receive your $10 registration fee.

 +---[ TO REGISTER: ]--------------------------------------------+
 |    Send your name, institutional affiliation, address (EMAIL  |
 |  and US mail), phone number, abstract (if presenting), and    |
 |  whether you want info on housing and travel BY MARCH 1, 1995 |
 |  to:                                                          |
 |         Mephistos                      or:                    |
 |         Hist. & Phil. of Sci.- IU      mephisto@indiana.edu   |
 |         Goodbody Hall 130                                     |
 |         Bloomington, IN  47405                                |
 |                                                               |
 |  $10 checks (to Mephistos) will finalize your registration.   |
 +---------------------------------------------------------------+

 Sponsored by the Department of History and Philosophy of Science
 and the Scientific Dimensions of Society Program at Indiana University.

--end forwarded message----------------

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:86>From FALN@zuk.iz.uj.edu.pl  Mon Nov 21 03:15:18 1994

From: "Falniowski Andrzej" <FALN@zuk.iz.uj.edu.pl>
Organization:  Instytut Zoologii U.J.
To: DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Mon, 21 Nov 1994 10:12:27 MET
Subject: Academy

I am a zoologist, working on molluscs (snails, slugs, clams, squids,
and similar creatures). However, recently I have been obliged to
collect some "comparative data" on academies of sciences in various
countries (history, field of interest, number of members, etc.). At
the moment, I cannot find information about the New York Academy of
Sciences. Could anybody inform me how can I find some data about it?
Thank you in advance!

Andrzej Falniowski
Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology
Jagiellonian University
ul. Ingardena 6, 30-060 Krakow, Poland

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:87>From gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu  Mon Nov 21 04:53:27 1994

From: "Gessler, Nicholas (G)   ANTHRO" <gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu>
To: DARWIN - postings <DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>
Subject: cultural higgledy-piggledy?
Date: Mon, 21 Nov 94 02:32:00 PST

Fraser Nieman wrote:

"If species have contingent histories, then it starts to look like the laws
of nature evolve."

In playing around with "artificial life" inspired thinkings on the
philosopohy of science and epistemology in general, particularly as it might
be applied to building "artificial cultures," I've come around to the same
conclusion, albeit through the back-door.  It's been awhile since I've looked
at early writings on the subject, so I wonder if any members of this list
might know if analogous arguments were made at the time concerning the
"higgledy-pigglediness" of cultural (broad sense including technology)
evolution?

Cheers,

Nick Gessler
UCLA - Anthropology
gessler@anthro.sscnet.ucla.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:88>From p_stevens@nocmsmgw.harvard.edu  Mon Nov 21 08:05:01 1994

Date: 21 Nov 1994 09:04:01 -0400
From: "p stevens" <p_stevens@nocmsmgw.harvard.edu>
Subject: Linnaeus, biographies and binomials
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

The best biography of Linnaeus is still
Frans Stafleu. 1971. Linnaeus and the Linnaeans.  Oosthoek, Utrecht.

Also quite good (and with lots of illustrations) is:
Blunt, W.  1971. The Compleat naturalist: A life of Linnaeus.  Viking, New
York.

A very interesting treatment of Linnaeus' work is:
Larson, J. 1971.  Reason & experience.  U. Cal. Press, Berkeley.

There is a lot of literature that has appeared since 1971; one the most
interesting contributions deals with Linnaeus' reception in France (and much
else):
Duris, P. 1993.  Linne et la France, 17880-1850.  Droz, Geneve.

We need a good new biography, and I look forward to Koerner's.

A wrinkle on the binomal story is that Linnaeus used "binomial" abbreviations
in his bibliographic work - and this he was engaged in considerably earlier.
John L. Heller deals with this in some detail in the fascsimile edition of
Species Plantarum ed. 1 published by the Ray Society in 1959 ( see  vol. 2,
the end).

As a systematist, I find it somewhat curious to think that the name of
Linnaeus is so closely linked with modern systematics, especially systematic
botany.  Yes, he developed the binomial system, but for him it was not the
"name" of the plant; the latter was a polynomial, and it reflected the
essence of the species.  Binomalis were purely a way of contracting the long
polynomials, but were so obviuously useful that they rapidly caught on.  The
Linnaean class hierarchy is similar only in form to the hierarchy we use
today (and which some, like Kevin de Queiroz, would like to see dismantled);
unlike Linnaeus, we do not think that entities given generic rank (or any
other higher rank) are equivalent except by designation - there is no class
of genera, genera do not have essences, etc.  At the risk of destroying my
point by overstating it, taking  the Linnaean system for the basis for late
20thC systematics is rather like having one's system based on the Library of
Congress or Dewey Decimal library cataloging systems.

What Linnaeus in particular did was to make classifying something interesting
to do, but let me close by quoting Kirschner, in an article in "Nature" this
year:
'The spectral classification of supernovae carries a distasteful aura of
botany for many astrophysicists'.

Peter Stevens

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:89>From camerini@helix.UCSD.EDU  Mon Nov 21 09:20:29 1994

Date: Mon, 21 Nov 1994 07:20:13 -0800 (PST)
From: Jane Camerini <camerini@helix.UCSD.EDU>
Subject: Re: Linnaeus
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu

In response to Bob's recent posting about Koerner's work on Linnaeus:

I am surprised to hear that students in the mid 18th c identified 850
species of fodder plants.  Is this possible, that in Sweden, this many
species are (were) involved in this context?

Jane Camerini

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:90>From DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu  Mon Nov 21 10:48:08 1994

Date: Mon, 21 Nov 1994 11:41:11 -0400 (EDT)
From: DARWIN@iris.uncg.edu
Subject: November 21 -- Today in the Historical Sciences
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Organization: University of NC at Greensboro

NOVEMBER 21 -- TODAY IN THE HISTORICAL SCIENCES

1881: AMI BOUE dies at Voslau, Austria.  Born in Hamburg in 1794, Boue had
declined to enter his family's shipping business and had instead emigrated to
Scotland at the age of twenty.  He studied geology, botany, and medicine at
the University of Edinburgh, and eventually returned to the Continent where he
participated in the founding of the Societe Geologique de France in 1830.

Today in the Historical Sciences is a feature of Darwin-L, an international
network discussion group for professionals in the historical sciences.  For
more information about Darwin-L send the two-word message INFO DARWIN-L to
listserv@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu, or gopher to rjohara.uncg.edu (152.13.44.19).

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:91>From idavidso@metz.une.edu.au  Mon Nov 21 23:35:38 1994

Date: Sun, 20 Nov 1994 09:26:29 +0700
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: idavidso@metz.une.edu.au (Iain Davidson)
Subject: Re: more on catchup/catsup/ketchup

>Of course (as you can see by pulling out your copy of Apicius), the
>fundmental "catchup" of Classical Roman cuisine was "liquamen" or "garum"
>-- a salty sauce made by fermentation of fish entrails and small fish such
>as anchovies which is used in the recipes of the first century in almost
>each and every savoury dish.  Garum is basically Thai Fish Sauce or the
>myriad other south-east asian equivalents.  The residue of its
>manufacture, "allec", was likely the equivalent of Shrimp Paste.  Garum,
>of the better grades, was apparently also found in a spiced form, and was
>also prepared in other mixtures, as (with water) hyrdrogarum, (wine)
>oenogarum, (vinegar), oxygarum.

Fascinating, but then the question of borrowing gets odder, doesn't it.
Isn't one of the fundamental spice mixtures of the oriental cuisine Garam
masala?

Iain Davidson
Archaeology and Palaeoanthropology
University of New England
Armidale NSW 2351
AUSTRALIA
Tel (067) 732 441
Fax      (International) +61 67 73 25 26
                (Domestic)       067 73 25 26

I use Eudora on a Mac, if this helps you send complex documents.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:92>From minaka@niaes.affrc.go.jp  Tue Nov 22 00:19:00 1994

Date: Tue, 22 Nov 94 15:21:19 +0900
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: minaka@niaes.affrc.go.jp (Nobuhiro Minaka)
Subject: Hennig, Takhtajan and "heterobathmy"

Dear Darwin-L readers,

     Does anyone of historians of systematics know of Willi Hennig's use of
the term "heterobathmy"?

-----
     Hennig, founder of _phylogenetic systematics_, said in an article (W.
Hennig. 1965. Phylogenetic systematics. Annu. Rev. Entomology, 10: 97-116):

        > This mosaiclike distribution of relatively primitive and relatively
        > derivative characters in related species and species-groups
        > [Spezialisationskreuzungen, Heterobathmie der Merkmale: Takhtajan
        > (19)] is a fact which has long been known. ... Heterobathmy of
        > characters is therefore a precondition for the establishment of the
        > phylogenetic relationship of species and hence a phylogenetic system.
                                                        (Hennig, 1965: 107)

In the above sentence, Hennig cited the following book ("Takhtajan (19)") by
Armen Takhtajan, Russian systematic botanist:

        Takhtajan, A. 1959. Die Evolution der Angiospermen. Gustav Fischer
                Verlag, Jena.

Indeed "Heterobathmie der Merkmale" (heterobathmy of characters) is a
neologism by Takhtajan, but "Spezialisationskreuzungen" is not. Hennig's
1966 book, _Phylogenetic systematics_ (Univ. Illinois Pr., Urbana),
attributed the latter term (English translation: "specialization crossings" )
to O. Abel, German paleontologist:

        > Our investigation of the morphological methods of phylogenetic
        > systematics, and the "scheme of argumentation" (Fig.22) developed
        > from it, also showed that there can be no groups with either
        > exclusively plesiomorphous or apomorphous characters, and that
        > consequently "specialization crossings"* are a prerequisite for
        > recognizing monophyletic sister groups as such.
        -----
        > * [Hennig's note] Spezialisationskreuzungen. See for example,
        > O. Abel, Palaeobiologie, 1912, p.639.
                                                        (Hennig, 1966: 194)

However, Abel (1912) was not included in "Bibliography" of Hennig (1966).

     On the other hand, the original German manuscript of Hennig (1966),
posthumously published as Hennig (1982) _Phylogenetische Systematik_
(Verlag
Paul Parey, Berlin), said differently:

        > ...dass also "Spezialisationskreuzungen" (Takhtajan 1959 nennt sie
        > "Heterobathmie der Merkmale" ) die Voraussetzung dafuer sind, dass
        > monophyletische Schwestergruppen ueberhaupt als solche erkannt
        > werden koennen.
                                                        (Hennig, 1982: 189)

This sentence did not mention the Abel's book. Moreover, the German edition
included Takhtajan (1959) in its bibliography, which Hennig (1966) did not.

     Of course, Hennig's earlier writings before 1959 referred only to
Abel's "Spezialisationskreuzungen". For example,

        > Vielfach wird eine Gruppe sich hinsichtlich der einen Eigenschaft,
        > oder z.B. in dem einen Metamorphosestadium, als plesiomorph, in
        > anderen als apomorph erweisen, ohne dass eine Gesamtbeurteilung
        > moeglich waere ("Spezialisationskreuzungen").
              (Hennig, 1949: 138, Forschungen und Fortschritte, 25: 136-138)

     Recent review of Hennig's early works :

        Richter, S. and R. Meier. 1994. The development of phylogenetic
        concepts in Hennig's early thoretical publications (1947-1966).
        Systematic Biology, 43(2): 212-221.

pointed out the influence of "Spezialisationskreuzungen" on Hennig's thought:

        > These specialization crossings apparently stimulated Hennig to think
        > in terms of characters instead of whole taxa. Thus, the
        > specialization crossings were important for the development of a
        > systematics that devotes more attention to the study of individual
        > characters. (p.215)
-----

     My question: Can "Spezialisationskreuzungen" and "Heterobathmie der
Merkmale" be used interchangeably as Hennig did?  Or did these terms belong to
different intellectual traditions?

     I appreciate your time to read my message. Thanks for any help.

Nobuhiro Minaka

        -------------------- Nobuhiro Minaka ---------------------
        Laboratory of Statistics, Division of Information Analysis
            National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences
               Kannon-dai 3-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305 Japan
           PHONE: +81-(0)298-38-8222   FAX: +81-(0)298-38-8199
                     E-mail: minaka@niaes.affrc.go.jp
        ----------------------------------------------------------


_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:93>From FALN@zuk.iz.uj.edu.pl  Thu Nov 24 13:46:28 1994

From: "Falniowski Andrzej" <FALN@zuk.iz.uj.edu.pl>
Organization:  Instytut Zoologii U.J.
To: DARWIN-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Thu, 24 Nov 1994 20:42:30 MET
Subject: Academy

Since there is no answer for my question, may be due to some
technical reasons (I'm not much familiar with e-mail,
unfortunatelly), I'm repeating it, hoping that somebody would pass me
some information on the problem.
I am a zoologist, working on molluscs (snails, slugs, clams, squids,
and similar creatures, for non-zoologists). However, recently I have
been obliged to collect some "comparative data" on academies of
sciences in various countries (history, field of interest, number of
members, etc.). At the moment, I cannot find any information about the
New York Academy of Sciences. Could anybody inform me how can I find
some data about it? Thank you in advance!

Andrzej Falniowski
Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology
Jagiellonian University (Founded in 1363)
ul. Ingardena 6, 30-060 Krakow, Poland

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:94>From Neve@ecol.ucl.ac.be  Fri Nov 25 23:19:32 1994

Date: Sat, 26 Nov 94 06:23:39 +0100
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: Neve@ecol.ucl.ac.be
Subject: Darwin Musical
Cc: IKW4GWI@MVS.OAC.UCLA.EDU, bauchau@cto.nioo.nl

Today, the November, 26th, 1994, is the anniversary of the first performance of

                 'Time Will Tell'
               A musical play based
              on the life and times
                of Charles Darwin.

 by Robert Polak & Robert Ashenhurst,
Ted Liss, Director and Roland Bailey, Musical Director.

This was part of the celebrations for the 'Darwin Centennial Celebration'
held at the University of Chicago.
Charles Darwin was palyed by Rick Riccardo, T.H. Huxley by Raymond Lubway
and Bishop Wilberforce by Robert G. Page.

The play is written in two Acts, as follows :

Act I

Scene 1, The after Deck of HMS Beagle, October 2, 1836.
Scene 2. The Wedgewood home at Maer, November 4, 1838.
Scene 3. A rocky headland near Brighton, Spring, 1854.
Scene 4. The drawing room of Darwin house at Down, July 18, 1898.

Act II
Scene 1, The library of the Oxford Museum, June 30, 1860.
Scene 2. Someplace, Spring 1861; Summer, 1869, Fall, 1877.
Scene 3. The Senate House at Cambridge, November 17, 1977.

As I mentionned in my 16 August posting to Darwin-L, the great debate of
Saturday, 30 June 1860, between bishop Wilberforce and
Thomas Henry Huxley, forms a high spot of the musical (Act II, Scene 1),
in which THH sang that

  I don't see that the Bishop has reason to sneer,
  And I have no wish to abuse him;
  But taking his line,
  If I had to incline,
  Would I choose him ?

I wish this mucical could be performed again. The original performance was
recorded by WUCB radio and Voice of America. Maybe they could broadcast it
again some time...

Happy remembrance of Darwin days to you all,

Thanks to Jack Kolb who gave me the address of the Archivist of the
University of Chicago, and to Krista L. Ovist, Archival Assistant from the
University of Chicago, who kindly sent me informations about 'Time Will
Tell'.

Gabriel

===========================================================
Gabriel NEVE                                  o   o
Unite d'Ecologie et de Biogeographie           \ /
Universite Catholique de Louvain           ***  Y  ***
Croix du Sud 5                            *   * I *   *
B-348 Louvain-la-Neuve                    *    *I*    *
Belgium                                   *    *I*    *
                                          *   * I *   *
EMAIL: NEVE@ECOL.UCL.AC.BE                 ***  I  ***
Fax  : +32/10/473490
Tel  at work : +32/10/473495
     at home : +32 10 61 62 36

"The death of the butterfly is the one drawback to an
entomological career"
 - Margaret E. Fountaine (1892)
===========================================================

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:95>From FSBC@MUSIC.TRANSY.EDU  Mon Nov 28 10:57:28 1994

Date: Mon, 28 Nov 94 11:55:52 EST
From: "GLEACH,FREDERIC W." <FSBC@MUSIC.TRANSY.EDU>
To: <darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>
Subject: Re: Academy

I have only minimal information on the NY Academy of Sciences, which is
why I didn't respond before, but here's what I know.  The Academy was
founded in 1817, and has a number of sections, including anthropology,
linguistics, and psychology (among many others--my interests are showing
here!).  Meetings are held, and a number of publications are produced,
notably the Annals of the NYAS.  The society offices can be reached at
   The New York Academy of Sciences
   2 East 63rd Street
   New York, NY  10021
   USA
I believe (but don't know) that they maintain archives and a library.  I
don't know if those are open to the public.  A letter addressed to the
Corresponding Secretary there should elicit further information.
     Good luck!

Frederic Gleach
Dept. of Sociology and Anthropology
Transylvania University
FSBC@MUSIC.TRANSY.EDU

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:96>From emmeche@connect.nbi.dk  Mon Nov 28 13:38:31 1994

Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 20:39:33 +0100
To: Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: emmeche@connect.nbi.dk (Claus Emmeche)
Subject: George Gaylord Stebbins

Dear Darwinian fellows,
I am a theoretical biologist interested in the history of biology. Could
some kind voice out there tell me if the palaeontologist George Gaylord
Stebbins (born 1906, one of the founders of the modern synthesis in
evolutionary biology) is still alive?
References to his life and work will also be appreciated.
Thanks,

Claus Emmeche
University of Copenhagen.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:97>From bill@clyde.as.utexas.edu  Mon Nov 28 14:43:00 1994

Date: Mon, 28 Nov 94 14:42:35 CST
From: bill@clyde.as.utexas.edu (William H. Jefferys)
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re:  George Gaylord Stebbins
Cc: ethan@astro

#Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 14:17:15 -0600
#From: emmeche@connect.nbi.dk (Claus Emmeche)
#To: Multiple recipients of list <darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>
#Subject: George Gaylord Stebbins
#
#Dear Darwinian fellows,
#I am a theoretical biologist interested in the history of biology. Could
#some kind voice out there tell me if the palaeontologist George Gaylord
#Stebbins (born 1906, one of the founders of the modern synthesis in
#evolutionary biology) is still alive?
#References to his life and work will also be appreciated.
#Thanks,

I believe that you are referring to George Gaylord Simpson,
who is deceased.

Bill

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:98>From rhames@unlinfo.unl.edu  Mon Nov 28 14:45:23 1994

From: rhames@unlinfo.unl.edu (raymond hames)
Subject: Re: George Gaylord Stebbins
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 14:44:34 -0600 (CST)

Perhaps you may be confused.  George Gaylord Simpson is (was?) a
paleontologist associated with the modern synthesis but he was born in
1902.  I don't know if he still lives.
     George Ledyard Stebbins was born in 1906 and is a well-known
evolutionary biologist.

Ray Hames
Anthropology
UNL

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:99>From sturkel@cosy.nyit.edu  Mon Nov 28 14:50:06 1994

Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 15:47:09 -0500
From: sturkel@cosy.nyit.edu
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: George Gaylord Stebbins

Mr. Emmeche apparently is confusing George Gaylord Simpson and
G. Ledyard Stebbins, both of whom were important in recent history
of evolutionary biology.  The former was primarily interested in
mammals, whereas the latter was primarily interested in plants.

spencer turkel
life sciences, nyit
sturkel@cosy.nyit.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:100>From gator@mail.utexas.edu  Mon Nov 28 15:46:02 1994

Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 15:42:02 +0800
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: gator@mail.utexas.edu (c. brochu)
Subject: Re: George Gaylord Stebbins

I think you refer to George Gaylord Simpson, who died in the early 1980's.

__________________
Christopher Brochu
Department of Geological Sciences
University of Texas at Austin
Austin, TX 78712
512-471-6088

gator@mail.utexas.edu

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:101>From jsl@rockvax.ROCKEFELLER.EDU  Mon Nov 28 16:36:30 1994

To: emmeche@connect.nbi.dk (Claus Emmeche)
Subject: "George Gaylord Stebbins"
To: Multiple recipients of list <darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu>
Date: Mon, 28 Nov 94 17:39:48 EST
From: Joshua Lederberg <jsl@rockvax.ROCKEFELLER.EDU>

Dear Claus Emmeche:

Are you conflating George Gaylord Simpson with George Ledyard
Stebbins?

Simpson is the paleontologist.  He died in 1984.  You will find
detail on him in vol. 60, Biogr. Memoirs of the National Academy of
Sciences.  Born 1902.

Stebbins is a botanist and systematist.
As of July 1994 and according to the Members Directory,
NAS, he still lives, and may be reached:
I do associate him closely with the "Modern Synthesis".

Stebbins, G. Ledyard
b. 1/6/1906

Professor G. Ledyard Stebbins
Emeritus Professor of Genetics
Department of Biological Sciences
Section of Molecular and Cellular Biology
University of California
Davis, CA  95616

(916) 752-7846
Fax: (916) 752-1185

---------------
Here are some of his books:
CN QH366/S811/ed.3
Aa Stebbins, George Ledyard
TI Processes of organic evolution.
CL 269 p.
PP Englewood Cliff NJ: Prentice-Hall.
DA 1977.

CN QH366/S8112
Aa Stebbins, George Ledyard
TI Darwin to DNA.
ST Molecules to humanity.
CL 491 p.
PP San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
DA 1982.

CN QH366/D6351
Aa Dobzhansky, Theodosius Grigorievich
Ab Ayala, Francisco Jose
Ac Stebbins, George Ledyard
Ad Valentine, James William
TI Evolution.
CL 572 p.  front. (port.)
PP San Francisco CA: W. H. Freeman.
DA 1977.

CN QH426/S777/v.17
Aa Gustafson, J Perry, ed.
Ab Stebbins, George Ledyard, ed.
Ac Ayala, Francisco Jose, ed.
TI Genetics, development, and evolution.
CL 361 p. port.
PP New York: Plenum Press.
DA 1986.

CN QH368.5/S811
Aa Stebbins, George Ledyard
TI Flowering plants: evolution above the species level.
CL 399 p.
PP Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press/Belknap Press.
DA 1974.

CN QK981/S811
Aa Stebbins, George Ledyard
TI Chromosomal evolution in higher plants.
CL 216 p.
PP Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
DA 1971.

CN QK980/S811
Aa Stebbins, George Ledyard
TI Variations and evolution in plants.
CL 643 p.
PP New York: Columbia University Press.
DA 1950.

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:102>From emmeche@connect.nbi.dk  Tue Nov 29 06:26:13 1994

Date: Tue, 29 Nov 1994 13:27:27 +0100
To: Darwin-L@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: emmeche@connect.nbi.dk (Claus Emmeche)
Subject: George Gaylord Simpson / George Ledyard Stebbins

Dear Darwinians,
Thanks to those of you who told me, that I have conflated George Gaylord
Simpson with George Ledyard Stebbins.

George Gaylord Simpson is the paleontologist.  Born 1902. Died in 1984.
(Detail on him in vol. 60, Biogr. Memoirs of the National Academy of
Sciences.)

George Ledyard Stebbins is a botanist and systematist. Born 1/6/1906.
As of July 1994 and according to the Members Directory, NAS, he still
lives, and may be reached: Associated closely with the "Modern Synthesis".

Sincerely,
Claus Emmeche

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:103>From bonn@qcvaxa.acc.qc.edu  Tue Nov 29 08:41:23 1994

Date: Mon, 28 Nov 1994 17:49:56 EDT
From: "Bonnie Blackwell, Dept of Geology, (718) 997-3332"
      <bonn@qcvaxa.acc.qc.edu>
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
Subject: Re: Academy

ny acad of sci also has geology, environmental sciences sections too.
b

_______________________________________________________________________________

<15:104>From Neve@ecol.ucl.ac.be  Tue Nov 29 15:49:10 1994

Date: Tue, 29 Nov 94 22:53:08 +0100
To: darwin-l@ukanaix.cc.ukans.edu
From: Neve@ecol.ucl.ac.be
Subject: G.G.Simpson
Cc: emmeche@connect.nbi.dk

Dear Networkers,

This is an answer to Claus Emmeche's query about the life and work of
G.G.Simpson.

Don't mix up George Gaylord Simpson (paleontologist, 1902-1984) with G.L.
Stebbins, a specialist in the evolution of plants.

I own one of Simpson's books : 'The meaning of Evolution, a Study of the
History of Life and of its Significance for Man', 1st ed. 1949, revised
edition, Yale University Press, 1967.

Other important works by G.G.Simpson include his 1964 book 'This view of
Life', and several classics in paleontology, such as 'Tempo and Mode in
Evolution' (1944, his contribution to the Neodarwinian synthesis), and
'Principles of Animal Taxonomy' (1961). A collection of his essays was
published in 1965 under the title 'The Geography of Evolution : collected
Essays', published by Chilton Books (Philadelphia).

Apart from his main paleontological research on Mammals, he was very font
of Penguins, which was the subject of one of his last book, which - of
course - included a chapter on fossil penguins : 'Penguins: Past and
Present, Here and there', Yale University Press, 1976.

For historical views on G.G. Simpson 's influence on evolutionnary
thinking, I suggest the following two books :

Barlow, C. (ed.) 1994. Evolution Extended, Biological Debates on the
Meaning of Life. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.
An excellent anthology on writings on evolution, to be read in conjunction
with Connie Barlow's previous anthology, 'From Gaia to Selfish Genes',
published in 1991.

Mayr, E. 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought. Belknap Press of Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
A scholar study on the evolution of evolutionary ideas.

Good luck in you research,

Gabriel

===========================================================
Gabriel NEVE                                  o   o
Unite d'Ecologie et de Biogeographie           \ /
Universite Catholique de Louvain           ***  Y  ***
Croix du Sud 5                            *   * I *   *
B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve                   *    *I*    *
Belgium                                   *    *I*    *
                                          *   * I *   *
EMAIL: NEVE@ECOL.UCL.AC.BE                 ***  I  ***
Fax  : +32/10/473490
Tel  at work : +32/10/473495
     at home : +32 10 61 62 36

"The death of the butterfly is the one drawback to an
entomological career"
 - Margaret E. Fountaine (1892)
===========================================================

_______________________________________________________________________________
Darwin-L Message Log 15: 76-104 -- November 1994                            End

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